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Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 1 of 45 GSM AND CDMA (WIRELESS & MOBILE COMMN.) ECE-6 TH SEM. BY:- ER. SUKHWINDERPAL SINGH SENIOR.

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Presentation on theme: "Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 1 of 45 GSM AND CDMA (WIRELESS & MOBILE COMMN.) ECE-6 TH SEM. BY:- ER. SUKHWINDERPAL SINGH SENIOR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 1 of 45 GSM AND CDMA (WIRELESS & MOBILE COMMN.) ECE-6 TH SEM. BY:- ER. SUKHWINDERPAL SINGH SENIOR LECTURER(ECE) GOVT. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE FOR GIRLS LUDHIANA

2 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 2 of 45 GSM GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS OPEN DIGITAL CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY OPEN DIGITAL CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY USED TO TRANSMIT MOBILE VOICE AND DATA USED TO TRANSMIT MOBILE VOICE AND DATA ORIGINALLY DRIVEN FROM Groupe Special Mobile, THE MOST POPULAR STANDARD FOR MOBILE PHONES IN WORLD ORIGINALLY DRIVEN FROM Groupe Special Mobile, THE MOST POPULAR STANDARD FOR MOBILE PHONES IN WORLD CONSIDERED AS 2 ND GENERATION (2G) SYSTEM CONSIDERED AS 2 ND GENERATION (2G) SYSTEM

3 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 3 of 45 FEATURES OF GSM INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR MOBILE SERVICE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR MOBILE SERVICE OFFERS NUMBER OF SERVICES LIKE VOICE, SMS, FAX, VOICE MAIL AND CALL FORWARDING & CALLER ID OFFERS NUMBER OF SERVICES LIKE VOICE, SMS, FAX, VOICE MAIL AND CALL FORWARDING & CALLER ID HIGH MOBILITY HIGH MOBILITY HIGHER CAPACITY HIGHER CAPACITY WORLDWIDE ROAMING WORLDWIDE ROAMING

4 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 4 of 45 FREQUENCY BANDS IN GSM DUAL BAND DUAL BAND TRI BAND TRI BAND QUAD BAND QUAD BAND

5 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 5 of 45 DUAL BAND OPERATES ON 900 MHz AND 1800 MHz OPERATES ON 900 MHz AND 1800 MHz MOBILE PHONES SUPPORTING DUAL BAND CAN BE USED IN WORLD WHERE 900 MHz AND 1800 MHz FREQUENCIES ARE USED MOBILE PHONES SUPPORTING DUAL BAND CAN BE USED IN WORLD WHERE 900 MHz AND 1800 MHz FREQUENCIES ARE USED FOUND IN ALL CONTINENTS USUALLY i.e. EUROPE,ASIA, AFRICA, AUSTRALIA AND SOUTH AFRICA FOUND IN ALL CONTINENTS USUALLY i.e. EUROPE,ASIA, AFRICA, AUSTRALIA AND SOUTH AFRICA

6 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 6 of 45 TRI BAND THREE FREQUENCIES ARE SUPPORTED IN TRI BAND THREE FREQUENCIES ARE SUPPORTED IN TRI BAND 900 MHz 900 MHz 1800 MHz 1800 MHz 1900 MHz 1900 MHz ALSO SUPPORTED WORLDWIDE ALSO SUPPORTED WORLDWIDE

7 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 7 of 45 QUAD BAND FOUR FREQUENCIES SUPPORTED IN QUAD BAND FOUR FREQUENCIES SUPPORTED IN QUAD BAND 850 MHz 850 MHz 900 MHz 900 MHz 1800 MHz 1800 MHz 1900 MHz 1900 MHz ALSO SUPPORTED WORLD WIDE ALSO SUPPORTED WORLD WIDE

8 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 8 of 45 GSM NETWORK AREAS CELL CELL LOCATION AREA LOCATION AREA MSC/VLR SERVICE AREA MSC/VLR SERVICE AREA PLM PLM

9 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 9 of 45 CELL BASIC SERVICE AREA COVERED BY ONE BTS BASIC SERVICE AREA COVERED BY ONE BTS EACH CELL HAS UNIQUE NUMBER KNOWN AS CELL GLOBAL IDENTITY(CGI) EACH CELL HAS UNIQUE NUMBER KNOWN AS CELL GLOBAL IDENTITY(CGI)

