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An Introduction to The Localized Aviation MOS Program (LAMP) National Weather Service Meteorological Development Laboratory Mesoscale Prediction Branch David E. Rudack, March 2008

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Outline of Presentation What is LAMP?What is LAMP?What is LAMP?What is LAMP? What weather elements does LAMP forecast?What weather elements does LAMP forecast?What weather elements does LAMP forecast?What weather elements does LAMP forecast? What steps are taken to create LAMP forecasts?What steps are taken to create LAMP forecasts?What steps are taken to create LAMP forecasts?What steps are taken to create LAMP forecasts? Data inputsData inputs Predictand and predictor typesPredictand and predictor types Generating LAMP regression equationsGenerating LAMP regression equations Post-processing forecastsPost-processing forecasts LAMP Verification and ProductsLAMP Verification and ProductsLAMP Verification and ProductsLAMP Verification and Products SummarySummarySummary Click the hyperlink headings to navigate to the desired portion of the presentation or click to continue

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Basic Properties of LAMP LAMP provides hourly updates of Global Forecast System (GFS) MOS forecasts from 1 - 25 hours.LAMP provides hourly updates of Global Forecast System (GFS) MOS forecasts from 1 - 25 hours. LAMP updates MOS by utilizing the latest observational data (METAR, lightning, radar), GFS MOS forecasts, output from simple advective models, and geo-climatic data (hi-res topography and relative frequencies).LAMP updates MOS by utilizing the latest observational data (METAR, lightning, radar), GFS MOS forecasts, output from simple advective models, and geo-climatic data (hi-res topography and relative frequencies). Many of the LAMP weather elements are important to aviation operations.Many of the LAMP weather elements are important to aviation operations. LAMP provides guidance for the contiguous United States (CONUS) and Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico (OCONUS), except the thunderstorm guidance is limited to the CONUS.LAMP provides guidance for the contiguous United States (CONUS) and Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico (OCONUS), except the thunderstorm guidance is limited to the CONUS. Forecasts are issued for METAR stations, except gridded thunderstorm forecasts are issued on a 20-km grid.Forecasts are issued for METAR stations, except gridded thunderstorm forecasts are issued on a 20-km grid.

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Stations for which LAMP generates forecasts

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Geographical Coverage of Thunderstorm Forecasts on 20-km Grid

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Attributes of the MOS Approach The MOS approach is followed in developing LAMP guidance. This approach: relates observations of the weather element to be predicted (predictands) to appropriate variables (predictors) through multiple linear regressionrelates observations of the weather element to be predicted (predictands) to appropriate variables (predictors) through multiple linear regression is mathematically straightforward yields forecasts which are accurate and/or skillful generates non-probabilistic (e.g., temperature) and probabilistic forecasts (e.g., probability of precipitation)generates non-probabilistic (e.g., temperature) and probabilistic forecasts (e.g., probability of precipitation) improves upon direct model output forecasts and generates forecasts of elements not directly output from dynamical models (e.g., ceiling and visibility)improves upon direct model output forecasts and generates forecasts of elements not directly output from dynamical models (e.g., ceiling and visibility)

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Conceptual Approach of LAMP The objective of LAMP is to improve on MOS forecasts and persistence out to 25 hours through rapid infusion of current observational data.The objective of LAMP is to improve on MOS forecasts and persistence out to 25 hours through rapid infusion of current observational data. The predictive information in observational data is extrapolated through the application of advective models.The predictive information in observational data is extrapolated through the application of advective models.

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Theoretical Model Forecast Performance of LAMP, MOS, and Persistence LAMP outperforms persistence for all projections and handily outperforms MOS in the 1-12 hour projections. The skill level of LAMP forecasts begin to converge to the MOS skill level after the 12 hour projection and become almost indistinguishable by the 20 hour projection. The decreased predictive value of the observations at the later projections causes the LAMP skill level to diminish and converge to the skill level of MOS forecasts.

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LAMP Updates of GFS MOS LAMP produces hourly updates for the most recent GFS MOS cycle.LAMP produces hourly updates for the most recent GFS MOS cycle.

