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Motor Learning Schmidts Theory Motor Learning Motor Learning Occurs In Stages In Stages Define Learning and Motor Learning Feedback Transfer of Transfer.

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Presentation on theme: "Motor Learning Schmidts Theory Motor Learning Motor Learning Occurs In Stages In Stages Define Learning and Motor Learning Feedback Transfer of Transfer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motor Learning Schmidts Theory Motor Learning Motor Learning Occurs In Stages In Stages Define Learning and Motor Learning Feedback Transfer of Transfer of Learning Practice Conditions Procedural Learning Declarative and Declarative and Associative Learning Associative Learning Adams Theory Map of Essential Concepts DM McKeough © 2009 Motor Learning Variables Motor Learning Variables

2 Motor Learning Define learning and motor learning Define learning and motor learning Define learning and motor learning Define learning and motor learning Declarative and associative learning Declarative and associative learning Declarative and associative learning Declarative and associative learning Procedural learning Procedural learning Procedural learning Procedural learning Adams theory of motor learning Adams theory of motor learning Adams theory of motor learning Adams theory of motor learning Schmidts theory of motor learning Schmidts theory of motor learning Schmidts theory of motor learning Schmidts theory of motor learning Motor learning occurs in stages Motor learning occurs in stages Motor learning occurs in stages Motor learning occurs in stages Transfer of learning Transfer of learning Transfer of learning Transfer of learning Feedback Feedback Feedback Practice conditions Practice conditions Practice conditions Practice conditions Motor Learning variables Motor Learning variables Motor Learning variables Motor Learning variables Last ViewedConcept MapExit

3 Motor Learning 1/4 The aspect of Motor Control concerned with the acquisition of novel action or movement The aspect of Motor Control concerned with the acquisition of novel action or movement As applied to patients, Motor Learning is the re-acquisition of previously learned actions in the presence of altered morphology (sensory, motor, or cognitive impairment) As applied to patients, Motor Learning is the re-acquisition of previously learned actions in the presence of altered morphology (sensory, motor, or cognitive impairment) Last ViewedMotor LearningExitConcept Map

4 Motor Learning Questions for PT 2/4 How can I best structure practice (therapy) to insure learning? How can I best structure practice (therapy) to insure learning? How can I ensure that skills learned in one context (PT) will transfer to another (home)? How can I ensure that skills learned in one context (PT) will transfer to another (home)? Will simplifying a task result in more efficient learning? Will simplifying a task result in more efficient learning? Last ViewedMotor LearningExitConcept Map

5 What is Learning? 3/4 Definition: a relatively permanent change in behavior due to practice. Definition: a relatively permanent change in behavior due to practice. Motor learning: a set of processes associated with practice leading to a permanent change in the capacity for skilled action Motor learning: a set of processes associated with practice leading to a permanent change in the capacity for skilled action Learning is a process of acquiring the capacity for skilled action Learning is a process of acquiring the capacity for skilled action Learning results from practice Learning results from practice Learning cannot be observed directly but must be inferred from behavior (performance) Learning cannot be observed directly but must be inferred from behavior (performance) Learning produces a permanent change in behavior Learning produces a permanent change in behavior Last ViewedMotor LearningExitConcept Map

6 Performance Learning 4/4 Motor Performance is the temporary change in movement behavior seen during a practice session Motor Performance is the temporary change in movement behavior seen during a practice session May be due to performance conditions May be due to performance conditions Facilitation Facilitation Fatigue Fatigue Motor Learning is a permanent change in movement behavior measured after a retention period Motor Learning is a permanent change in movement behavior measured after a retention period Motor Learning is only due to practice Motor Learning is only due to practice Last ViewedMotor LearningExitConcept Map

7 Types of Learning Declarative Learning Declarative Learning Facts or Knowledge that can be expressed in declarative sentences Facts or Knowledge that can be expressed in declarative sentences 1 0 lock the brakes, 2 0 remove foot rest, 3 0 scoot forward, etc 1 0 lock the brakes, 2 0 remove foot rest, 3 0 scoot forward, etc Controlled by the cortex Controlled by the cortex Practice can transform declarative learning to procedural learning Practice can transform declarative learning to procedural learning Associative learning: discover the cause and effect relationship between variables Associative learning: discover the cause and effect relationship between variables During my sit-to-stand transfer, I fell backward because I began standing before I had my nose over my toes. During my sit-to-stand transfer, I fell backward because I began standing before I had my nose over my toes. Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

