Presentation on theme: "“Health food makes me sick! -Calvin Trillin"— Presentation transcript:
1“Health food makes me sick! -Calvin Trillin INDULGE!“Health food makes me sick!-Calvin Trillin
2Ruminants and Complex Stomachs Ruminants only have one true stomach (abomasum), but have 3 forestomachs (reticulum, rumen, and omasum).
3RuminationThe act of swallowing food, then regurgitating it to chew it some more then swallow it again.How does regurgitation differ from vomiting?
4Reticulum Smallest and most cranial compartment. Separated from rumen by ruminoreticular fold.Interior is a honeycomb type arrangement to increase absorption.Muscle wall is continuous with the rumenRumen and Reticulum work together and produce Reticulorumen contractions.Hardware disease is associated with the reticulum.
5RumenSeries of muscular sacs separated by pillars (long, muscular folds of rumen wall).Sacs can close off to allow more mixing to take placeFermentation takes place hereReticuloruminal contractions allow:Regurgitation to take placeEructation-Expulsion of built up carbon dioxide or methane gasIf build up continues, may cause bloat.
6Rumen Gastric motility is controlled by: Vagus nerve primarily Rate and strength of contractions is controlled by other factors:pH (ideal is )Presence of volatile fatty acidsConsistency of foodstuffsStretch receptors
7Fermentative Digestion Enzymes are produced by bacteria and protozoa.How does this differ from monogastric animals?Rumen bacterial surfaces produce cellulaseAllows for the breakdown of plant cell walls into simpler monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
8Fermentative Digestion Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA’S)-Produced when glucose is absorbed by microbes and converted.VFA’s are by-products of the anaerobic fermentation processThey are rapidly absorbed by host animalIn host animal, liver converts the VFA propionic acid into usable glucose.Other volatile fatty acids can be used to produce fat tissue, milk fat.
9Fermentative Digestion Proteases- breakdown proteins to amino acids and peptidesThen can be broken down farther to ammonia and VFA’s.Ruminant is dependent on microbes to digest nutrients.Very delicate balanceChanges in diet can upset this balance
10Omasum When reticulorumen contractions occur, ingesta moves to omasum. Omasum is muscular with interior full of parallel, longitudinal muscular folds.Breaks down food particles and carry these particles to the abomasum.Omasum abosrbs remaining VFA’s and removes bicarbonate ions
11Abomasum Functions very similar to that of mongastric stomach. Only glandular part of the stomach.
12Young Ruminant Digestive Tract Newborn’s stomach functions mainly as a monogastric digestive system.Rumen and reticulum are small and non-functionalDevelopment of rumen and reticulum is dependant on dietMilk in rumen can disrupt fermentation process so is carried directly to omasum.Reticular groove (Esophageal groove)- allows liquids to be carried from esophagus to omasum.Initiated by suckling, can not drink from pailAs calf ages, groove disappears.
14Small IntestinesWhere majority of nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream.Divided into:DuodenumShort, first segment that leaves stomach.JejunumLongest portion, makes up majority of small intestines.IleumShort section that enters the colon (large intestine).Separated from colon by ileocecal sphincter- muscle that regulates movement of materials from small intestine into colon or the cecum (blind pouch of the large intestine).
18Mucosa of Small Intestines Provides large surface area for absorbing nutrients.Folds in intestinal wall called villi are presentVilli- tiny, cylindrical, fingerlike projections that help with absorption.Each villus contains very small villi called microvilli (brush border).Crypts- small invaginations in the intestinal mucosa that help with replenishing cells of villus.
19Small Intestine Motility Vagus nerve and some sacral-vertebral nerves of parasympathetic system provide stimulation for motility, secretions, and blood flow.Intestinal tract is constantly functioning and is never at rest.PeristalsisWhat type of contractions are associated with peristalsis?How does diarrhea occur?Antidiarrheal meds decrease secretion and increase segmental contractions.
20Small intestine motility Ileus- decreased movement of ingesta.May be caused by disease or stress.Cholecystokinin (CCK)Stimulates intestinal motility (opposite of gastric motility)ProstaglandinsIncrease GI motility and secretions.