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2200 UTC LAMP 1800 UTC MOS 2300 UTC LAMP 0000 UTC LAMP 0100 UTC LAMP 0200 UTC LAMP 0300 UTC LAMP 0400 UTC LAMP 0000 UTC MOS 0500 UTC LAMP 0600 UTC LAMP 0700 UTC LAMP 0800 UTC LAMP 0900 UTC LAMP 1000 UTC LAMP 0600 UTC MOS 1100 UTC LAMP 1200 UTC LAMP 1300 UTC LAMP 1400 UTC LAMP 1500 UTC LAMP 1600 UTC LAMP 1200 UTC MOS 1700 UTC LAMP 1800 UTC LAMP 1900 UTC LAMP 2000 UTC LAMP 2100 UTC LAMP The following LAMP cycles update the 1800 UTC GFS MOS cycle The following LAMP cycles update the 0000 UTC GFS MOS cycle The following LAMP cycles update the 0600 UTC GFS MOS cycle The following LAMP cycles update the 1200 UTC GFS MOS cycle LAMP updates the GFS MOS

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2-m temperature and dewpoint (F)2-m temperature and dewpoint (F) Wind speed (kts), wind gusts (kts), and wind direction (degrees)Wind speed (kts), wind gusts (kts), and wind direction (degrees) LAMP Forecasts of Continuous Weather Elements

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Categorical forecast (yes/no) indicating if precipitation, not necessarily measurable, will occur on the hourCategorical forecast (yes/no) indicating if precipitation, not necessarily measurable, will occur on the hour Categorical forecast of precipitation type (liquid, freezing, or frozen) conditioned on precipitation occurringCategorical forecast of precipitation type (liquid, freezing, or frozen) conditioned on precipitation occurring Categorical forecast of precipitation characteristics (drizzle, continuous, or showers) conditioned on precipitation occurringCategorical forecast of precipitation characteristics (drizzle, continuous, or showers) conditioned on precipitation occurring LAMP Forecasts of Categorical Weather Elements

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Total sky cover (clear, few, scattered, broken, or overcast)Total sky cover (clear, few, scattered, broken, or overcast) Ceiling heightCeiling height Conditional ceiling height (if it is precipitating)Conditional ceiling height (if it is precipitating) VisibilityVisibility Conditional visibility (if it is precipitating)Conditional visibility (if it is precipitating) Obstruction to vision (no obstruction, haze, mist, fog, or blowing phenomena)Obstruction to vision (no obstruction, haze, mist, fog, or blowing phenomena) Occurrence/non-occurrence of thunderstormOccurrence/non-occurrence of thunderstorm Thunderstorm is defined as one or more cloud-to-ground (CTG) lighting strikes in a 20-km grid box in a 2-h period (CONUS only)Thunderstorm is defined as one or more cloud-to-ground (CTG) lighting strikes in a 20-km grid box in a 2-h period (CONUS only) Elements of special interest to aviation forecasters LAMP Categorical Forecasts

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LAMP Probabilistic Forecasts Probability of: Event Liquid Equivalent Precip. 0.01 inch during past 6 hours/12 hours Yes/No Precipitation occurring on the hour (not necessarily measurable) * Yes/No Precipitation type (Conditional on Precipitation) Freezing Frozen Liquid Precipitation Characteristics (Conditional on Precipitation) Drizzle Continuous Showers *This is not the same as precipitation occurring during the hour.

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Probability of: Event Ceiling Height < 200 feet 200 – 400 feet 500 – 900 feet 1000 – 1900 feet 2000 – 3000 feet 3100 – 6500 feet 6600 – 12,000 feet > 12,000 feet Conditional Ceiling Height (Conditional on Precipitation) Same as above LAMP Probabilistic Forecasts Elements of special interest to aviation forecasters

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Probability of: Event Visibility < ½ mile < 1 mile < 2 miles < 3 miles 5 miles 6 miles Conditional Visibility (Conditional on Precipitation) Same as above Thunderstorms within a 20-km grid box and within a 2-h period Occurrence/non-occurrence of one or more CTG lightning strikes LAMP Probabilistic Forecasts Elements of special interest to aviation forecasters

