2Objectives Overview of ISX15 engine emissions strategies Identification of system componentsOperation of system componentsDiesel Particulate Filter (DPF) functionsSelective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) functionsItems the driver/operator will notice with these installed emission control devicesSummary
3OverviewThe new Rosenbauer 2012 pumpers have the latest 2010 EPA Emission standards Cummins ISX liter 500HP big Block engines. With meeting the current EPA standard, it employs two systems. The first being a Diesel Particulate Filter or DPF. The second system is called Selective Catalytic Reduction or SCR. Both of the systems are addressed on the exhaust side of the engine called after treatment devices or ATD. Why? EPA required over the last several years to reduce Diesel Particulate (DP) matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx) to almost zero, these items are a leading cause of greenhouse gasses.
4Identification of System Components View Cummins Emissions video on Hendersonfireonline.com
5DPF Functions Regeneration Types: Passive Regeneration- Active Regeneration-
6Passive RegenerationOccurs when the vehicle’s duty cycle and exhaust temperature drive the continuous oxidation of carbon.No incremental actions are required by the engine or operator to keep the DPF clean.This typically occurs when the vehicle is driven at high speeds (i.e., highway speeds) and/or under heavy loads.
7Active RegenerationRequired when the duty cycle does not generate enough heat to convert all the carbon being collected in the DPF.In this case, the Engine Control Module (ECM) initiates an active regeneration by injecting a small amount of Diesel Fuel into the exhaust stream, which generates heat as it enters the DOC.The additional heat ensures that the excess carbon is oxidized without any operator intervention.Active regeneration will occur more frequently in vehicles with low speed, low load, or stop and go duty cycles.
8Active RegenerationActive regeneration only occurs if the engine ECM has detected that the after treatment DPF restriction has reached a specified limit, and may only occur if the vehicle is moving above the speed threshold or in pump mode.The engine ECM will activate and de-activate active regeneration as needed.The speed threshold for active regeneration to occur is 20 mph.Note: The Cummins engines are set up to allow an active regeneration while in pump mode.
9Active RegenerationActive regeneration is largely transparent to the vehicle operator.The operator might notice an increase in turbocharger noise during an active regeneration event, and may notice the high exhaust temperature lamp is illuminated, if the exhaust temp is greater than the high exhaust temperature set threshold.The high exhaust temperature lamp will illuminate at a speed less than 45 mph at an exhaust temperature between 662 F to 1472 F.
10DPF Dash Lamps/Indicators Graphic Multifunction Message CenterIndicator Light BarNote: Some Indicator Light lamps descriptions may also display in the Graphic Multifunction Message Center. These will have the “Check Message” Lamp illuminated in the Indicator Light Bar to alert operator more information is available in the Message Center.
11 High Exhaust System Temperature (HEST) Lamp IlluminatedThe HEST Lamp illuminates to indicate that high exhaust temperatures may exist due to after-treatment regeneration.This is normal and does not signify the need for any kind of vehicle or engine service.When this lamp is illuminated, ensure that the exhaust pipe outlet is not directed at any combustible surface or material.
12 After treatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Lamp IlluminatedThe After treatment DPF Lamp indicates, when illuminated or flashing, that the after treatment DPF requires regeneration. This is accomplished by the following:Our apparatus is equipped with a Regeneration Inhibit Switch; ensure that the switch is not in the Inhibit position.Perform DPF regeneration by one of the following methods:Change to a more challenging duty cycle, such as highway driving, for at least 20 minutes.ORPerform a parked regeneration.
13 After treatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Lamp FlashingIf regeneration is not performed in a timely manner after the DPF Lamp is illuminated, the DPF Lamp will begin to flash. This indicates a higher level of soot in the DPF.Change to a more challenging duty cycle, such as highway driving, for at least 20 minutes.ORPerform a parked regeneration.
14After treatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Lamp Flashing with Warning or Check Engine LampA flashing DPF Lamp combined with an illuminated Warning or Check Engine Lamp indicates that the after treatment DPF needs regeneration immediately.A parked regeneration is required.
