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Cause and Effect Patterns for Development. Two Basic Formats Single cause with multiple effects Single effect with multiple causes.

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Presentation on theme: "Cause and Effect Patterns for Development. Two Basic Formats Single cause with multiple effects Single effect with multiple causes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cause and Effect Patterns for Development

2 Two Basic Formats Single cause with multiple effects Single effect with multiple causes

3 Introductions Find an engaging way to begin your essays. Look at the examples by Brent Staples and Stephen King from the book. You can start with a story like Staples or with an intriguing insight like King. You can ask a question or use a quote. Whatever way you choose, be sure that it grabs the readers attention.

4 Conclusions Be sure to tie up all loose ends in your conclusions. If you began with a question, you need to bring it up and answer it. If you began with a story, you need to tie it in to the main point. Be sure and give some final insights on your topic.

5 Paragraphs with quotes Body paragraphs Use a topic sentence to describe the main point of the paragraph Explain in more detail what your are trying to say. Use evidence from a source to support your topic sentence. Explain how your evidence supports your point. Write a summary sentence with a transition

6 Outline Single Cause/Multiple Effects Thesis statement: Higher pollution rates in inner cities causes increased cases of colds and flus, asthma, and lung cancer. I. Introduction II. Colds and flus A. Explain the medical definition of a cold and flu B. Explain how pollution rates can increase the rates of these C. Make it as clear as possible that this is the main factor and that there are not other possibilities. D. Give evidence from a reliable source that this is true: stats, surveys, doctors reports, etc. E. Explain how this evidence supports your topic sentence and thesis. F. Sum up and transition into the next point.

7 Outline Single Cause/Multiple Effects III. Asthma A. Explain the medical definition of asthma B. Explain how pollution rates can increase the rates C. Make it as clear as possible that this is the main factor and that there are not other possibilities. D. Give evidence from a reliable source that this is true: stats, surveys, doctors reports, etc. E. Explain how this evidence supports your topic sentence and thesis. F. Sum up and transition into the next point. IV.Lung Cancer V.Conclusion

8 Outline Single Cause/Multiple Effects VI. Lung Cancer A. Explain the medical definition of a cold and flu B. Explain how pollution rates can increase the rates of these C. Make it as clear as possible that this is the main factor and that there are not other possibilities. D. Give evidence from a reliable source that this is true: stats, surveys, doctors reports, etc. E. Explain how this evidence supports your topic sentence and thesis. F. Sum up and transition into the next point. V.Conclusion A. Sum up main points B. Tie in introduction C. Give final insights on topic. D. End with a strong final sentence

9 Outline Single Effect/Multiple Causes Thesis statement: Rising cost of theater tickets on Broadway is caused by high salaries that stars command, the high cost for bigger and better special effects, and the high cost of union workers behind the scenes. I. High Cost of stars A. Audiences desire to see shows with starts B. Show attendance rate between productions with and without stars C. Give the costs of these two productions based upon the stars take. D. Give evidence from a reliable sources from multiple shows: stats, surveys, doctors reports, etc. E. Explain how this evidence supports your topic sentence and thesis. F. Sum up and transition into the next point.

10 Outline Single Effect/Multiple Causes II.High Cost of Special Effects A. Audiences desire to see shows with special effects; the realism in film has created this desire too. B. Show attendance rate between productions with high special effects and lower ones. C. Give the costs of these two productions based upon the this D. Give evidence from a reliable sources from multiple shows: stats, surveys, doctors reports, etc. E. Explain how this evidence supports your topic sentence and thesis. F. Sum up and transition into the next point. IV.Union Costs V.Conclusion

11 Outline Single Effect/Multiple Causes VI. High Cost of Union and rules that govern them A. Union rules prevent appropriate use of time and labor during set-up and tear-down B. Stage hands sit and wait while lights are hung Then electricians have to wait while the set is loaded before they can aim and focus lamps. C. Set and lighting designers are not allowed to help and have to find someone to fix something that they see is wrong or risk getting into trouble with the union and loosing their card. D. Give evidence from a reliable sources from multiple shows: stats, surveys, doctors reports, etc. E. Explain how this evidence supports your topic sentence and thesis. F. Sum up and transition into the next point. V.Conclusion

12 Outline Single Effect/Multiple Causes V. Conclusion A. Sum up main points B. Tie in introduction C. Give final insights on topic. D. End with a strong final sentence


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