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Temporal Resolution of LAMP Forecasts LAMP weather elements have an hourly temporal forecast resolution except for probability of measurable precipitation in a 6 and 12 hour period (PoP6/PoP12) and thunderstorms.LAMP weather elements have an hourly temporal forecast resolution except for probability of measurable precipitation in a 6 and 12 hour period (PoP6/PoP12) and thunderstorms. LAMP PoP6 forecasts have a temporal resolution of 6 hours and are valid over the 6 hour forecast periods ending at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC.LAMP PoP6 forecasts have a temporal resolution of 6 hours and are valid over the 6 hour forecast periods ending at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC. LAMP PoP12 forecasts have a temporal resolution of 6 hours and are valid over the 12 hour forecast periods ending at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC.LAMP PoP12 forecasts have a temporal resolution of 6 hours and are valid over the 12 hour forecast periods ending at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC. LAMP 2-h thunderstorm forecasts are issued at hourly intervals to 7 or 8 hours (depending on the cycle time) and at 2-h intervals thereafter (see subsequent slide).LAMP 2-h thunderstorm forecasts are issued at hourly intervals to 7 or 8 hours (depending on the cycle time) and at 2-h intervals thereafter (see subsequent slide).

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Odd Cycles Example: 09 UTC Even Cycles Example: 10 UTC Schematic of LAMP Thunderstorm 2-h Valid Periods 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 00 02 04 06 08 10 11 Projection (h) UTC Time Start time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 10 UTC White arrows indicate overlapping 2-h valid periods out to 6 hours from issuance Green arrows indicate subsequent 2-h valid periods, which end on even UTC hours 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 00 02 04 06 08 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 UTC Time Projection (h) 09 UTCStart time. LAMP thunderstorm forecasts are issued every 2 hours after the 7th or 8th projection depending if the cycle issuance time is odd or even. LAMP thunderstorm forecasts are issued at an hourly temporal resolution beginning at the 3-h projection until the 7th or 8th projection depending if the cycle issuance time is odd or even.

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The Development Process of Generating LAMP Forecasts 1)Collate the data from a variety of sources for the regression analysis 2)Generate a regression equation for each element at each projection using a specific training period of data 3)Post-process the forecasts to ensure consistency (e.g., ensure that the temperature is always equal to or greater than the dewpoint) 4)Verify the weather element at each projection hour using a station list (typically includes the entire station list used to produce LAMP forecasts) over an independent sample

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LAMP Predictand Data The predictand data (which are observations) are extracted from two possible sources:The predictand data (which are observations) are extracted from two possible sources: Hourly METAR observations (All LAMP elements except thunderstorms)Hourly METAR observations (All LAMP elements except thunderstorms) Lightning strike data from the National Lightning Detection Network (For LAMP thunderstorm development only)Lightning strike data from the National Lightning Detection Network (For LAMP thunderstorm development only) All predictands in the LAMP system are defined at stations except for the probability of thunderstorms which is defined on a 20-km grid.All predictands in the LAMP system are defined at stations except for the probability of thunderstorms which is defined on a 20-km grid. The data is quality checked for gross errors as well as for temporal consistency.The data is quality checked for gross errors as well as for temporal consistency.

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LAMP Predictand Data Predictand data can take two forms: Continuous values such as temperature and dewpoint Binary values are used to define the predictand in terms of the occurrence (1) or non-occurrence (0) of an event. Example of binary value: Event: Wind speed > 14 kts If yes binary value = 1 If no binary value = 0

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LAMP Predictor Data Sources Predictors are data (e.g., temperature) that explain a portion of the behavior exhibited by the predictand.Predictors are data (e.g., temperature) that explain a portion of the behavior exhibited by the predictand. Possible predictor sources used in LAMP developments include:Possible predictor sources used in LAMP developments include: Hourly METAR DataHourly METAR Data GFS MOS forecastsGFS MOS forecasts Simple models (such as advection of moisture)Simple models (such as advection of moisture) Radar mosaic dataRadar mosaic data Lightning strike data* from the National Lightning Detection NetworkLightning strike data* from the National Lightning Detection Network GFS model outputGFS model output Only those predictors that make physical sense are chosen from these data sources as predictors.Only those predictors that make physical sense are chosen from these data sources as predictors. * Archives obtained from Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC)

