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Household Water Systems. Household Water System Components Water Source (well, spring, pond, or cistern)Water Source (well, spring, pond, or cistern)

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Presentation on theme: "Household Water Systems. Household Water System Components Water Source (well, spring, pond, or cistern)Water Source (well, spring, pond, or cistern)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Household Water Systems

2 Household Water System Components Water Source (well, spring, pond, or cistern)Water Source (well, spring, pond, or cistern) PumpPump Pressure TankPressure Tank Pressure SwitchPressure Switch Check ValveCheck Valve PipingPiping Optional Treatment EquipmentOptional Treatment Equipment (Softener, Filter, Disinfection Unit, etc)

3 Typical Shallow-Well Water System PUMP POWER CONTROL BOX SHALLOW-WELL JET PUMP CHECK VALVE WELL CASING SUCTION PIPE SUPPLY PIPE TO HOUSE PRESSURE TANK PRESSURE SWITCH

4 Water Pump Options Suction Lift (feet) Pump Type 0 – 18 Horizontal Centrifugal 0 – 28 Shallow-Well Centrifugal Jet 0 – 200 Deep-Well Centrifugal Jet 0 – 500+ Multi-stage Submersible

5 Pump House with Shallow Well Pump PRESSURE SWITCH

6 Jet Pump Installations Shallow-Well Jet Pump Deep-Well Jet Pump (Two-Pipe System) (Two-Pipe System)

7 Intake Pipe To Pressure Tank Pressure Pipe (Return Flow) Lift Pipe (Upward Flow) Jet Ejector (Venturi) Nozzle Water Jet Pump Schematic Diagram -Increases practical suction lift by diverting part of the pump discharge to the ejector on the lift pipe -The greater the suction lift, the greater the percentage of discharge water must be diverted -Maximum practical lift is limited to approximately 200 feet by economics

8 Deep-Well Jet Pump Ejector Units Two-Pipe System Well Cap Return Pipe Lift Pipe (w/ Venturi) Nozzle Foot Valve Intake Strainer Intake Strainer Packer System Return Flow Lift Pipe (w/ Venturi) Nozzle Foot Valve Packer Suction Pipe

9 Submersible Water Pumps - Good for deep wells - High efficiency - Wells as small as 4 diameter

10 Submersible Pump with Pitless Adapter FROST LINE

11 Pressure Switch Controls water pump Controls water pump Turns on when system pressure drops to 20 (30) psi Turns on when system pressure drops to 20 (30) psi Turns off when system pressure rises to 40 (50) psiTurns off when system pressure rises to 40 (50) psi Low pressure shut-down in case well water level dropsLow pressure shut-down in case well water level drops

12 Pressure Tank Is not meant to provide household water storageIs not meant to provide household water storage Delays pump turn-on and extends pump run timeDelays pump turn-on and extends pump run time Eliminates frequent, short On/Off cycles which can burn up the pump motorEliminates frequent, short On/Off cycles which can burn up the pump motor Volume of pre-charged tank should be at least 6 times the delivery of the pump in 1 minuteVolume of pre-charged tank should be at least 6 times the delivery of the pump in 1 minute Volume of uncharged tank should be at least 10 times the delivery of the pump in 1 minuteVolume of uncharged tank should be at least 10 times the delivery of the pump in 1 minute

13 Pressure Tank Typical uncharged pressure tank (no air bladder/diaphragm) installation Pipe Plug (to be removed when system is drained to correct waterlogging) Pressure Switch Delivery Pipe from Pump Main Power Cutoff Switch

14 Useable Storage Capacity of Pressure Tanks Over Normal Operating Range (Not Pre-charged) 42 gallons 40 lbs 20 lbs Water Level at 12 gallons 82 gallons 82 gallons

15 Examples of Pre-charged Pressure Tanks

16 Effect of Waterlogging on Useable Pressure Tank Capacity

17 Waterlogging To correct waterlogged pressure tanks: -Turn off power to pump -Open a faucet to drain system -Remove pipe plug at top of tank to let air into tank and finish draining system -Replace pipe plug (use teflon tape or pipe compound to seal properly) -Close faucet -Turn on power -Repeat this process whenever the pump begins starting immediately every time a faucet is opened Pipe Plug (to be removed when system is drained to correct waterlogging) Power Switch

18 Controlling Waterlogging in Pressure Tanks

19 Submersible Pump Check Valve Cutaway Water Flow

20 Household Water Requirement Typical Usage: 50-100 gallons/person-day (drinking, bathing, laundry, toilet flushing, dishwashing, cooking, etc.)Typical Usage: 50-100 gallons/person-day (drinking, bathing, laundry, toilet flushing, dishwashing, cooking, etc.) Well Flow Rate Requirement:Well Flow Rate Requirement: –Minimum Acceptable Rate: 5 gpm –Preferred Rate:10 gpm –Minimum Fire Protection Rate:20 gpm