8 Types of Learning 1/2 Procedural Learning Procedural Learning Occurs without attention or conscious thought Occurs without attention or conscious thought Walking, swimming, riding a bike Walking, swimming, riding a bike Develops slowly through very high repetition Develops slowly through very high repetition Expressed through improved performance on a task Expressed through improved performance on a task Controlled by the cerebellum Controlled by the cerebellum Therefore performance is still possible in the absence of cortex (brain injury, dementia) Therefore performance is still possible in the absence of cortex (brain injury, dementia) Last ViewedMotor LearningExit

9 Types of Learning 2/2 Procedural Learning Procedural Learning Involves learning the rules for moving or movement schema Involves learning the rules for moving or movement schema Some of the rules for performing a transfer include: Some of the rules for performing a transfer include: Anterior displacement of line of gravity into a new base Anterior displacement of line of gravity into a new base Produce extensor force > gravity (hip and knee components should proceed and end simultaneously) Produce extensor force > gravity (hip and knee components should proceed and end simultaneously) Learning the rules of performance enables successful performance of action in variable performance environments (transfer of the strategy) Learning the rules of performance enables successful performance of action in variable performance environments (transfer of the strategy) Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

10 Theories of Motor Learning 1/2 Adams Closed-loop Theory (1971) Adams Closed-loop Theory (1971) Sensory FB is used for the ongoing production of skilled movement Sensory FB is used for the ongoing production of skilled movement Movement errors are detected by comparing movement produced FB with a memory of the intended movement Movement errors are detected by comparing movement produced FB with a memory of the intended movement Memory trace used in the selection and initiation of a movement Memory trace used in the selection and initiation of a movement Perceptual trace, built-up over practice, becomes the reference of correctness Perceptual trace, built-up over practice, becomes the reference of correctness Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

11 Theories of Motor Learning 2/2 Adams Closed-loop Theory Adams Closed-loop Theory Clinical Implications Clinical Implications Accuracy of a movement is proportional to the strength of the perceptual trace Accuracy of a movement is proportional to the strength of the perceptual trace Patient must practice the movement repeatedly to develop and strengthen the perceptual trace Patient must practice the movement repeatedly to develop and strengthen the perceptual trace Limitations Limitations Accurate movement can occur in the absence of FB Accurate movement can occur in the absence of FB Would require a separate perceptual trace for every possible movement Would require a separate perceptual trace for every possible movement Last ViewedMotor LearningExitConcept Map

12 Theories of Motor Learning 1/4 Schmidt Schema Theory Schmidt Schema Theory Schema is an abstract representation stored in memory following multiple presentations of a class of objects (tasks) Schema is an abstract representation stored in memory following multiple presentations of a class of objects (tasks) Emphasizes open-loop control processes and generalized motor program concept Emphasizes open-loop control processes and generalized motor program concept Motor programs do not contain the specifics of a movement but rather contain general rules for a specific class of movements Motor programs do not contain the specifics of a movement but rather contain general rules for a specific class of movements Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

13 Theories of Motor Learning 2/4 Schmidt Schema Theory Schmidt Schema Theory Recall schema used to select a specific response (Adams memory trace ) Recall schema used to select a specific response (Adams memory trace ) Recognition schema used to evaluate response correctness (Adams perceptual trace) Recognition schema used to evaluate response correctness (Adams perceptual trace) Movement is regulated by a negative FB system Movement is regulated by a negative FB system What is fed back to the controller is an error signal (e.g. thermostat, toilet, muscle spindle) What is fed back to the controller is an error signal (e.g. thermostat, toilet, muscle spindle) Last ViewedMotor LearningExit

14 Theories of Motor Learning 3/4 Schmidt Schema Theory Schmidt Schema Theory Decision process involves formulating an error signal and feeding it back to the recognition schema which becomes more refined with practice Decision process involves formulating an error signal and feeding it back to the recognition schema which becomes more refined with practice With increased variability of practice, the recognition schema becomes more generalized and stronger With increased variability of practice, the recognition schema becomes more generalized and stronger Last ViewedMotor LearningExit