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LAMP Predictor Types and Transformations For station development, all gridded predictor values are interpolated to stations by either:For station development, all gridded predictor values are interpolated to stations by either: Bilinear interpolation for continuous values such as temperature, orBilinear interpolation for continuous values such as temperature, or Nearest neighbor interpolation for discontinuous values such as visibilityNearest neighbor interpolation for discontinuous values such as visibility There are four types of predictors that may be used in the regression analysis:There are four types of predictors that may be used in the regression analysis: Predictors possessing the actual values of the forecast element (e.g., temperature in degrees)Predictors possessing the actual values of the forecast element (e.g., temperature in degrees) GFS MOS probability forecastsGFS MOS probability forecasts Point binary predictors (Values of 0 or 1)Point binary predictors (Values of 0 or 1) Grid binary predictors (Values range between 0 and 1)Grid binary predictors (Values range between 0 and 1)

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Multiple Linear Regression Basics Multiple linear regression relates a dependent variable Y (predictand) to a set of n independent variables,, (predictors). The relationship is expressed through a linear equation:Multiple linear regression relates a dependent variable Y (predictand) to a set of n independent variables X 1,X 2,…X n (predictors). The relationship is expressed through a linear equation: Y = b + a 1 x 1 + a 2 x 2 + … + a n x n where the values of a 1 through a n are the coefficient values for each of the predictor terms through, and b is the equation constant. where the values of a 1 through a n are the coefficient values for each of the predictor terms x 1 through x n, and b is the equation constant. Each term a i x i represents the contribution of the predictor x i to the estimate of the predictand.Each term a i x i represents the contribution of the predictor x i to the estimate of the predictand.

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The predictors, X 1 …X n, can be nonlinear. That is to say, the predictors can be derived from values that were raised to a power other than one (e.g., X=Z 3 ).The predictors, X 1 …X n, can be nonlinear. That is to say, the predictors can be derived from values that were raised to a power other than one (e.g., X=Z 3 ). The equation represents the best possible least squares fit to the data of any other possible linear equation with the same predictors.The equation represents the best possible least squares fit to the data of any other possible linear equation with the same predictors. Multiple Linear Regression Basics

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Sample Linear Regression for KATL, June 2005 The sum of squares of the vertical distances between the line and the data points is minimized.

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LAMP Equation Development Technique The regression analysis first determines the predictor from the set of potential predictors that explains more of the predictand variability than any other potential predictor.The regression analysis first determines the predictor from the set of potential predictors that explains more of the predictand variability than any other potential predictor. Each subsequent predictor is selected based on its ability, in conjunction with the predictors already selected, to explain more of the remaining predictand variability than any other potential predictor.Each subsequent predictor is selected based on its ability, in conjunction with the predictors already selected, to explain more of the remaining predictand variability than any other potential predictor. The regression analysis for a particular equation stops when either:The regression analysis for a particular equation stops when either: the maximum number of allowable terms is reached (pre-defined by the developer – usually 10-15 predictors), orthe maximum number of allowable terms is reached (pre-defined by the developer – usually 10-15 predictors), or none of the remaining predictors further reduces the remaining variability observed in the predictand by a predefined amount (also stipulated by the developer)none of the remaining predictors further reduces the remaining variability observed in the predictand by a predefined amount (also stipulated by the developer)

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Separate equations are developed for each season to address the wide range of intra- seasonal weather variabilitySeparate equations are developed for each season to address the wide range of intra- seasonal weather variability All LAMP weather elements with the exception of precipitation type and thunderstormsAll LAMP weather elements with the exception of precipitation type and thunderstorms Cool season (October 1 – March 31) Cool season (October 1 – March 31) Warm season (April 1 – September 30) Warm season (April 1 – September 30) Precipitation TypePrecipitation Type Cool season (September 1 – May 31) Cool season (September 1 – May 31) Warm season (June 1 – August 31) (Alaska only) Warm season (June 1 – August 31) (Alaska only) ThunderstormsThunderstorms Spring season (March 16 – June 30) Spring season (March 16 – June 30) Summer season (July 1 – October 15) Summer season (July 1 – October 15) Winter season (October 16 – March 15) Winter season (October 16 – March 15) This seasonal stratification fine-tunes the equations to the appropriate seasons type of weather.This seasonal stratification fine-tunes the equations to the appropriate seasons type of weather. For a smoother transition of forecasts between seasons, an additional thirty days of training data is included in the development sample for each year - fifteen days prior to and subsequent to the development season.For a smoother transition of forecasts between seasons, an additional thirty days of training data is included in the development sample for each year - fifteen days prior to and subsequent to the development season. - Seasonal Stratification - LAMP Equation Development