15After treatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Lamp Stop Engine LampIf a parked regeneration is not performed, the red Stop Engine Lamp will illuminate. The vehicle should be stopped as soon as it is practical and safe to do so. Contact the Fire Shop so they can arrange a tow for repair at an authorized Cummins repair location.Note: Cummins engines calibrated for emergency vehicle use are programmed to not reduce power or speed due to soot load. However, excessive soot load may impact engine performance and or damage to DPF and engine components.
16DPF Manual Inhibit Switch The purpose of this switch is to prevent or disable after treatment DPF regeneration.Can be used at a scene or in a situation that would cause damage or harm by High Exhaust Temperatures(Note: when parking be aware of exhaust outlet location proximity to combustible items).CAUTION: Unnecessary or excessive use of the Regeneration Inhibit Switch will result in an increased need for parked regeneration or may result in the need to service or replace the Cummins Particulate Filter.
17How to Perform a Parked (Stationary) Regeneration Ensure the DPF Lamp is illuminated or flashing:Park the vehicle in an appropriate location. Preferably on a surface that will NOT burn or melt under high exhaust temperatures (such as clean concrete or gavel, NOT grass or asphalt)Set the parking brake.Place transmission in Neutral, and allow at least 40 minutes for the regeneration.Set up a safe exhaust area (minimum 2 feet clear of exhaust outlet). Items that can burn, melt or explode MUST be kept a minimum of 5 feet away from exhaust. Confirm that nothing is on or near the exhaust system surfaces. Ensure that there are no gases or vapors nearby that could burn, explode or contribute to a fire.
18How to Perform a Parked (Stationary) Regeneration Confirm that Compartment #8 Safe Step is in the up (closed) position away from exhaust.If the Safe Step is left down during the regeneration process or pump mode, paint damage will occur.
19How to Perform a Parked (Stationary) Regeneration Ensure that your High-idle switch is off before starting regeneration.
20How to Perform a Parked (Stationary) Regeneration Push the red Manual Regeneration switch located below the pump panel shifter assembly to begin a parked regeneration.Note: Engine speed will increase, and there may be a noticeable change to the sound of the turbocharger during the regeneration process.
21How to Perform a Parked (Stationary) Regeneration Once the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is regenerated, the engine will automatically return to the normal idle speed.Monitor the vehicle and surrounding area during regeneration. If any unsafe condition occurs, shut off the engine immediately.To stop a parked regeneration, depress the brake or throttle pedal. Drive away as normal. If after driving the DPF Light is still illuminated, start the parked regeneration procedures again.Once regeneration is complete, exhaust gas and exhaust surface temperatures will remain elevated for 3 to 5 minutes.WARNING:During regeneration, exhaust gas temperature could reach 1500 degrees, and exhaust system surface temperature could exceed 1300 degrees, which is hot enough to ignite or melt common materials, and to burn people.
22How to Perform a Parked (Stationary) Regeneration Note:In vehicle, Cummins DPF placard is located on the underside of the center dash electrical access panel.
23Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is required for an engine equipped with a SCR system.
24Diesel Exhaust Fluid 67.5% de-ionized water and 32.5% urea May have a slight ammonia smellIs colorlessIs non-toxic and non-pollutingIs non-flammableUrea is naturally occurring and is biodegradable.
25Diesel Exhaust FluidIs corrosive for some metals such as carbon steel, aluminum, copper and zinc.Do not get the substance in your eyes. In case of contact, flush with large amounts of water for a minimum of 15 minutes. SEE MSDS for additional information.Avoid prolonged contact with skin. In case of contact, wash immediately with soap and water.If not washed immediately, when the DEF dries, a white film will be left that can be more difficult to wash off.If spilled, rinse and clean immediately with water.
26Diesel Exhaust FluidHas a shelf life of two years. However, this can be reduced if the fluid is exposed to direct sunlight for a long time or if the temperature of the DEF remains above 77°F (25°C) for sustained periods. All DEF packaging should be labeled with the expiration date.Note: DEF fluid is made mostly of de-ionized water, just a small amount of regular tap water introduced into the DEF tank can cause contamination and malfunctions to the emissions systems. If cleaning funnel prior to filling tank, wash thoroughly to remove any contaminants and then rise with distilled water. If distilled water is unavailable, ensure the funnel is completely dry before using it.