10 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 10 of 45 LOCATION AREA GROUP OF CELLS GROUP OF CELLS AREA THAT IS PAGED WHEN A SUBSCRIBER GETS INCOMING CALL AREA THAT IS PAGED WHEN A SUBSCRIBER GETS INCOMING CALL EACH LOCATION AREA IS PROVIDED A LOCATION AREA IDENTITY (LAI)AND SERVED BY ONE OR MORE BSCs EACH LOCATION AREA IS PROVIDED A LOCATION AREA IDENTITY (LAI)AND SERVED BY ONE OR MORE BSCs

11 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 11 of 45 PLM AREA COVERED BY ONE AREA COVERED BY ONE NETWORK OPERATOR A PLM CONTAINS ONE OR MORE MSCs A PLM CONTAINS ONE OR MORE MSCs

12 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 12 of 45 GSM ARCHITECTURE

13 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 13 of 45 GSM NETWORK STAGES BASE STATION BASE STATION NETWORK SWITCHING NETWORK SWITCHING PUBLIC NETWORK PUBLIC NETWORK

14 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 14 of 45 MOBILE SERVICES SWITCHING CENTRE PERFORMS THE SWITCHING OF CALLS PERFORMS THE SWITCHING OF CALLS BETWEEN THE MOBILE AND NETWORK BETWEEN THE MOBILE AND NETWORK USERS USERS MANAGEMENT OF MOBILE SERVICES SUCH AS AUTHENTICATION MANAGEMENT OF MOBILE SERVICES SUCH AS AUTHENTICATION

15 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 15 of 45 MOBILE STATION THE MOBILE STATION (MS) CONSISTS OF THE PHYSICAL EQUIPMENT: THE MOBILE STATION (MS) CONSISTS OF THE PHYSICAL EQUIPMENT: THE RADIO TRANSCEIVER THE RADIO TRANSCEIVER DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM). SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM). THE SIM PROVIDES PERSONAL MOBILITY THE SIM PROVIDES PERSONAL MOBILITY

16 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 16 of 45 SIM BY INSERTING THE SIM CARD INTO ANOTHER GSM CELLULAR PHONE, THE USER IS ABLE TO RECEIVE CALLS AT THAT PHONE. BY INSERTING THE SIM CARD INTO ANOTHER GSM CELLULAR PHONE, THE USER IS ABLE TO RECEIVE CALLS AT THAT PHONE.

17 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 17 of 45 SIM THE SIM CARD CONTAINS THE INTERNATIONAL MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY (IMSI), THE SIM CARD CONTAINS THE INTERNATIONAL MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY (IMSI), THE SIM CARD MAY BE PROTECTED AGAINST UNAUTHORIZED USE BY A PASSWORD OR PERSONAL IDENTITY NUMBER THE SIM CARD MAY BE PROTECTED AGAINST UNAUTHORIZED USE BY A PASSWORD OR PERSONAL IDENTITY NUMBER

18 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 18 of 45 BASE STATION SUBSYTEM BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM IS BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM IS COMPOSED OF TWO PARTS: THE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION (BTS) THE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION (BTS) THE BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC). THE BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC).

19 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 19 of 45 BTS THE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION STATION HANDLES THE RADIO LINK PROTOCOLS WITH THE MOBILE STATION

20 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 20 of 45 BASE STATION CONTROLLER THE BSC HANDLES :- THE BSC HANDLES :- RADIO CHANNEL SETUP RADIO CHANNEL SETUP FREQUENCY HOPPING FREQUENCY HOPPING HANDOVERS HANDOVERS

21 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 21 of 45 BSC THE BSC IS THE THE BSC IS THECONNECTION BETWEEN THE MOBILE AND THE MOBILE SERVICE SWITCHINGCENTER(MSC).

22 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 22 of 45

23 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 23 of 45 MOBILE SWITCHING CENTRE (MSC) THE CENTRAL COMPONENT OF THE NETWORK SUBSYSTEM. THE CENTRAL COMPONENT OF THE NETWORK SUBSYSTEM. IT ACTS LIKE A NORMAL SWITCHING NODE OF THE PSTN OR ISDN IT ACTS LIKE A NORMAL SWITCHING NODE OF THE PSTN OR ISDN

24 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 24 of 45 ROLE OF MSC REGISTRATION REGISTRATION AUTHENTICATION AUTHENTICATION LOCATION UPDATING LOCATION UPDATING HANDOVERS HANDOVERS CALL ROUTING TO A ROAMING SUBSCRIBER CALL ROUTING TO A ROAMING SUBSCRIBER

25 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 25 of 45 HOME LOCATION REGISTER HLR THE HLR CONTAINS ALL THE ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION OF EACH ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION OF EACH SUBSCRIBER REGISTERED IN THE SUBSCRIBER REGISTERED IN THE CORRESPONDING GSM NETWORK AND CURRENT LOCATION OF THE MOBILE

26 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 26 of 45 VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER - VLR VLR CONTAINS SELECTED ADMINISTRATIVEINFORMATION FROM THE HLR, TO CALL CONTROL FOR EACH MOBILE LOCATED IN THE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA CONTROLLED BY THE VLR. BY THE VLR.