15 Theories of Motor Learning 4/4 Schmidt Schema Theory Schmidt Schema Theory Clinical Implications Clinical Implications Optimal learning occurs with variable practice conditions Optimal learning occurs with variable practice conditions Limitations Limitations Too vague to test Too vague to test Inconsistent experimental support Inconsistent experimental support Strong support with children Strong support with children Inconsistent findings with adults Inconsistent findings with adults Cannot account for one-trial learning (In the absence of a schema) Cannot account for one-trial learning (In the absence of a schema) Last ViewedMotor LearningExitConcept Map

16 Motor Learning Occurs in Stages Cognitive stage Cognitive stage Cognitive stage Cognitive stage Associative stage Associative stage Associative stage Associative stage Autonomous stage Autonomous stage Autonomous stage Autonomous stage Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

17 Motor Learning Occurs in Stages Three-Stage Model (Fitts and Poser 1967) Three-Stage Model (Fitts and Poser 1967) Cognitive: Learning what to do Cognitive: Learning what to do Associative: Refining the movement pattern Associative: Refining the movement pattern Autonomous: Developing skill Autonomous: Developing skill Two-Stage Model (Gentile 1987) Two-Stage Model (Gentile 1987) Early stage: Getting the idea of the movement (Equivalent to Fitts & Posner Stage 1) Early stage: Getting the idea of the movement (Equivalent to Fitts & Posner Stage 1) Late stage: Fixation/ diversification (Equivalent to Fitts & Posner Stage 2 & 3) Late stage: Fixation/ diversification (Equivalent to Fitts & Posner Stage 2 & 3) Last ViewedStagesExit

18 Motor Learning Occurs in Stages What is the take home message here? What is the take home message here? Motor learning probably occurs in stages Motor learning probably occurs in stages Activity of the learner is different in the different stages Activity of the learner is different in the different stages Activities of the instructor should be different in the different stages Activities of the instructor should be different in the different stages Last ViewedStagesExit

19 Cognitive Stage 1/4 Performers activity Performers activity Learner is getting the idea of the task, developing a cognitive map Learner is getting the idea of the task, developing a cognitive map Assesses own abilities Assesses own abilities Develops strategies Develops strategies Learns regulatory constraints Learns regulatory constraints Selectively attends to regulatory constraints Selectively attends to regulatory constraints Formulates a motor program Formulates a motor program Changes performance to successively approximate task Changes performance to successively approximate task Visual FB (KR) most important Visual FB (KR) most important Performers learning focus Performers learning focus Learning what to do Learning what to do Last ViewedStagesExit

20 Cognitive Stage 2/4 Intervention Strategies Intervention Strategies Instruction Instruction Highlight purpose of task in functionally relevant context Highlight purpose of task in functionally relevant context Demonstrate task accurately, at ideal speed (best model is another learner at same stage) Demonstrate task accurately, at ideal speed (best model is another learner at same stage) Draw attention to regulatory constraints Draw attention to regulatory constraints Have performer verbalize strategy and regulatory constraints Have performer verbalize strategy and regulatory constraints May require manual guidance or assistance May require manual guidance or assistance Break complex tasks into component parts (progressive-part technique) Break complex tasks into component parts (progressive-part technique) Last ViewedStagesExit

21 Cognitive Stage 3/4 Intervention Strategies Intervention Strategies Transfer Transfer Transfer information in from other known motor skills Transfer information in from other known motor skills Highlight similarities to other learned tasks Highlight similarities to other learned tasks Practice schedule/ conditions Practice schedule/ conditions Distributed practice to avoid fatigue (safety) Distributed practice to avoid fatigue (safety) Limit distracters or interference Limit distracters or interference Stress slow, controlled movement Stress slow, controlled movement Randomize practice among 2 or more variables Randomize practice among 2 or more variables Last ViewedStagesExit

22 Cognitive Stage 4/4 Feedback Feedback Positively reinforce correct performance Positively reinforce correct performance Provide FB along appropriate sensory channels Provide FB along appropriate sensory channels Augment visual FB (mirror, video) Augment visual FB (mirror, video) Balance FB for correct performance with errors since errors are variable Balance FB for correct performance with errors since errors are variable AVOID VERBAL BOMBARDMENT AVOID VERBAL BOMBARDMENT Practice environment Practice environment Closed Closed Last ViewedStagesExit

