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Theories of Motor Control Complex Systems Theory Definition and levels of analysis Task-Based Approaches Neurofacilitation Approaches Motor Hierarchy Reflex.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Motor Control Complex Systems Theory Definition and levels of analysis Task-Based Approaches Neurofacilitation Approaches Motor Hierarchy Reflex."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Motor Control Complex Systems Theory Definition and levels of analysis Task-Based Approaches Neurofacilitation Approaches Motor Hierarchy Reflex Theory Map of Essential Concepts Fall 2006 DM McKeough

2 Theories of Motor control Definition and levels of analysis Definition and levels of analysis Definition and levels of analysis Definition and levels of analysis Reflex theory Reflex theory Reflex theory Reflex theory Hierarchical theory Hierarchical theory Hierarchical theory Hierarchical theory Complex systems theory Complex systems theory Complex systems theory Complex systems theory Neurofacilitation Approaches Neurofacilitation Approaches Neurofacilitation Approaches Neurofacilitation Approaches Motor Re-learning, Task-Based Rehabilitation Motor Re-learning, Task-Based Rehabilitation Motor Re-learning, Task-Based Rehabilitation Motor Re-learning, Task-Based Rehabilitation Motor Hierarch Motor Hierarch Motor Hierarch Motor Hierarch Last Viewed Concept Map Exit

3 Description The discipline of Motor Control is the study of human movement and the systems that control it under normal and pathological conditions. The discipline of Motor Control is the study of human movement and the systems that control it under normal and pathological conditions. Levels of analysis (study) Levels of analysis (study) Environmental result of the movement (Outcome) Environmental result of the movement (Outcome) Movement pattern Movement pattern Neuromotor processes underlying movement Neuromotor processes underlying movement Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

4 Reflex Theory Reflex Theory (Charles Sherrington, early 1900s) Reflex Theory (Charles Sherrington, early 1900s) Complex behavior (movement) is controlled by a series of chained reflexes (e.g. Frog) Complex behavior (movement) is controlled by a series of chained reflexes (e.g. Frog) Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

5 Hierarchical Theory Hierarchical Theory (Hughlings Jackson 1930s) Hierarchical Theory (Hughlings Jackson 1930s) Movement is controlled by a system consisting of 3 levels with a rigid top down organization Movement is controlled by a system consisting of 3 levels with a rigid top down organization Higher centers control lower centers via inhibition Higher centers control lower centers via inhibition DisinhibitionDisinhibition Release phenomenonRelease phenomenon Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

6 Complex Systems Theory 1/3 Individual TaskEnvironment Movement Movement emerges spontaneously from the interaction of the individual, the task, and the performance environment Movement emerges spontaneously from the interaction of the individual, the task, and the performance environment Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

7 Factors within the Individual, Task, and Environment 2/3 Individual Task Environment Sensorimotor Psychosocial Cognitive Stage of Motor Learning Taxonomy of tasks Discrete/ continuous Attentional demands Physical Socioeconomic Cultural Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

8 Factors within the Individual, Task, and Environment 3/3 Cognition PerceptionAction Mobility StabilityManipulation Regulatory Nonregulatory I T E Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

9 Neurofacilitation Approaches 1/7 Developed during the s in parallel with increasing knowledge of anatomy and physiology of the nervous system Developed during the s in parallel with increasing knowledge of anatomy and physiology of the nervous system Bobath (NDT); Brunnstrom; Kabat, Knott & Voss (PNF); Ayers (Sensory Integration Therapy) developed the Neurofacilitation Approaches that replaced the muscle re-education approach used to treat the effects of Polio during the s Bobath (NDT); Brunnstrom; Kabat, Knott & Voss (PNF); Ayers (Sensory Integration Therapy) developed the Neurofacilitation Approaches that replaced the muscle re-education approach used to treat the effects of Polio during the s Neurofacilitation approaches were designed to treat the movement effects of stroke (UMN lesion) by attempting to affect the CNS directly through the manipulation of sensory input Neurofacilitation approaches were designed to treat the movement effects of stroke (UMN lesion) by attempting to affect the CNS directly through the manipulation of sensory input Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

10 Neurofacilitation Approaches 2/7 Assumptions Assumptions Normal movement Normal movement Results from a chain of reflexes organized hierarchically within the CNS (Control of movement is top down – cortex controls brainstem and spinal cord) Results from a chain of reflexes organized hierarchically within the CNS (Control of movement is top down – cortex controls brainstem and spinal cord) Normal development Normal development Characterized by the emergence of behavior organized at sequentially higher levels of the nervous system Characterized by the emergence of behavior organized at sequentially higher levels of the nervous system Driven by sensory input Driven by sensory input Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