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Some elements such as temperature are reported regularly at every station while hazardous events of visibility and/or ceiling height occur less frequently.Some elements such as temperature are reported regularly at every station while hazardous events of visibility and/or ceiling height occur less frequently. When a station reports a sufficient number of cases for a particular element, (usually no less than 200), a regression equation is generated for that element that applies to that specific station.When a station reports a sufficient number of cases for a particular element, (usually no less than 200), a regression equation is generated for that element that applies to that specific station. To increase equation stability for certain elements that are less common, an equation is developed by pooling other station datum into a region. This regionalized regression equation can then be applied to any station in that particular region.To increase equation stability for certain elements that are less common, an equation is developed by pooling other station datum into a region. This regionalized regression equation can then be applied to any station in that particular region. Regions are determined based upon similar geoclimatic features (e.g., terrain or relative frequencies of the event).Regions are determined based upon similar geoclimatic features (e.g., terrain or relative frequencies of the event). Regionalization allows for the LAMP guidance to be produced at sites with poor, unreliable, or non-existent observation systems.Regionalization allows for the LAMP guidance to be produced at sites with poor, unreliable, or non-existent observation systems. All LAMP elements with the exceptions of temperature, dewpoint, wind speed, and wind direction are developed regionally.All LAMP elements with the exceptions of temperature, dewpoint, wind speed, and wind direction are developed regionally. LAMP Equation Development - Station vs. Regionalized Equations -

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The figure to the right is an example of how the CONUS might be subdivided into regions for equation development. The figure to the right is an example of how the CONUS might be subdivided into regions for equation development. It is important to find a balance between larger region sizes which help to create more stable equations and smaller region sizes which help to better model the local effects. It is important to find a balance between larger region sizes which help to create more stable equations and smaller region sizes which help to better model the local effects. Each element has its own set of regions, which usually differs by season. Each element has its own set of regions, which usually differs by season. LAMP Equation Development - Station vs. Regionalized Equations (Cont.) -

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Primary equations use observations, MOS forecasts, and other variables as predictors.Primary equations use observations, MOS forecasts, and other variables as predictors. Secondary equations do not use observations as predictors.Secondary equations do not use observations as predictors. They use values interpolated from the LAMP analysis of available observations, as well as MOS forecasts and other variables.They use values interpolated from the LAMP analysis of available observations, as well as MOS forecasts and other variables. The analyzed value is used as a surrogate observation.The analyzed value is used as a surrogate observation. Secondary equations are used in instances where a station does not report an observation.Secondary equations are used in instances where a station does not report an observation. Primary equation forecasts are generally better than secondary equation forecasts because the primary equations contain the stations actual observation and not its proxy.Primary equation forecasts are generally better than secondary equation forecasts because the primary equations contain the stations actual observation and not its proxy. - Primary vs. Secondary Equations - LAMP Equation Development

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To help ensure better consistency across related forecast elements (e.g., temperature and dewpoint), it is beneficial to develop related predictands simultaneously.To help ensure better consistency across related forecast elements (e.g., temperature and dewpoint), it is beneficial to develop related predictands simultaneously. When weather elements are developed simultaneously, each elements equation shares the same set of variable predictors but differs in its coefficient values and the value of its equation constant.When weather elements are developed simultaneously, each elements equation shares the same set of variable predictors but differs in its coefficient values and the value of its equation constant. LAMP Equation Development - Simultaneous Development -

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Practical Example of Solving a LAMP Temperature Equation Y = LAMP temperature forecast Equation Constant b = -6.99456 Predictor x 1 = observed temperature at cycle issuance time (value 66.0) Predictor x 2 = observed dewpoint at cycle issuance time (value 58.0) Predictor x 3 = GFS MOS temperature (value 64.4) Predictor x 4 = GFS MOS dewpoint (value 53.0) Coefficient values: a 1 = 0.15147, a 2 = -0.041273, a 3 = 0.84864, a 4 = 0.18787 Y = -6.99456 + (.15147 x 66.0) + (-.041273 x 58.0) + (.84864 x 64.4) + (.18787 x 53.0) Y = 65.2 F Y = b + a 1 x 1 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x 3 + a 4 x 4 Note that the equation contains at least one observation predictor indicating that it is a primary equation.