21 Household Water Requirements Use Flow Rate (gpm) Volume per Use (gal.) Washing Machine 520-35 Dishwasher26-20 Shower/Bathtub520-60 Toilet31.6-5.0 Kitchen Sink 32-4 Water Softener Recharge 850-150

22 Farmstead Water Requirement (Flow Rate) UseMinimumPreferred Stock Auto. Waterers 0.5 gpm 0.5 gpm 2 gpm 2 gpm Poultry Auto. Waterers 0.25 gpm 1 gpm 1 gpm Milkhouse Cleaning 3 gpm 3 gpm 5 gpm 5 gpm Manure Washdown 5 gpm 5 gpm 10 gpm 10 gpm Outdoor Hydrant 5 gpm 5 gpm 10 gpm 10 gpm Outdoor Hydrant (Fire) 10 gpm 10 gpm 20 gpm 20 gpm

23 Intermediate Water Storage Improves usability of low-yield wellsImproves usability of low-yield wells Well pump operates at low flow for extended periods (overnight) to fill storage tankWell pump operates at low flow for extended periods (overnight) to fill storage tank Pressure pump uses water from storage to supply immediate household demandPressure pump uses water from storage to supply immediate household demand Minimum intermediate storage capacity should be at least equal to daily household water use (2-3 days storage capacity preferred)Minimum intermediate storage capacity should be at least equal to daily household water use (2-3 days storage capacity preferred)

24 Intermediate Storage for Low-Yield Wells

25 Intermediate Storage Tank (filled by submersible well pump) Pressure Tank Pressure Pump Low Yield Well Water System Inlet from Well Pump Pressure Pump Suction Line Supply Line to House Check Valve

26 Water Treatment Equipment Disinfection EquipmentDisinfection Equipment FiltersFilters Water SoftenersWater Softeners

27 Water Disinfection Options - Bacteria & Viruses- ChlorinationChlorination –Shock chlorination –Continuous chlorination Dry pellet chlorinatorDry pellet chlorinator Chlorine solution feed pumpChlorine solution feed pump Chlorine solution venturi injectorChlorine solution venturi injector OzonationOzonation Ultraviolet IrradiationUltraviolet Irradiation

28 Shock Chlorination Use laundry bleach (5.25%) w/ no additivesUse laundry bleach (5.25%) w/ no additives Pour 4 pints of bleach into well vent for each 100 gallons of water in systemPour 4 pints of bleach into well vent for each 100 gallons of water in system Recirculate water into well for 20 minutesRecirculate water into well for 20 minutes Open all outlets until bleach is smelledOpen all outlets until bleach is smelled Let system stand idle overnight (4 hrs minimum)Let system stand idle overnight (4 hrs minimum) Flush systemFlush system Re-test for bacteria after 10-14 days of useRe-test for bacteria after 10-14 days of use

29 Dry Pellet Chlorinators -Electric powered (110 or 220 volt) -Controlled by pump controller -Few moving parts -Uses calcium hypochlorite tablets -Treats water in the well -Longer Cl contact time -No solutions to mix -Treats up to 20 gpm

30 Venturi Solution Injector Injects any liquid solutionInjects any liquid solution Injection rate proportional to water flow rateInjection rate proportional to water flow rate Adjustable over wide range of flow and injection ratesAdjustable over wide range of flow and injection rates

31 Metering Pump Injects any type of solutionInjects any type of solution Controlled by water pump controllerControlled by water pump controller Constant injection rateConstant injection rate Adjusts to wide range of flow and injection ratesAdjusts to wide range of flow and injection rates

32 SIGHT PORT Ultraviolet Disinfection Unit

33 Water Treatment Options - Iron or Manganese - Shock ChlorinationShock Chlorination Continuous ChlorinationContinuous Chlorination –Dry pellet chlorinator –Chlorine solution feed pump –Chlorine solution venturi injector OzonationOzonation Oxidizing (Greensand) FilterOxidizing (Greensand) Filter Ion Exchange Water SoftenerIon Exchange Water Softener

34 Iron Treatment Options Iron Level (mg/l) Iron Bacteria Clear or Red When Drawn pH Treatment Method 0-5NoClear7+Softening 0-5YesClear7+ Shock Chlorination or Oxidizing Filter 5-20NoClear7+ 5-20Yes Clear or Red 7+ Oxidizing Filter, Shock or Continuous Chlorination 0-20NoRed7+ Oxidizing Filter 20-30No Clear or Red 7+ Continuous Chlorination or Oxidizing Filter