23 Associative Stage 1/4 Performer Activities Performer Activities Performer practices movement Performer practices movement Spatial and temporal aspects of movement are becoming better organized Spatial and temporal aspects of movement are becoming better organized Extraneous movement errors decrease Extraneous movement errors decrease Dependence on visual FB decreases, on proprioceptive FB increases (KR KP) Dependence on visual FB decreases, on proprioceptive FB increases (KR KP) Cognitive monitoring decreases Cognitive monitoring decreases Performers learning focus Performers learning focus Refining the movement pattern Refining the movement pattern (The goal of this phase is to improve the organization of the motor program) (The goal of this phase is to improve the organization of the motor program) Last ViewedStagesExit

24 Associative Stage 2/4 During stage 2, closed skills become more consistent and open skills become more diversified During stage 2, closed skills become more consistent and open skills become more diversified Last ViewedStagesExit

25 Associative Stage 3/4 Intervention Strategies Intervention Strategies Instruction Instruction Help performer develop own decision-making abilities Help performer develop own decision-making abilities Facilitation or guidance may be counterproductive Facilitation or guidance may be counterproductive Practice schedule/ conditions Practice schedule/ conditions Random practice of 2 or more tasks in larger blocks of trials Random practice of 2 or more tasks in larger blocks of trials Repeat practice conditions at least twice to permit performer to correct errors Repeat practice conditions at least twice to permit performer to correct errors Introduce elements of real world performance scenarios including distracters and interference as appropriate Introduce elements of real world performance scenarios including distracters and interference as appropriate Last ViewedStagesExit

26 Associative Stage 4/4 Intervention Strategies Intervention Strategies Feedback Feedback Identify movement errors, intervene when errors become consistent Identify movement errors, intervene when errors become consistent Augment KP (reference of correctness) Augment KP (reference of correctness) Increase detail or specificity, decrease total amount Increase detail or specificity, decrease total amount Allow brief period of introspection between performance and FB Allow brief period of introspection between performance and FB Practice environment Practice environment Closed environment with ITV or open environment Closed environment with ITV or open environment Last ViewedStagesExit

27 Autonomous Stage 1/3 Performer Activities Performer Activities Most patients are discharged prior to this stage Most patients are discharged prior to this stage Practice task in different performance environments Practice task in different performance environments Spatial and temporal components become highly organized Spatial and temporal components become highly organized Movement becomes increasingly autonomous requiring little cognitive control Movement becomes increasingly autonomous requiring little cognitive control Performers learning focus Performers learning focus Developing skill (Consistent goal attainment) Developing skill (Consistent goal attainment) Last ViewedStagesExit

28 Autonomous Stage 2/3 Intervention Strategies Intervention Strategies Practice environment Practice environment Use performance conditions with all appropriate distracters and interference (open, actual speed and accuracy) Use performance conditions with all appropriate distracters and interference (open, actual speed and accuracy) Repeat practice conditions at least twice to permit performer to correct errors Repeat practice conditions at least twice to permit performer to correct errors Feedback Feedback Confirm/ augment the performers analysis of the performance Confirm/ augment the performers analysis of the performance Increase detail or specificity Increase detail or specificity Decrease total amount Decrease total amount Last ViewedStagesExit

29 Autonomous Stage 3/3 Intervention Strategies Intervention Strategies Practice schedule/ conditions Practice schedule/ conditions Task sequence remains random with even larger blocks of trials Task sequence remains random with even larger blocks of trials Last ViewedStagesExit

30 Transfer of Learning The role of transfer in rehabilitation. The role of transfer in rehabilitation. Transfer of learning (training): it is not known what is being transferred (task specificity). Transfer of learning (training): it is not known what is being transferred (task specificity). If it is the process for solving a type or class of motor problem, then experience solving similar problems should assist in transferring the learning. If it is the process for solving a type or class of motor problem, then experience solving similar problems should assist in transferring the learning. Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

31 Feedback 1/3 Types of FB Types of FB Intrinsic FB Intrinsic FB Proprioception about the movement process (KP) Proprioception about the movement process (KP) Extrinsic FB Extrinsic FB Information about the result of the movement (KR) Information about the result of the movement (KR) Role of FB in motor learning Role of FB in motor learning Some argue that it is the most powerful determinant of learning Some argue that it is the most powerful determinant of learning Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

