Presentation on theme: "Chapter 39 The Stalemated 70s 1968-1980. Sources of Stagnation Increase in workforce with teenagers and women. Less likely to take full time jobs. Declining."— Presentation transcript:
Sources of Stagnation Increase in workforce with teenagers and women. Less likely to take full time jobs. Declining investment in new machinery. Government imposed safety and health standards. Shift from production to service; productivity gains harder to measure.
Impact on economy Tax dollars going to war rather than education. Deflected scientific skill and manufacturing. Policies of the 60s funding the War and Great Society without increasing taxes. War and Welfare put dollars in peoples hands without adding to supply of goods. Too many dollars chasing too few goods.
Nixon Vietnamizes the War Vietnamization withdraw 540,000 troops out of S. Vietnam over an extended period of time. S. Vietnamese with American money would fight. Nixon Doctrine Honor defense commitments but in future others would have to fight their own wars. Doves still not happy. Massive protest in Oct. 1969 holding a moratorium.
Impact on Americans Jan. 1970 longest conflict in U.S. history Draft exempted college students and men with critical civilian skills. African Americans made up a high share of the casualties. Morale among soldiers dropped to ultimate lows. Domestic disgust over revelations of the massacre of women and children at My Lai.
Nixon Changes the War Nixon orders bombing of Cambodia without consulting Congress. Attempt to stop supplies along the Ho Chi Minh trail. Response Outrage, Anger; Kent State University, National Guard fired into a crowd killing 4. Jackson State 2 killed. Nixon withdrew troops from Cambodia after 2 months. Deeper bitterness between hawks & doves. 26 th Amendment passed in 1971 (Voting age 18) Pentagon Papers released in 1971 by the New York Times
Détente with China and Soviets Road out of Vietnam through China and the Soviets. 2 sides show hostilities based on philosophy of Marxism and borders. Chance to play one off the other. Nixon accepts invitation to China in 1972 arrives. Shanghai Communique-normalize relations between the 2. Travels to Moscow in May. Soviets ready to deal, 3 years of food trade worth 750 million.
Détente Agree to ABM treaty - Limits nation to 2 clusters of defensive missiles. SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- aim at freezing number of long range nuclear missiles. Still development of MIRVs (Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles) by both sides. Nixon opposed election of Chilean communist Salvador Allende to presidency. Embargo and CIA used to undermine his regime. Allende died during an army attack, and Augusto Pinochet replaces him.
Nixons Court Appointments Nixon had 4 conservative appointments out of the 9. Yet Justices are free to think as they like once on the bench. Burger court proved reluctant to dismantle the liberal rulings.
Supreme Court 1960s- Protection of the individual over the masses. Nixon looked to change courts philosophy. –Several vacancies looked for people with strict interpretation of the Constitution. –Stop meddling in social and political questions. Roe v. Wade –Supreme Court says the right to privacy created in Griswold means that women have the right to an abortion because medical decisions are private choices made between a woman and her doctor.
Domestic Programs Expansion of the welfare programs. Approved increased appropriations of the Food Stamps, Medicaid, and AFDC. Automatic cost of living increase of Social Security when prices rose more than 3% in a year. Philadelphia Plan- Require construction unions to establish goals and timetables for the hiring of African Americans. Soon extended to all federal contracts. Alters the meaning of affirmative action. Conferred privileges to certain groups.
Domestic Programs Created the EPA (Rachel Carson and Silent Spring example of muckraking.) Mounting concern of the environment for the past 2 decades. Clean Air Act of 1970 and Endangered Species Act of 1973. Creation of OSHA and CPSC to improve working conditions and consumer product safety. Ensuing decades of reducing automobile emissions and cleaning up waterways. Congress refuses to pay for huge irrigation projects. Imposed 90 day wage and price freeze. Worried about rising inflation. Took U.S. off the gold standard.
Election of 1972 Southern Strategy-appoint conservative judges, slow the push for civil rights, and opposing school busing to achieve racial balance. Mattered little because foreign policy dominated the campaign. Last election Nixon promised to end the war and win the peace. Spring of 72 fighting escalated when N. Vietnamese overran the DMZ. Nixon launched bombing attacks on strategic sites.
Election of 1972 McGovern (SD) Democrat. Promise to pull remaining troops within 90 days. Earn backing of anti war groups. Appeal to minorities, feminists, leftists, and youth alienated traditional working class of his party. VP Eagelton removed from ticket for having undergone psychiatric care. Kissinger announced 12 days before election that peace is at hand. Agreement in days.
Aftermath of Election Nixon landslide victory. Why? (Young people dont vote is one big reason) When fighting in Vietnam escalated again, Nixon continued heavy bombing hoping to force them to the table. Force a cease fire to save face as peace with honor. U.S to withdraw remaining 27,000 troops and N. Vietnamese allowed to keep their 145,000 in S. Vietnam.
Question of Cambodia Nixon continued bombing of Cambodia comes under fire. Secretly done. Sworn Cambodia neutrality was being respected. Questions about the governments honesty. Nixon continued large scale bombing after the cease fire in order to help the Cambodian government. Vetoed Congressional efforts to stop him. Leads to Pol Pots rise to power and the killing fields of Cambodia (~2 million killed)
War Powers Act Congressional opposition led to the War Powers Act. Passed over veto. Report to Congress within 48 hours after committing troops or enlarging combat units. Have to end within 60 days or extend it for 30 more with Congressional approval.
