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Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Diesel Engine Electronics Instructor Name: (Your Name) 14 CHAPTER
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Learning Objectives Discuss the various types of electronically controlled diesel fuel systems Describe why the current flow through an inductor can not instantly change Explain the fundamentals of a closed loop control system Discuss how an in-range failure might not cause a DTC to be set
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Learning Objectives (continued) Explain the difference between in-cylinder emission reduction and exhaust aftertreatment Discuss how a variable geometry turbocharger can be used to regulate EGR flow rate Explain how particulate matter and NO x exhaust emissions are controlled Describe the requirements for HD-OBD and discuss some of the benefits of this regulation for technicians
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Electronically Controlled Engine Particulate Matter (PM) – Exhaust smoke Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) – One of the pollutants responsible for smog Electronic Control Module (ECM) – Computer that controls engine fuel system
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Typical 2010 Engine Wiring Harness Figure 14-1 Typical 2010 engine wiring harness.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Basic Tasks of a Diesel Fuel System Provide injection metering Atomize the fuel Provide injection timing control Control fuel delivery independent of engine speed and cam shaft geometry Perform multiple injection events per cycle
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Bosch RE30 Electronically Controlled Rack Actuator Figure 14-5 Bosch RE30 electronically controlled rack actuator.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Bosch Electronically Controlled VE Distributive Pump Figure 14-6 Bosch electronically controlled VE distributor injection pump used on smaller diesel engines.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Electronic Unit Injector (EUI) NOP – Nozzle opening pressure NCV – Needle control valve SV – Spill valve EUP – Electronic unit pump Pilot Injection – Small amount of fuel injected in combustion chamber prior to main injection
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Single Actuator EUI Figure Single actuator EUI.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Important Fact The current flow through an inductor cannot change instantly from level to another. However, the voltage measured across an inductor can instantly change from one level to another.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Figure Instantaneous current rise in a resistor circuit. Figure Ramped current rise in inductor circuit Current Rise
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Delphi E3 Dual Actuator EUI Figure Delphi E3 dual actuator EUI.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Nozzle Can Open When NCV is Energized Figure Nozzle opens when NCV is energized.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Electronic Unit Pump (EUP) Figure Electronic unit pump.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Main Components of a HEUI System High pressure oil pump develops the high pressure engine oil called injection control pressure (ICP) Injection pressure regulator (IPR) ICP sensor Electronic unit injectors (EUI) High pressure oil manifold
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Navistar HEUI Pressure Control System Components Figure Navistar HEUI injection pressure control system components.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Closed Loop Circuit ECM knows the desired injection control pressure ECM knows the measured or actual injection control pressure Measured injection control pressure can be changed by increasing or decreasing the duty cycle of the injection pressure regulator
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Navistar Single Coil Unit Injector Figure Navistar single coil HEUI injector internal components.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning CAUTION Follow the OEM’s specific safety recommendations when troubleshooting any electronically controlled diesel fuel system to prevent fatal electric shock.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Navistar Second Generation Two-Coil HEUI Injector Figure Navistar second-generation two-coil HEUI injector.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning WARNING Never crack common rail fuel lines open with the engine running for any reason, including checking for a misfiring cylinder. Doing so could cause fuel under extreme pressure to penetrate your skin resulting in death or serious injury. Follow OEM instruction for rail pressure bleed down before loosening any components in the high-pressure fuel system. Never install a standard pressure gauge in a common rail system. The extreme pressure will cause the gauge to explode.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Caterpillar Common Rail Fuel System Figure Caterpillar common rail fuel system.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Common Rail High Pressure Pump with Control Solenoids Figure Common rail high- pressure pump with control solenoids.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Solenoid Controlled Common Rail Injector Nozzle Figure Solenoid- controlled common rail injector nozzle.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Piezo Actuated Common Rail Injector Figure Piezo- actuated common rail injector.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning In Cylinder Exhaust Emission Reduction EGR – Exhaust gas recirculation VGT – Variable geometry turbocharger Smart Actuator – An actuator that contains a microprocessor and communication interface Virtual Sensor – Estimated value obtained from mechanical models of the system Learn Cycle – Actuator is driven from minimum to maximum span at start up
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Typical Cooled EGR System With VGT Turbocharger Figure Typical cooled EGR system with VGT.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Electrohydraulic VGT Actuator Figure Electrohydraulic VGT actuator.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Diesel After Treatment Aftertreatment – Modification of exhaust gasses after they leave the combustion chamber DPF – Diesel particulate filter DOC – Diesel oxidization catalyst SCR – Selective catalyst reduction DEF – Diesel exhaust fluid
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning DOC/DPF System Figure DOC/DPF system.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Bosch Departronic® Fuel Dosing System Figure Bosch Departronic® fuel dosing system.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Caterpillar CRS System Figure Caterpillar CRS system. Compressed air is used to purge the injector and to aid in combustion.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Caterpillar CRS Injector and Spark Plug Assembly Figure Caterpillar CRS injector and spark plug details. Engine coolant is used to cool the injector.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning SCR System Components Figure SCR system components.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Bosch Denoxtronic® System Figure Bosch Denoxtronic® system.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Heavy Duty On-Board Diagnostics HD-OBD – Heavy duty on board diagnostics MIL – Malfunction indicator lamp Started coming into effect in 2010 Pending DTC – ECM first detects an emissions related malfunction; MIL will not illuminate Detected DTC – The pending DTC is detected on second drive cycle; MIL will illuminate
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Pro Link 9000 EST Figure Pro-Link 9000 scan tool.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning PC Based EST Figure PC-based electronic service tool.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Injector Cut Out Test Result Figure Injector cutout test results indicate a problem with #2 cylinder.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Two Channel Oscilloscope Displays Two Different Signals Figure Two-channel oscilloscope displays two different signals.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Typical J1939 Voltage Levels Figure Typical J1939 voltage levels using two-channel oscilloscope referenced to ground.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Summary Vehicles with diesel engines sold in the U.S. are subject to EPA exhaust emissions regulations. These regulations have resulted in substantial decreases of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen emissions. To attain these requirements, electronic engine controls were necessary. Electronic unit injector (EUI) systems with single actuators control the spill valve opening and closing. Dual-actuator EUIs control both the spill valve and the nozzle opening.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Summary (continued) Self-inductance prevents the current flow through an inductor from changing quickly. Hydraulically actuated electronic unit injectors amplify engine lubrication oil under pressure to generate injection pressures. A closed loop control system compares a desired output to the measured output referred to as the error. A controller drives the output such that the error becomes zero, indicating the desired output and the measured output are the same. Closed loop systems are used in a variety of trucks.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Summary (continued) An in-range failure is a condition where the input voltage at an electronic control module is within the normal operating voltage range, but does not correctly represent what is being measured. Exhaust emissions can be controlled by a combination of in-cylinder techniques and by exhaust aftertreatment systems. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) can be used to regulate EGR flow.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Summary (continued) An H-bridge is an electronic circuit that causes the polarity of two wires to reverse to permit directional control of a electric motor. Soot is captured in a DPF. A periodic regeneration of the filter to oxidize the soot is sometimes necessary. Heat for the regeneration is produced either by diesel fuel being injected over a DOC or by igniting the fuel in a burner in the exhaust.
Copyright © 2014 Delmar, Cengage Learning Summary (continued) SCR uses ammonia to reduce NO x. The ammonia is produced when an urea water solution called DEF is injected into the exhaust stream. HD-OBD describes the ability of a diesel engine to determine that its emissions have exceeded a threshold and to illuminate a MIL to alert the driver.
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