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Water quality related research at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory Prof. Jim Readman.

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Presentation on theme: "Water quality related research at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory Prof. Jim Readman."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water quality related research at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory Prof. Jim Readman

2 Integration Sediment dynamics Bio-engineering Morphology Pollutant dispersal Modelling impact of climate change and toxicants Particles Binding Flocs Deposition Physical Processes Biological Processes Chemical Processes Estuarine and Coastal Function and Health An Integrated Programme Bioavailability Toxicology Impact of biota on hydro- and sediment dynamics

3 Functioning of Ecosystems Quantify key biological, physical & chemical processes, & their interactions, that control environmental health Study contaminant fluxes and the role of natural particulates in governing mobility & bioavailability Develop and apply simulation models of effects at molecular, cellular, organ, animal and community scales

4 Rapid Distress Signals (Diagnostic Biomarkers), Prognostic for Pathology Pathology, Immunodeficiency and Physiological Disturbance Population Decline, Loss of Biodiversity, Habitat Destruction Ecosystem Pollutant Chemicals & Radionuclides Molecular & Cellular TissueOrgans Individual Animal Long Term Short Term Signal : Noise, Responsiveness, Detectability Biological Complexity, Response Time & Ecological Significance Biological Effects & Ecological Relevance

5 “Biomarkers” of contaminant exposure & effect DNA adducts DNA damage DNA damage CYP’s CYP’s MDR/MXR MDR/MXR Anti-oxidant protection Anti-oxidant protection Oncoproteins e.g., ras Oncoproteins e.g., ras Connexin/Gap junctions Connexin/Gap junctions Metallothioneins Metallothioneins Stress proteins Stress proteins Lysosomal damage & dysfunction Lysosomal damage & dysfunction Augmented autophagy Augmented autophagy Cellular dysfunction & atrophy Cellular dysfunction & atrophy Histopathology and organ damage Histopathology and organ damage Pathophysiology Pathophysiology

6 Research into the distribution, transport, reactivity, fate and impact of pollutants. Chemicals studied have included: Pesticides/Agrochemicals Oestrogens & Anti-androgens Carcinogens Oils (fingerprinting) Nutrients Sewage Pollution Markers Biomarkers (fatty acids, pigments etc.) Antifouling Agents Industrial By-products Detergents Trace Metals etc...

7 Chemical analyses: PML is equipped with ultra-sensitive “state of the art” analytical facilities, which include: Gas Chromatography (GC) with a range of detectors (FID, ECD, NPD, FPD) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diode Array, Ultra Violet and Fluorescence detection GC- Mass Spectrometers (MS) HPLC-MS GC-MS/MS (EI & CI with -ve ion) HPLC-MS/MS (Electrospray and APCI) Autoanalysers

8 Solid phase micro-extraction MTBE Head space – SPME method developed Estuarine behaviour paper submitted (Marine Chemistry) PAH Method developed for environmental/pore waters (Environmental Geochemistry and Health ) Differentiates soluble/colloidal Implications for bioavailability measurements

9 Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution immunoassay chemical analyses combined with “biomarker” biological assays

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12 Effects of contaminants on phytoplankton antifouling “booster” biocides flow cytometry and pigments 14 C bicarbonate uptake co-ordination of EC ACE project (€1.1 million)

13 Readman et al. (In press) Marine Environmental Research. ng/L

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15 Sorption studies: kinetics and colloids sterols and PAH 14 C-labelled experiments remobilisation of contaminants Bowman, J.C., Zhou, J.L. and Readman, J.W. (2002). Sediment-water interactions of natural oestrogens under estuarine conditions. Marine Chemistry Bowman, J.C., Zhou, J.L. and Readman, J.W. (2002). Sorption and desorption of benzo(a)pyrene in aquatic systems. Journal of Environmental Monitoring Bowman, J.C., Readman, J.W. and Zhou, J.L. (2003). Seasonal variability in the concentrations of Irgarol 1051 in Brighton Marina, UK; including the impact of dredging Marine Pollution Bulletin

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18 Bulk organic composition: sediment cohesivity contributions from carbohydrates and proteins effects on contaminant mobility

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