27 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 27 of 45 EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER (EIR) FOR AUTHENTICATION AND SECURITY PURPOSES. (EIR) CONTAINS A LIST OF ALL VALID MOBILE EQUIPMENT ON THE NETWORK EACH MOBILE STATION IS IDENTIFIED BY ITS INTERNATIONAL MOBILE EQUIPMENT IDENTITY (IMEI).

28 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 28 of 45 IMEI AN IMEI IS MARKED AS INVALID IF IT HAS BEEN REPORTED STOLEN OR IS NOT TYPE APPROVED. AN IMEI IS MARKED AS INVALID IF IT HAS BEEN REPORTED STOLEN OR IS NOT TYPE APPROVED. THE AUTHENTICATION CENTER IS A PROTECTED DATABASE THAT STORES A COPY OF THE SECRET KEY STORED IN EACH SUBSCRIBER'S SIM CARD, WHICH IS USED FOR AUTHENTICATION THE AUTHENTICATION CENTER IS A PROTECTED DATABASE THAT STORES A COPY OF THE SECRET KEY STORED IN EACH SUBSCRIBER'S SIM CARD, WHICH IS USED FOR AUTHENTICATION

29 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 29 of 45 CDMA CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS TO ALLOW MANY USERS TO SHARE SIMULTANEOUSLY A FINITE AMOUNT OF RADIO SPECTRUM FOR HIGH QUALITY OF COMMUNICATION WITHOUT DEGRADATION IN PERFORMANCE OF THE SYSTEM

30 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 30 of 45 CDMA THE NARROW BAND MESSAGE SIGNAL IS MULTIPLIED BY A VERY LARGE BANDWIDTH SIGNAL CALLED THE SPREADING SIGNAL THE NARROW BAND MESSAGE SIGNAL IS MULTIPLIED BY A VERY LARGE BANDWIDTH SIGNAL CALLED THE SPREADING SIGNAL ALL USERS USE THE SAME CARRIER FFREQUENCY AND MAY TRANSMIT SIMULTANEOUSLY ALL USERS USE THE SAME CARRIER FFREQUENCY AND MAY TRANSMIT SIMULTANEOUSLY

31 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 31 of 45 CDMA SPECTRUM

32 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 32 of 45 CDMA WITH TIME OR FREQUENCY DIVISION DUPLEX

33 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 33 of 45 GSM ADVANTAGES USED WORLDWIDE WITH OVER 500 MILLION SUBSCRIBERS USED WORLDWIDE WITH OVER 500 MILLION SUBSCRIBERS INTERNATIONAL ROAMING PERMITS TO USE ONE PHONE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD INTERNATIONAL ROAMING PERMITS TO USE ONE PHONE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD STARTED IN MID – 80s. THUS HAS BECOME MORE STABLE WITH ROBUST FEATURES STARTED IN MID – 80s. THUS HAS BECOME MORE STABLE WITH ROBUST FEATURES

34 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 34 of 45 CDMA ADVANTAGES INCREASED CELLULAR COMMUNICATION SECURITY INCREASED CELLULAR COMMUNICATION SECURITY SIMULTANEOUS CONVERSATIONS SIMULTANEOUS CONVERSATIONS INCREASED EFFICIENCY INCREASED EFFICIENCY SMALLER SIZED PHONES SMALLER SIZED PHONES LOW POWER REQUIREMENTS LOW POWER REQUIREMENTS EXTENDED REACH EXTENDED REACH

35 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 35 of 45 CDMA DISADVANTAGES PROPRIETARY NATURE, SO ALL FLAWS NOT KNOWN PROPRIETARY NATURE, SO ALL FLAWS NOT KNOWN RELATIVELY NEW TECHNOLOGY SO LESS MATURE THAN GSM RELATIVELY NEW TECHNOLOGY SO LESS MATURE THAN GSM CANNOT OFFER INTERNATIONAL ROAMING CANNOT OFFER INTERNATIONAL ROAMING VOICE QUALITY POOR THAN GSM VOICE QUALITY POOR THAN GSM

