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ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT BIOINDICATORS: THE ECOMAN PROJECT A multi-biomarker approach to ecosystem management Malcolm B. Jones Rebecca Brown, Mark Browne,

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Presentation on theme: "ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT BIOINDICATORS: THE ECOMAN PROJECT A multi-biomarker approach to ecosystem management Malcolm B. Jones Rebecca Brown, Mark Browne,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT BIOINDICATORS: THE ECOMAN PROJECT A multi-biomarker approach to ecosystem management Malcolm B. Jones Rebecca Brown, Mark Browne, Awantha Dissanayake, Mike Depledge, Tamara Galloway & Dave Lowe School of Biological Sciences University of Plymouth & Plymouth Marine Laboratory Malcolm B. Jones Rebecca Brown, Mark Browne, Awantha Dissanayake, Mike Depledge, Tamara Galloway & Dave Lowe School of Biological Sciences University of Plymouth & Plymouth Marine Laboratory

2 CURRENT ISSUES Limited public funds Increasing range of pollutants Multiple mechanisms of toxicity Complex coastal ecosystems Diverse array of analytical and diagnostic tools

3 ECOMAN - PROJECT AIMS To apply a weight-of-evidence approach to their use in ecosystem management To apply a weight-of-evidence approach to their use in ecosystem management To develop more pragmatic environmental assessment techniques linking environmental degradation with its causes To develop more pragmatic environmental assessment techniques linking environmental degradation with its causes

4 BIOMARKER: A DEFINITION Functional measures of exposure to stressors expressed at the sub-organismal, physiological or behavioural level (McCarthy and Munkittrick, 1996) Surrogate measures of organism health and chemical impact Functional measures of exposure to stressors expressed at the sub-organismal, physiological or behavioural level (McCarthy and Munkittrick, 1996) Surrogate measures of organism health and chemical impact

5 Pollutant Effects on Individuals Population & Community Effects Physiological Response Biochemical Response Molecular Change Response Time Ecological Relevance

6 SAMPLING STRATEGY Defined by ecosystem hierarchy Considers trophic level of sentinel organisms

7 COMMON COASTAL ORGANISMS WITH DIFFERENT FEEDING TYPES COMMON COASTAL ORGANISMS WITH DIFFERENT FEEDING TYPES Halichondria panicea Asterina gibbosa Nereis diversicolor Nucella lapillus omnivorous scavenger filter feeder omnivore carnivore

8 AIM To conduct a rapid assessment of marine pollution in coastal sites of the UK using the ECOMAN approach

9 Chemical analysis PAHs metals biocides Background information Detailed impact assessment and remedial action Types of exposure hydrocarbons - PAH fluorescence metals - metallothionein genotoxins - micronucleus endocrine disruptors - imposex, intersex Biological effects: general health lysosomal stability cardiac output immunocompetence

10 HOW CAN THESE DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS BE USED TO REFLECT ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY?

11 SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SITES (Anova, Kruskal Wallis) SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SITES (Anova, Kruskal Wallis) Biomarker esterase activity metallothionein total protein PAH in urine Biomarker esterase activity metallothionein total protein PAH in urine C. edule filter feeder p = p = C. edule filter feeder p = p = L. littorina grazer p = L. littorina grazer p = C. maenas carnivore p = p = C. maenas carnivore p = p = molecular cellular physiological molecular cellular physiological heart rate intersex index heart rate intersex index micronuclei lysosomal stability phagocytosis micronuclei lysosomal stability phagocytosis p =

12 MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Univariate analysis describes associations and relationships between individual variables Multivariate analysis examines the complex inter-relationships between many variables simultaneously Univariate analysis describes associations and relationships between individual variables Multivariate analysis examines the complex inter-relationships between many variables simultaneously

13 MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS Allow sites to be distinguished chemically Allow sites to be distinguished biologically Define the most sensitive organisms/biomarkers Establish the relationship between biological and environmental variables Establish the relationship between biological and environmental variables

14 CONCLUSIONS In this pragmatic approach, ecological relevance guides the choice of species and biomarker Ecosystem decline is not linear Multivariate analysis can reveal complex inter-relationships between suites of biomarkers and environmental variables Multivariate analysis can reveal complex inter-relationships between suites of biomarkers and environmental variables

15 SUMMARY The ECOMAN approach provides a viable framework for the incorporation of biomarkers into environmental management strategies

16 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Becky Brown Awantha Dissanayake Mark Browne David Lowe Tamara Galloway Mike Depledge Becky Brown Awantha Dissanayake Mark Browne David Lowe Tamara Galloway Mike Depledge Ylva Olsen Utra Mankasingh Jo Hagger Funded by DEFRA & The Environment Agency Ylva Olsen Utra Mankasingh Jo Hagger Funded by DEFRA & The Environment Agency


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