2 Introduction to College Athletics Business aspect has grown immenselyBudgeting, finding revenue sources, controlling expense items, participating in development activitiesInternationalization has grown tremendously through participation of nonresident alien student-athletesNew trend may be more global travel of college teams, such as NCAA basketball exhibitions in European and Asian cities (ex: Memphis playing in China)NCAA clubs sponsoring coaches and teams from other countries (ex: Memphis hosting Chinese coaches)
3 History1852: Crew race between Harvard and Yale was first commercial intercollegiate athletic event in United States.Sponsored by Boston, Concord, and Montreal RR Co.Initial collegiate athletic contests that took place in the 1800s were student-run events.As the pressure to win increased, students began to realize they needed external help.1864: William Wood, first “coach,” was hired by the Yale crew team.
4 History (cont.)Dangerous nature of football pushed faculty and administrators to get involved in governing intercollegiate athletics.1895: Big Ten Conference was formed to create student eligibility rules.1905: Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS) was formed to make football safer to play.1912: IAAUS changed its name to National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).
5 History (cont.)1929 Carnegie Reports painted bleak picture of intercollegiate athletics, identifying many academic and recruiting abuses, payments to student-athletes, and commercialization of athletics.NCAA pressured to change to an organization that would oversee academic standards for student-athletes, monitor recruiting activities of coaches and administrators, and establish principles governing amateurism.
6 History (cont.)1989: Harris poll found that 78% of Americans thought collegiate athletics were out of hand.1989: Knight Commission formed, prompting NCAA membership to pass numerous rules and regulations regarding recruiting activities, academic standards, and financial practices.
7 Women in College Athletics Initial intercollegiate sport competitions were run by men for men1896: First sport contest for women was a basketball game: UC Berkeley vs. StanfordPredominant theme of women’s involvement in athletics was participation.1966: Creation of the Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women1971: Became Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW)
8 AIAWEndorsed an alternative athletic model for women, emphasizing educational needs of studentsEngaged in a power struggle with NCAA over governance of women’s athletics1981: NCAA membership voted to add championships for women in Division I1982: AIAW executive board voted to dissolve its association
9 NCAA Voluntary association More than 1,200 institutions, conferences, organizations, and individual members1973: The current three-division system, Divisions I, II, and III, was created to increase flexibility of the NCAA in addressing needs and interests of schools of varying sizeTwo of the more prominent NCAA administrative areas are legislative services and enforcement
10 NCAA: Division ISupports philosophy of competitiveness, generating revenue through athletics, and national success326 member institutionsDivision I-A is for institutions that are somewhat larger football-playing schools, which must maintain certain attendance requirements118 member institutions in I-A; 116 member institutions in I-AA; 72 members in I-AAA
11 NCAA: Divisions II and III Division II: Awards athletic scholarships but on a more modest basis than Division IUsually financed in the institution’s budget like other academic departments282 member institutionsDivision III: Does not allow athletic scholarshipsEmphasizes participation, placing primary emphasis on regional in-season and conference competition419 member institutions
12 NCAA ConferencesMember conferences must have a minimum of six institutions in a single division to be recognized as a voting member conferenceHave their own compliance director and run seminars regarding NCAA rules and regulationsRun championships in sports sponsored by member institutions in the conferenceMay also provide a revenue-sharing program to their member institutionsConference realignment: Current NCAA issue
13 Career Opportunities: Coaches/Athletic Directors Division III: Coaches are usually part-time, or if full-time have other athletic dept. responsibilities.Division II: Athletic directors may sometimes also coach or hold an academic appointment.Division I: Athletic departments usually employ a large number of associate and assistant athletic directors with specialized responsibilities.
14 Career Opportunities: Assistant/Associate Directors Responsibilities in specialized areasBusiness manager, media relations director, ticket sales manager, fund development coordinator, director of marketing, sport programs administrator, facilities and events coordinator, academic affairs director, or compliance coordinator
15 Career Opportunities NCAA National office, as well as other collegiate associations such as the NJCAA and NAIANCAA Member ConferencesEmployment opportunities in compliance, conference championships, marketing, and sponsorship areas
16 Current Issues: Title IX/Gender Equity How to comply with Title IX given institutional financial limitations is a challengeNumerous institutions are choosing to eliminate sport programs and funding for the overrepresented sex (usually men’s teams)Increasing participation and funding opportunities for female student-athletes is another methodRoster management: Capping roster sizes for men’s teams
17 Current Issues: Hiring Practices of Minorities/Women 2003–2004: 7.2% of athletic directors, 8.8% of head coaches of men’s teams, and 8.2% of coaches of women’s teams were black.2003–2004: Women held 7.8% of Division I, 16.7% of Division II, and 27% of Division III athletic director positions.Issue continues to demand attention in the hiring of college athletic directors and coaches.
18 Current Issues: Academic Reform In an attempt to increase the graduation rates of student-athletes, Proposition 16 went into effect in 1996–1997: Student-athletes were required to possess a minimum GPA in 13 core courses with a corresponding SAT score along a sliding scale.New legislation, Bylaw 14.3, institutes a new sliding scale (GPA/SAT combination) with more core courses required.
20 Current Issues: Gambling Head football coach Rick Neuheisel, University of Washington, dismissed in June 2003 for participating in a gambling pool on the NCAA basketball tournament35% of male student-athletes and 10% of female student-athletes engaged in gambling or sport wagering activitiesRecommendations: Expanding education efforts, proposed NCAA legislation, and suggestions for state and federal legislation
21 Current Issues: Drug Testing 1990: NCAA adopts drug testing plan for championships and postseason events—testing is for street drugs, performance enhancers, urine manipulators, and masking agentsTesting is outsourced to National Center for Drug Free SportNow increased testing, with some year-round for performance enhancers and as a result of prior positive test
22 Current Issues: Internet Communications Use of new technology for recruiting purposesInfiltrated collegiate sports via social networking sites (Facebook.com, MySpace.com, and Badjocks.com)Some coaches ban athletes from using the sites because of the bad behavior and the likelihood of initiating improper contact with fansQuestions about privacy issues with this topic