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Post-Processing LAMP Forecasts Reasons for post-processing forecasts include: Reconciling meteorological inconsistencies between weather elements (e.g., ensuring that the dewpoint temperature remains less than or equal to the forecast temperature at a specific projection)Reconciling meteorological inconsistencies between weather elements (e.g., ensuring that the dewpoint temperature remains less than or equal to the forecast temperature at a specific projection) Ensuring that the probabilistic forecasts behave properly (e.g., the probabilities range between zero and one inclusively, or that select probability forecasts for certain elements sum to a value of one, etc.)Ensuring that the probabilistic forecasts behave properly (e.g., the probabilities range between zero and one inclusively, or that select probability forecasts for certain elements sum to a value of one, etc.) Generating threshold values for elements that are used in producing categorical forecasts for specific weather elements such as visibility and ceiling heightGenerating threshold values for elements that are used in producing categorical forecasts for specific weather elements such as visibility and ceiling height

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Generating LAMP Threshold Values for Categorical Forecasts Typically, threshold values are generated for each probability category except for the most common category.Typically, threshold values are generated for each probability category except for the most common category. For a specific weather element, regional threshold values are generated using the same regions that were used to generate the equations for that element.For a specific weather element, regional threshold values are generated using the same regions that were used to generate the equations for that element. All stations in a particular region possess the same threshold value but the values vary by projection.All stations in a particular region possess the same threshold value but the values vary by projection. A set of threshold values is developed from the primary forecasts, and another set is developed from the secondary forecasts.A set of threshold values is developed from the primary forecasts, and another set is developed from the secondary forecasts. Primary probability forecasts are compared to the primary threshold values when a station reports an observation.Primary probability forecasts are compared to the primary threshold values when a station reports an observation. Secondary probability forecasts are compared to the secondary threshold values when a station does not report an observation.Secondary probability forecasts are compared to the secondary threshold values when a station does not report an observation.

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Process of Generating LAMP Categorical Forecasts To illustrate how LAMP computes a categorical forecast, consider the 5 categories of sky conditions:To illustrate how LAMP computes a categorical forecast, consider the 5 categories of sky conditions: (1) Clear (1) Clear (2) Few (2) Few (3) Scattered (3) Scattered (4) Broken (4) Broken (5) Overcast (5) Overcast For this element, threshold values would be generated for categories (2)-(5).For this element, threshold values would be generated for categories (2)-(5). For a particular station and projection, the probability of the greatest threat event (in this case overcast) is compared to the threshold for overcast skies.For a particular station and projection, the probability of the greatest threat event (in this case overcast) is compared to the threshold for overcast skies. If the threshold equals or exceeds the probability of overcast skies, the LAMP categorical forecast is Overcast.If the threshold equals or exceeds the probability of overcast skies, the LAMP categorical forecast is Overcast. Otherwise, the algorithm continues and the same question is asked of the next greatest threat event, Broken.Otherwise, the algorithm continues and the same question is asked of the next greatest threat event, Broken. This process continues for the next two categories, Scattered and Few. If the probability forecast for each one of these two categories does not equal or exceed its respective threshold value, the LAMP categorical forecast is Clear.This process continues for the next two categories, Scattered and Few. If the probability forecast for each one of these two categories does not equal or exceed its respective threshold value, the LAMP categorical forecast is Clear.

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LAMP Categorical Forecast Selection Process Probability (%) Does the forecast probability of overcast equal or exceed the threshold for overcast? The probability of few exceeds the threshold value for few – LAMP categorical forecast is few Does the forecast probability of broken equal or exceed the threshold for broken? Category 1Category 4Category 3Category 2Category 5 Does the forecast probability of scattered equal or exceed the threshold for scattered? Does the forecast probability of few equal or exceed the threshold for few?