32 Feedback 2/3 Definition Definition Information about the consequences of action (movement) Information about the consequences of action (movement) Frequency Frequency Continuous FB Continuous FB Intermittent FB Intermittent FB Faded FB Faded FB Bandwidth FB Bandwidth FB Type Type KR KR KP KP Positive FB Positive FB Negative (error) FB Negative (error) FB Specificity Specificity General FB General FB Specific FB Specific FB Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

33 Characteristics of Good FB 3/3 Timely Timely Allow brief period of introspection between performance and FB Allow brief period of introspection between performance and FB Accurate Accurate Positively reinforce correct performance Positively reinforce correct performance Balance FB for correct performance with errors since errors are variable Balance FB for correct performance with errors since errors are variable Appropriate level of detail/ Specific Appropriate level of detail/ Specific Provide FB along appropriate sensory channels Provide FB along appropriate sensory channels Increase detail or specificity Increase detail or specificity Confirm/ augment the performers analysis of the performance Confirm/ augment the performers analysis of the performance Augmented KR Augmented KR Augment visual FB (mirror, video) Augment visual FB (mirror, video) Augmented KP Augmented KP Reinforce/ refine reference of correctness Reinforce/ refine reference of correctness Total amount Total amount Decrease across stages Decrease across stages AVOID VERBAL BOMBARDMENT AVOID VERBAL BOMBARDMENT Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

34 Practice 1/4 Schedule Schedule Massed vs Distributed Practice Massed vs Distributed Practice Distributed in early stage, massed in later stage Distributed in early stage, massed in later stage Conditions Conditions Constant vs Variable Practice Constant vs Variable Practice Constant practice improves performance Constant practice improves performance Variable practice improves learning and transfer Variable practice improves learning and transfer Role of practice in motor learning Role of practice in motor learning Winstein argues that practice is the most powerful determinant of learning Winstein argues that practice is the most powerful determinant of learning Last ViewedMotor LearningExit

35 Practice Conditions 2/4 Random vs Blocked Practice Random vs Blocked Practice Randomizing practice conditions promote best learning and transfer Randomizing practice conditions promote best learning and transfer Whole vs Part Practice Whole vs Part Practice Task specificity says the best practice is the test itself Task specificity says the best practice is the test itself If utilizing a part technique, the part must be a naturally occurring component of the whole If utilizing a part technique, the part must be a naturally occurring component of the whole Last ViewedMotor LearningExit

36 Practice Conditions 3/4 Transfer Transfer Amount of transfer is determined by the similarity between the two tasks or the two environments Amount of transfer is determined by the similarity between the two tasks or the two environments The more closely the demands of the practice environment resemble those in the performance environment, the better the transfer The more closely the demands of the practice environment resemble those in the performance environment, the better the transfer Guided vs Discovery Practice Guided vs Discovery Practice Experimental results are equivocal about whether guidance produces better learning Experimental results are equivocal about whether guidance produces better learning Last ViewedMotor LearningExit

37 Practice Conditions 4/4 Mental Practice Mental Practice Can produce large positive effects on performance of the task (Rawlings 1972) Can produce large positive effects on performance of the task (Rawlings 1972) During mental practice the same brain areas (primary and supplementary motor areas) are active that are active during the physical performance of the task During mental practice the same brain areas (primary and supplementary motor areas) are active that are active during the physical performance of the task Research results indicate combination of physical and mental practice produces best results of all Research results indicate combination of physical and mental practice produces best results of all Last ViewedMotor LearningExit

38 Motor Learning Variables Stages of motor learning: Fitts & Posner/ Gentile Stages of motor learning: Fitts & Posner/ Gentile Types of movement goals: movement pattern/ environmental result Types of movement goals: movement pattern/ environmental result Environment: closed/ open Environment: closed/ open Task specificity: Gentiles taxonomy Task specificity: Gentiles taxonomy Feedback: frequency, type (KR/ KP, +/-), specificity Feedback: frequency, type (KR/ KP, +/-), specificity Practice schedule: distributed/ massed Practice schedule: distributed/ massed Transfer of learning: transfer-in/ transfer-out Transfer of learning: transfer-in/ transfer-out Practice conditions: constant/ variable, blocked/ random, whole/ part, guided/ discovery Practice conditions: constant/ variable, blocked/ random, whole/ part, guided/ discovery Mental practice Mental practice Last ViewedConcept MapMotor LearningExit

39 The End © DM McKeough 2009 Concept Map


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