27DEF Tank Supplied with the Rosenbauer engine and is 6 gallons. Located on driver’s side crew cab step-well behind access door.Should last about two-50 gallon diesel fuel ups.
29 DEF LampIlluminatedAn illuminated DEF is an indication that the DEF level is low (15% remaining). This can be corrected by refilling the DEF tank.
30 DEF LampFlashingA flashing DEF lamp indicates that the DEF level has fallen below a critical level (10% remaining). This can be corrected by refilling the DEF tank.
31 DEF LampFlashing with Check Engine LightA flashing DEF Lamp combined with an illuminated Warning or Check Engine Lamp indicates that the DEF level is critically low (5%).A speed inducement of 55 mph will be enacted the first time the ignition switch is cycled off then back on.The speed limit of 55 mph will be suspended during pumping operations.Normal engine power and vehicle speed will be restored after the DEF tank is refilled.
32 DEF LampStop Engine Lamp, MIL Lamp with flashing DEF and warning Check Engine LampIf the engine has been shut down after the DEF tank has run dry, the Stop Engine lamp will also be illuminated, along with the flashing DEF Lamp and illuminated Warning or Check Engine Lamp.A speed inducement of 25 mph will be enacted the first time the ignition switch is cycled off then back on.The speed limit of 25 mph will be suspended during pumping operations.Normal engine power and vehicle speed will be restored after the DEF tank is refilled.
33 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) IlluminatedUsed on engines that are equipped with On-board Diagnostics (OBD), the emission control system monitors and reports malfunctions that impact the emission control devices.If the OBD detects such a malfunction, the on-board diagnostic system illuminates the MIL to indicate that the engine needs to be serviced at the first available opportunity.The MIL can be illuminated along with any of the engine indicator lamps.
36DEF Supplies and Refilling The city shop will provide the required amount of DEF after each PM.If at some point you run low of DEF then call the warehouse to get the required fluid.Due to the shelf life of DEF, the city shop will give you the minimum amount to get you thru until the next PM.Refilling of the DEF tank will not be any different than the policy of refueling the diesel tank, when you reach ¾ tank then refill.
37Items the Driver Will Notice After treatment SystemUnder certain conditions (Cold or very dry), condensation in the form of water vapor can be seen coming from the vehicle tailpipe.This is normal. It will clear within a few minutes of normal vehicle operation.
38Items the Driver Will Notice Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Specific:After turning the ignition switch off,A pumping sound may be heard from underneath the vehicle (can last up to 60 seconds).This sound is the after treatment DEF dosing unit purging any unused DEF from the system and returning it to the tank.This is normal.
39Items the Driver Will Notice Engine SoundsThe ISX15 engine is equipped with a feature to warm up the after treatment system under various conditions.This “Warm Up” feature can cause slight sound changes during idle. These sounds are normal.The electric-actuated VGT Turbocharger causes the engine sound to vary at different times. This is normal.A slight turbo whistle may also be observed at idle conditions.Compression brakes are quieter on engines with after treatment.
40Items the Driver Will Notice ExhaustAfter prolonged idle, you may notice momentary white vapor and an odor. This is normal.When the High Exhaust System Temperature Lamp is illuminated, you may notice an odor.If the odor is excessive and you also notice white vapor, have the exhaust system inspected for leaks.
41Summary Do not ignore any check engine, DPF, or DEF warning lights. Regenerate or refill based upon indicator lights to avoid engine damage, power or speed inducements.For further info, see the manufacturer’s owner’s manual and the following links:
42Resource Links Diesel Particulate Filter for Emergency Vehicles Driver Tips for Fire & Emergency Vehicles (shows the different DEF derates based on when your engine was built)VIDEO: 2010 Cummins Aftertreatment System Overview For Fire TrucksCummins Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration User InterfaceEmergency Vehicle Calibrated Engines