21Small Intestine Digestion Absorbed intact into small intestinal wall are:SodiumChloridePostassiumThe above are collectively known as electrolytesVitamins
22Small Intestine Digestion Must be chemically broken down to absorb in small intestine are:CarbohydratesProteinsFatsChemically digested in 2 steps:Enzymes in lumen of intestineEnzymes of microvilliOnce digested, a “unit” of foodstuff can be transported or diffused across intestinal tract membrane
23Carbohydrate Digestion Amylase- converts starch into smaller sugar segmentsThen sucrase, maltase, isomaltase and lactase found in cell membrane of microvilli convert sugar segments down further.Finally, units of foodstuff are transported across microvilli into the bodyTypes of enzymes present is dependent on diet.Changes in diet produce diarrhea because enzymes necessary to digest new diet may not be present in sufficient quantities.
24Protein DigestionGastric pepsin can help break apart some protein chains, but this is not sufficient for complete protein digestion.Pancreas secreted 5 basic Proteases:1. TrypsinPrecursor is trypsinogenTrypsin activates other enzyme precursorsBreak apart bonds in middle of protein2. Chymotrypsin3. Elastase4. AminopeptidaseBreak apart proteins at amino `ends5. CarboxypeptidaseBreak apart proteins at carboxyl endsPeptidases embedded in the cell membrane of brush border cells
25Fat Digestion Fats in water environment form globules. Globules are broken down by emulsificaton (mixing of fat and water by agitation or shaking) and micelle (fat surrounded by hydrophilic molecules that allow it to readily move in small intestine) formation.Bile acids (secreted by liver to make fat more water soluble) combine with droplets to keep from returning to globular state.Have a hydrophobic and hydrophilic endPancreatic lipases penetrate and digest fatFat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K), are incorporated into the micelles and absorbed with them.
26Large IntestineGeneral functions are to recover fluid and electrolytes and to store feces until it can be eliminated.Consists of:CecumBlind sac at ileocecal junctionFermentation in horsesPoorly developed in carnivoresColonRectum
27Horse Hindgut Consists of 4 sections: Cecum Ventral colon Right and left halvesDorsal colonSmall colon
28Horse HindgutIngesta from small intestine passes through ileocecal sphincter and enters cecum.Cecum is composed of:BaseMain bodyApexCecum and dorsal and ventral colons have longitudinal bands that separate the structure into a series of sacs called haustraCecum is separated from colon by cecocolic orifice
29Ingesta flow in horse hindgut Ileocecal sphincter►Cecum►Right ventral colon►sternal flexure►left ventral colon►Pelvic flexure►left dorsal colon►diaphragmatic flexure►Right dorsal colon►small colon.Colonic impaction is most common form of colic in horseVFA’s absorbed from cecum and colon provide energy needs in animals with hindgut fermentation.Guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, swine.
30Rectum Terminal portion of the large intestine Extension of colon Secretions similar to colon to help lubricate feces as they pass through colon.Capable of more expansion than colonHas sensory receptors that detect stretching or distention and stimulates defecation response.Defecation- process of expelling feces
31Anus Composed of: internal sphincter Under autonomic control Parasympathetic system causes relaxationSympathetic system causes constrictionexternal sphincters.Under voluntary controlWhen material makes contact with anal mucosa of internal sphincter, increases conscious need for defecation.Anal abnormalities can result in fecal incontinence.
32Liver Produces bile acids that help to digest fat. Helps to filter materials absorbed from GI tract before they reach blood.Hepatic portal system- is blood vessel system that transports blood from capillaries in the intestine to liver.Some nutrients are stored or metabolized by the liver.Bile is produced in liver and leads to gallbladder.Source of blood proteinsAlbumin
33Gallbladder Storage compartment for bile. Will force bile down bile duct to duodenum.
34PancreasExocrine gland(secretes substances to outside of body through a duct) as well as Endocrine gland (secretes hormones directly into the blood without going through a duct).Insulin and glucagon help regulate blood glucoseBeta cells (located in pancreatic islets or islets of langerhans) produce insulin which lowers glucose levels in bloodLack of insulin leads to Diabetes mellitusGlucagon produced by alpha cells in pancreas dos the opposite insulin by working to increase blood glucose when the body is running low.