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Performance Scores for LAMP Non-Probabilistic Forecasts Typical verification scores used for checkout of LAMP forecasts:Typical verification scores used for checkout of LAMP forecasts: Continuous weather elements (e.g., temperature and dewpoint) are verified by:Continuous weather elements (e.g., temperature and dewpoint) are verified by: mean absolute error (MAE) – lower is bettermean absolute error (MAE) – lower is better Categorical forecasts (e.g., visibility category) are verified by:Categorical forecasts (e.g., visibility category) are verified by: Heidke skill score (HSS) – higher is betterHeidke skill score (HSS) – higher is better threat score (also called Critical Success Index) – higher is betterthreat score (also called Critical Success Index) – higher is better bias - values near one are goodbias - values near one are good

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Verification of LAMP 2-m Temperature Forecasts

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Verification of LAMP Categorical Ceiling Height Forecasts

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Verification of LAMP Categorical Visibility Forecasts

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Verification of LAMP IFR or Worse Forecasts

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Verification of LAMP Categorical Thunderstorm Forecasts * CMOS stands for calibrated MOS, wherein the GFS MOS is calibrated from a 3-h valid period to a 2-h valid period.

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Performance Scores for LAMP Probabilistic Forecasts Basic measure of accuracy is Brier score (lower is better).Basic measure of accuracy is Brier score (lower is better). Measure of skill is the improvement in Brier score over a benchmark standard, such as climatology.Measure of skill is the improvement in Brier score over a benchmark standard, such as climatology. The reliability of probability forecasts describes the degree to which the observed relative frequency of the weather event has a overforecasting or underforecasting bias.The reliability of probability forecasts describes the degree to which the observed relative frequency of the weather event has a overforecasting or underforecasting bias. When the average forecast probability within a bounded range:When the average forecast probability within a bounded range: exceeds the observed relative frequency overforecasting bias exceeds the observed relative frequency overforecasting bias equals the observed relative frequency perfect reliability equals the observed relative frequency perfect reliability is lower than the observed relative frequency underforecasting bias is lower than the observed relative frequency underforecasting bias

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LAMP vs. CMOS* Thunderstorm Brier Score Improvement on Climatology * CMOS stands for calibrated MOS, wherein the GFS MOS is calibrated from a 3-h valid period to a 2-h valid period.

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827 2642 4348 5189 4171 3625 3684 5574 14848 56727 145522 165669 Reliability diagram for LAMP 3-h ceiling height forecasts of < 1000 feet. Note that the LAMP probability forecasts lie along the diagonal. 100% Number of probability forecasts in each bin

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127 350 1268 2145 3175 3815 3233 7822 15090 48684 161115 167357 100% Reliability diagram for LAMP 3-h visibility forecasts of < 3 miles. Note that the LAMP probability forecasts lie along the diagonal. Number of probability forecasts in each bin

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974 1117 1805 2839 4501 6956 11427 19702 40770 150318 1515938 1418921 100% Reliability diagram for LAMP 3-h thunderstorm forecasts. Note that the LAMP probability forecasts lie along the diagonal except for the highest bins where the number of forecasts are relatively small compared to the total number of forecasts. Number of probability forecasts in each bin

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Overview of Available LAMP Forecast Products Sent out on SBN/NOAAPort and available on NWS FTP Server ASCII text bulletins BUFR data GRIB2 thunderstorm data AWIPS Displayable in D2D Guidance available for display and Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) preparation via the Aviation Forecast Preparation System (AvnFPS) LAMP Website Forecast products available: ASCII text bulletins Station plot forecast images Gridded thunderstorm forecast images Meteograms Products Page: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mdl/gfslamp/gfslamp.shtmlhttp://www.nws.noaa.gov/mdl/gfslamp/gfslamp.shtml

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Summary LAMP provides hourly updates of four-daily GFS MOS forecasts to 25 hours for the CONUS and OCONUS. LAMP forecasts are in probabilistic and non-probabilistic forms. LAMP weather elements include those important to aviation operations, such as surface wind, ceiling height, visibility, and thunderstorms. LAMP forecasts improve most on GFS MOS in the early forecast projections and on persistence at all projections. Please consult http://www.weather.gov/mdl/lamp/ for further information, inquires, and comprehensive performance scores.http://www.weather.gov/mdl/lamp/

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