35 Water Treatment Options - Corrosion- Neutralizing FilterNeutralizing Filter –Limestone chips –Marble chips Caustic Soda (NaOH) FeederCaustic Soda (NaOH) Feeder –metering pump or venturi injector Soda Ash (Na 2 CO 3 ) FeederSoda Ash (Na 2 CO 3 ) Feeder –Metering pump or venturi injector

36 Water Treatment Options - Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) Rotten Egg Odor- Activated Carbon FilterActivated Carbon Filter Oxidizing FilterOxidizing Filter Shock ChlorinationShock Chlorination Continuous ChlorinationContinuous Chlorination –Dry pellet chlorinator –Chlorine solution metering pump –Chlorine solution venturi injector OzonationOzonation

37 TDS/Mineral Treatment Reverse OsmosisReverse Osmosis DistillationDistillation

38

39 4-stage Reverse Osmosis Unit with Tank and Faucet

40 Reverse Osmosis Systems Reduce mineral concentrations by 90%Reduce mineral concentrations by 90% 15 gallon/day under-sink units: $150-$30015 gallon/day under-sink units: $150-$300 Require pre-softening with hard waterRequire pre-softening with hard water Operate on water system pressure (40 psi)Operate on water system pressure (40 psi) Wastewater:Treated water ratio 4 or 5:1Wastewater:Treated water ratio 4 or 5:1 Membranes: $70-100 each; 5 year lifeMembranes: $70-100 each; 5 year life

41 Distillation Unit Heating Element Vaporization Chamber Condensing Coil Gas Vent Raw Water Inlet Distilled Water Rising Steam Drain

42 Countertop Distillers - initial cost $150-$1000 - 4-8 hours/gallon treatment rate - 2.75-3.0 kWh/gallon energy consumption - removes 99.9% of all contaminants - electric co-ops often subsidize purchase

43 Carbon Filters Remove contaminants by adsorption on carbon particle surfaceRemove contaminants by adsorption on carbon particle surface Hierarchy of contaminant adsorptionHierarchy of contaminant adsorption Saturated filters can actually increase concentration of some contaminantsSaturated filters can actually increase concentration of some contaminants Not effective on nitrate, hardness or bacteriaNot effective on nitrate, hardness or bacteria Filter cold water onlyFilter cold water only Bigger is better - more surface areaBigger is better - more surface area

44 Cartridge Filters Filter WrenchFilter Housing Carbon Cartridge (taste, odor, chlorine, organics) Particle Cartridge (sand, sediment)

45 Ion Exchange Water Softeners Exchange sodium ions for calcium and magnesium ions in waterExchange sodium ions for calcium and magnesium ions in water Increase EC somewhatIncrease EC somewhat May be dietary hazard - hypertension (adds 140 mg/l of sodium in Hard water)May be dietary hazard - hypertension (adds 140 mg/l of sodium in Hard water) Use potassium salt (KCl) for health reasonsUse potassium salt (KCl) for health reasons

46 Ion exchange softeners replace Ca ++ and Mg ++ with Na + ions. Zeolite medium is recharged with Na + by NaCl brine when depleted.

47 Ion Exchange Water Softener with Sensor- Controlled Recharge

48 Softener Selection Considerations Required grain capacityRequired grain capacity –Daily water use (household population) –Water hardness –Desired regeneration schedule Initial costInitial cost Water conservationWater conservation Other (Iron removal, etc.)Other (Iron removal, etc.)

49 Ion Exchange Water Softener Capacity Rated by grains of hardness treated between regenerationsRated by grains of hardness treated between regenerations 1 grain/gallon (gpg) = 17.1 mg/l1 grain/gallon (gpg) = 17.1 mg/lExample: Water hardness = 200 mg/l = 200/17.1 = 11.7 gpg Softener Capacity = 30,000 grains Household Population = 4 persons Calculate: Water Use = 4 persons x 50gal./person-day = 200 gal./day Daily Hardness Treated = 200 gpd x 11.7 gpg = 2339 grains/day Regeneration Interval = 30,000 grains/ 2339 grains/day = 12.8 days

50 Recommended Softener Sizes Pump Capacity (gpm) Softener Capacity (grains) Water Hardness (mg/l) 3 – 4 10,000350 5 – 6 15,000500 7 – 8 20,000850 9 – 12 30,0001200 12 – 20 40,0001500

51 Ion Exchange Water Softener Recharge Control Method -Time Clock -Flow Meter -Hardness Sensor Water Use + Initial Cost +

52 Typical Programmable Water Softener Controller

53 Water Softening Permanent magnet water softeners dont workPermanent magnet water softeners dont work Electrostatic and catalytic descalers may descale water, but dont soften itElectrostatic and catalytic descalers may descale water, but dont soften it –Scale will not buildup on pipes, water heater elements, bathtubs etc. –Sudsing action of soaps is not improved

54 Private Water System Resources


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