11 Neurofacilitation Approaches 3/7 Assumptions Assumptions Abnormal movement Abnormal movement Caused by disruption of normal reflex mechanisms Caused by disruption of normal reflex mechanisms Cortical lesions cause the release of abnormal reflexes organized at lower levels of the central nervous system Cortical lesions cause the release of abnormal reflexes organized at lower levels of the central nervous system Release of abnormal reflexes constrains the patients ability to move normally Release of abnormal reflexes constrains the patients ability to move normally Abnormal movement is the direct result of lesion not secondary or compensatory actions** Abnormal movement is the direct result of lesion not secondary or compensatory actions** Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

12 Neurofacilitation Approaches 4/7 Assumptions Assumptions Abnormal movement Abnormal movement In both children and adults, movement is dominated by primitive reflexes In both children and adults, movement is dominated by primitive reflexes In children, cortical lesions interrupt normal corticalization thus motor control is dominated by primitive reflexes organized at lower levels of the CNS (primitive reflexes are never constrained) In children, cortical lesions interrupt normal corticalization thus motor control is dominated by primitive reflexes organized at lower levels of the CNS (primitive reflexes are never constrained) In adults, with acquired motor cortical lesions, damage to the higher levels of the CNS release lower levels and movement is dominated by primitive reflexes (primitive reflexes are constrained then released) In adults, with acquired motor cortical lesions, damage to the higher levels of the CNS release lower levels and movement is dominated by primitive reflexes (primitive reflexes are constrained then released) Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

13 Neurofacilitation Approaches 5/7 Assumptions Assumptions Recovery of function Recovery of function Requires that higher centers once again control lower centers Requires that higher centers once again control lower centers Recapitulates normal development, therefore, intervention should proceed along a developmental sequence Recapitulates normal development, therefore, intervention should proceed along a developmental sequence Functional skills will automatically return once abnormal movement is inhibited** Functional skills will automatically return once abnormal movement is inhibited** Repetition of normal movement patterns will automatically transfer to functional tasks** Repetition of normal movement patterns will automatically transfer to functional tasks** Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

14 Neurofacilitation Approaches 6/7 Clinical Implications Clinical Implications Examination should identify abnormal reflexes controlling movement Examination should identify abnormal reflexes controlling movement Intervention should modify abnormal reflexes Intervention should modify abnormal reflexes Intervention modifies the CNS through sensory input Intervention modifies the CNS through sensory input Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

15 Neurofacilitation Approaches 7/7 Current changes to Neurofacilitation Approaches Current changes to Neurofacilitation Approaches Increased emphasis on directly training functional tasks as opposed to normal movement Increased emphasis on directly training functional tasks as opposed to normal movement Decreased emphasis on inhibiting abnormal reflexes Decreased emphasis on inhibiting abnormal reflexes Increased consideration of motor learning principles (stages of motor learning, feedback, practice schedules, etc…) Increased consideration of motor learning principles (stages of motor learning, feedback, practice schedules, etc…) Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

16 Motor Re-learning Task-Based Rehabilitation 1/2 Assumptions Assumptions Normal movement Normal movement Performer + Task + Environment Performer + Task + Environment Abnormal movement results from impairment in one or more of the systems controlling movement Abnormal movement results from impairment in one or more of the systems controlling movement Abnormal movement pattern is the performers best solution to the task given the systems remaining after damage not just the result of the lesion itself** Abnormal movement pattern is the performers best solution to the task given the systems remaining after damage not just the result of the lesion itself** Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

17 Motor Re-learning Task-Based Rehabilitation 2/2 Assumptions Assumptions Recovery of function Recovery of function Recovery is produced by plastic reorganization of undamaged control centers (neural plasticity) Recovery is produced by plastic reorganization of undamaged control centers (neural plasticity) Clinical Implications Clinical Implications Recovery is best produced by practice of purposeful, goal- oriented tasks that are meaningful to pts goals (task specificity) Recovery is best produced by practice of purposeful, goal- oriented tasks that are meaningful to pts goals (task specificity) Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

18 Motor Hierarchy MC system consists of 3 levels MC system consists of 3 levels Highest level: association cortex, sensory, and motor areas Highest level: association cortex, sensory, and motor areas Concern: select movement goal and strategy Concern: select movement goal and strategy Middle level: BG, Cb, and brainstem motor centers Middle level: BG, Cb, and brainstem motor centers Concern: specifying spatial, temporal, and force parameters of the motor plan Concern: specifying spatial, temporal, and force parameters of the motor plan Lowest level: LMNs, motor plant, FB about sensory consequences of the movement Lowest level: LMNs, motor plant, FB about sensory consequences of the movement Concern: producing the movement pattern and supplying sensory FB Concern: producing the movement pattern and supplying sensory FB S1 Click to Animate Last ViewedConcept Map Theories Exit

19 The End © DM McKeough 2009 Last ViewedConcept Map


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