36 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 36 of 45 COMPARISON OF CDMA AND GSM THE GSM HAS UPPER HAND IN FOLLOWING FIELDS DATA TRANSFER SPEED DATA TRANSFER SPEED NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL ROAMING NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL ROAMING SIM SIM COST FACTOR COST FACTOR VOICE QUALITY VOICE QUALITY THE CDMA HAS UPPER HAND IN FOLLOWING FIELDS SECURED COMMUNICATION SECURED COMMUNICATION RADIATION LEVEL RADIATION LEVEL BANDWIDTH BANDWIDTH POWER CONSUMPTION POWER CONSUMPTION AREA COVERAGE AREA COVERAGE

37 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 37 of 45 CONCLUSION IN GENERAL, ONE CAN SAY THAT BOTH GSM AND CDMA ARE LATEST AND EQUALLY GOOD TECHNOLOGIES HAVING BOTH GOOD AND BAD QUALITIES

38 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 38 of 45 FUTURE ASPECTS FUTURE ASPECTS IT LOOKS THAT COMBINATION OF GSM AND CDMA WILL BECOME THE LONG SOUGHT EVENT FOR A GLOBAL WIRELESS STANDARD FOR UNIVERSALIZATION OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES TO GET COMPLETE COMPATIBILITY BENEFITS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

39 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 39 of 45 MOBILE TRACKING

40 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 40 of 45 MOBILE TRACKING MOBILE PHONE TRACKING REFERS TO THE ATTAINING OF THE CURRENT POSITION OF A MOBILE PHONE, STATIONARY OR MOVING. MOBILE POSITIONING, WHICH INCLUDES LOCATION BASED SERVICE THAT DISCLOSES THE ACTUAL COORDINATES OF A MOBILE PHONE BEARER MOBILE PHONE TRACKING REFERS TO THE ATTAINING OF THE CURRENT POSITION OF A MOBILE PHONE, STATIONARY OR MOVING. MOBILE POSITIONING, WHICH INCLUDES LOCATION BASED SERVICE THAT DISCLOSES THE ACTUAL COORDINATES OF A MOBILE PHONE BEARER

41 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 41 of 45 MOBILE TRACKING (contd.) A TECHNOLOGY USED BY TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANY TO APPROXIMATE WHERE MOBILE PHONE IS PRESENT IN THE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION A TECHNOLOGY USED BY TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANY TO APPROXIMATE WHERE MOBILE PHONE IS PRESENT IN THE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

42 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 42 of 45 MOBILE TRACKING (contd.) LOCALIZATION MAY OCCUR EITHER VIA MULTILATERATION OR GEOLOCATION OF RADIO SIGNALS BETWEEN (SEVERAL) RADIO TOWERS OF THE NETWORK AND THE PHONE, OR BY GPS. LOCALIZATION MAY OCCUR EITHER VIA MULTILATERATION OR GEOLOCATION OF RADIO SIGNALS BETWEEN (SEVERAL) RADIO TOWERS OF THE NETWORK AND THE PHONE, OR BY GPS.

43 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 43 of 45 MOBILE TRACKING (Contd.) STATION IMPLIES THE CELL PHONE IS NEARBY. THE TECHNOLOGY OF LOCATING IS BASED ON MEASURING POWER LEVELS AND ANTENNA PATTERNS AND USES THE CONCEPT THAT A MOBILE PHONE ALWAYS COMMUNICATES WIRELESSLY WITH ONE OF THE CLOSEST BASE STATIONS, SO KNOWLEDGE OF THE LOCATION OF THE BASE STATION IMPLIES THE CELL PHONE IS NEARBY.

44 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 44 of 45 MOBILE TRACKING (Contd.) ADVANCED SYSTEMS DETERMINE THE SECTOR IN WHICH THE MOBILE PHONE RESIDES AND ROUGHLY ESTIMATE ALSO THE DISTANCE TO THE BASE STATION. FURTHER APPROXIMATION IS DONE TO LOCATE THE EXACT POSITION OF THE MOBILE. ADVANCED SYSTEMS DETERMINE THE SECTOR IN WHICH THE MOBILE PHONE RESIDES AND ROUGHLY ESTIMATE ALSO THE DISTANCE TO THE BASE STATION. FURTHER APPROXIMATION IS DONE TO LOCATE THE EXACT POSITION OF THE MOBILE.

45 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 45 of 45 SUMMARY GSM ARCHITECTURE GSM ARCHITECTURE CDMA ARCHITECTURE CDMA ARCHITECTURE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BOTH GSM AND CDMA ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BOTH GSM AND CDMA COMPARISON OF GSM AND CDMA COMPARISON OF GSM AND CDMA FUTURE ASPECTS FUTURE ASPECTS MOBILE TRACKING MOBILE TRACKING

46 Punjab EDUSAT Society (PES) 46 of 45 THANK YOU


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