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**Complex Cognitive Processes**

Magdalena Mulvihill

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**The problem Solving model**

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**Implement the strategy**

Represent the problem Select a strategy Identify the problem Implement the strategy Evaluate the results

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Well defined problem

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**A problem that has only one correct solution to a certain method of finding it.**

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But… Even though some teachers claim that they explain the problem well some students think different

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Ill defined

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A problem that has more than one acceptable solution, an ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

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**$2.00 per cookie or per pound ?**

=6 2+2+2=6

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**A specific set of steps for solving a problem**

Algorithm A specific set of steps for solving a problem

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heuristics GENERALY, WIDELY APPLICABLE PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES

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THERE IS A DIFFERENCE IN PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY BETWEEN EXPERTS AND NOVICES

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BECAUSE EXPERTS ARE INDIVIDUALS… …WHO ARE HIGHLY SKILLED OR KNOWLEDGEABLE IN A GIVEN DOMAIN

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**THERE EXIST FOUR IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NOVICES AND EXPERTS**

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**When REPRESENTING PROBLEMS**

1 EXPERTS SEARCH FOR CONTEXT AND RELATIONSHIP IN PROBLEMS NOVICES SEE PROBLEMS IN ISOLATED PIECES

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**PROBLEM-SOLVING EFFICIENCY**

2 EXPERTS SOLVE PROBLEMS RAPIDLY AND POSSES MUCH KNOWLEDGE THAT IS AUTHOMATIC NOVICES SOLVE PROBLEMS SLOWLY AND FOCUS ON MECANICS

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**When PLANNING FOR PROBLEM SOLVING**

3 EXPERTS PLAN CAREFULLY BEFORE ATTEMPTING SOLUTIONS TO UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMS NOVICES PLAN BRIEFLY WHEN ATTEMPTING SOLUTIONS TO UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMS; QUICKLY ADOPT AND TRY SOLUTIONS

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**When MONITORING PROBLEM SOLVING**

4 EXPERTS DEMONSTRATE WELL-DEVELOPED METACOGNITIVE ABILITIES; ABANDON INEFICIENT STRATEGIES NOVICES DEMONSTRATE LIMITED METACOGNITION; PERSEVERE WITH UNPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES

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STEPS IN HELPING LEARNERS BECOME BETTER PROBLEM SOLVERS

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1. PRESENTATION OF PROBLEMS

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PRESESNTATION OF PROBLEM IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT ENCOURAGES LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

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**WHEN PRESENTING REMEMBER TO**

1. START IN MININGFULL TERMS 2. RELATE IT TO A FAMILIAR PROBLEM 3. PROVIDE EXAMPLES IN A REAL-WORLD CONTEXT PROMOTING MININGFULL LEARNING 4. REPRESENT IT VISUALY

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2. SOCIAL INTERACTION

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**When presenting real world problems promote high levels **

of interaction to actively engage students in analyzing problem situations

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**3. SCAFOLDING METHODS - Modeling - Thinking aloud - Questioning**

Adapting instructional materials

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EFECTIVE STRATEGIES NOTE TAKING MAPPING USING TEXT SIGNALS SUMMARIZING ELABORATIVE QUESTIONING

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TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE

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GENERAL TRANSFER THE ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE OR SKILLS LEARNED IN ONE CONTEXT IN A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT CONTEXTS SPECIFIC TRANSFER THE ABILITY TO APPLY INFORMATION IN A CONTEXT SIMILAR TO THE ONE IN WHICH IT WAS ORIGINALLY LEARNED

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FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING SITUATIONS

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**1. SIMILARITY BETWEEN LEARNING**

SITUATIONS 2. DEPTH OF LEARNERS’ ORIGINAL UNDERSTANDING 3. QUALITY AND VARIETY OF EXAMPLES AND OTHER LEARNING EXPERIENCES 4. LEARNING CONTEXT 5. EMPHASIS ON METACOGNITION

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∏ ∏ THE END

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