Middle East eruptions October 1973, Syria and Egypt attack Israel in an attempt to gain back lost territory from Six-Day War. Look to restrain Soviets from aiding attackers. (Kissinger Sec. of State) 2 Billion in war materials given to Israel to push back the attack. Penalty: Oil embargo on U.S. for supporting Israel. Lower thermostats and speedometers, increased lines at gas stations Energy Crisis Alaska pipeline, 55 speed limit.
Energy crisis Heavier use of coal and nuclear power. End era of cheap abundant oil. Middle East would be of strategic interest. OPEC quadrupled price for crude oil after the embargo. Adds to the inflation crisis.
Watergate June 17, 1972; 5 men were arrested at the Watergate apartment-office complex. Bungled effort to plant bugs in the Democratic Party headquarters. Group was working for Republican Committee for Reelection of the President (CREEP) One of many dirty tricks forging documents, IRS to harass citizens, burglarizing psychiatrists office, using FBI and CIA for coverups.
Watergate Vice President Agnew forced to resign for taking bribes. Congress invoked 25th Amendment and voted Gerald Ford in. Senate Committee begins to conduct hearings about the Watergate affair in 73-74. John Dean III; former White House lawyer, accused President and other officials of trying to cover up the Watergate affair. Discovery of a secret taping system in the oval office.
Watergate House Judiciary Committee demands tapes. Nixon agrees to give relevant tapes with parts missing. Claims executive privilege. Saturday Night Massacre- fires his own special prosecutor, attorney general, and deputy attorney general. Supreme Court unanimously rules executive privilege gave him no right to withhold evidence. (U.S. v. Nixon) Smoking gun; tapes reveal his involvement in a cover up. Nixon is forced to resign and Ford becomes President.
Gerald Ford Ford first President not elected to office. Pardons Nixon of any crimes he may have committed as President. Doubts of his possibility for being elected. Sought to enhance to détente with the Soviets at Helsinki, Finland. Recognize Polish border and other E. European countries. Exchange for more liberal exchange of people and information. Human rights
Small movements in Eastern Europe that were put down. Détente starts to look like a one way street. Moscow continues human rights violations (Jews).
Defeat in Vietnam Early 1975, N. Vietnam moves forward. Ford urged Congress for more weapons in vain. Remaining Americans quickly evacuated by Helicopter April 29, 1975. 140,000 S. Vietnamese also rescued for fear of backlash. Eventually 500,000 brought to the U.S. Loss of self esteem, confidence in military, and economic muscle.
Feminist Victories and Defeats Congress passes Title IX, prohibits sexual discrimination in any federal assisted educational program or activities. Push for an Amendment called the ERA Equal Rights Amendment. Ratified in 28 States, lost momentum, Phyllis Schlafly conservative who saw it as a negative. Fear of undermining American Family and require women to serve in combat.
The Seventies in Black and White Milliken v. Bradley 1974 established you could not require students to move across school district lines. Reinforce white flight Only schools forced to integrate were the inner city schools. Affirmative Action; accusations of reverse discrimination, Allan Bakke sues for medical school on grounds of Reverse discrimination. Native Americans used courts to assert their status as semisovereign people. United States v. Wheeler.
1976 Election Gerald Ford/Republicans. Jimmy Carter/Democrats. Carter wins by narrow margin. Along with majorities in both houses of Congress. Created new Dept. of Energy. Pardoned draft dodgers (Campaign promise) Campaign against Washington establishment. Critics say he isolated himself, rubbed Congress the wrong way.
Humanitarian Diplomacy Concern for Human Rights. Christian values. Camp David Agreement: 1978 between Egypt & Israel. Israel would withdraw from Sinai Penninsula and Egypt would respect Israel borders. Formal peace treaty within three months. Resumed full diplomatic relations with China in 1979. Treaties to turn over the Panama Canal by 2000.
Economic and Energy Woes Inflation rate rose to 13% by 1979. Cost of imported oil put us in the red at 40 billion in 1979. Cant consider economic isolation ever again with our dependency on oil. Adjust master foreign language and culture in order to prosper. Americans living on fixed incomes saw the value of the dollar shrink.
Iran Carter sees problem from dependence on oil. Proposals for energy conservation fell on deaf ears. Iran 1979 overthrow of the Shah. Violent revolution by Muslim fundamentalists resented Shahs attempts to westernize the country. U.S. the Great Satan because of helping the Shah.
Irans oil stopped flowing to the U.S. and OPEC hiked price of oil again. Americans grow discontent with administration. Carter isolated at Camp David seeks advice from countless groups. When returns he tells Americans they are too involved in material goods. Fired 4 cabinet secretaries and rallied around his Georgia group.
SALT II talks stalled in the Senate with concern over Soviets. Iran; Nov. 4 1979 militants storm the U.S. embassy and take people hostage. Demand America ships back the Shah. December Soviets invade Afghanistan; appears they are moving to control Middle East. Carter embargo on Soviets and boycott of Olympic games in Moscow.
Claim to use any means necessary to protect Persian Gulf against Soviet incursions. Iran hostage situation- economic sanctions. Waiting for a stable government to emerge. Attempted rescue fails. Underscores U.S. futility.