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Complex Cognitive Processes Magdalena Mulvihill

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The problem Solving model

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Implement the strategy Identify the problem Represent the problem Select a strategy Evaluate the results

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Well defined problem

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A problem that has only one correct solution to a certain method of finding it.

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But… Even though some teachers claim that they explain the problem well some students think different

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Ill defined

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= =6 $2.00 per cookie or per pound ?

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Algorithm A specific set of steps for solving a problem

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heuristics GENERALY, WIDELY APPLICABLE PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES

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BECAUSE EXPERTS ARE INDIVIDUALS… …WHO ARE HIGHLY SKILLED OR KNOWLEDGEABLE IN A GIVEN DOMAIN

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THERE EXIST FOUR IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NOVICES AND EXPERTS

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When REPRESENTING PROBLEMS EXPERTS SEARCH FOR CONTEXT AND RELATIONSHIP IN PROBLEMS NOVICES SEE PROBLEMS IN ISOLATED PIECES

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PROBLEM-SOLVING EFFICIENCY EXPERTS SOLVE PROBLEMS RAPIDLY AND POSSES MUCH KNOWLEDGE THAT IS AUTHOMATIC NOVICES SOLVE PROBLEMS SLOWLY AND FOCUS ON MECANICS

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When PLANNING FOR PROBLEM SOLVING EXPERTS PLAN CAREFULLY BEFORE ATTEMPTING SOLUTIONS TO UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMS NOVICES PLAN BRIEFLY WHEN ATTEMPTING SOLUTIONS TO UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMS; QUICKLY ADOPT AND TRY SOLUTIONS

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When MONITORING PROBLEM SOLVING EXPERTS DEMONSTRATE WELL-DEVELOPED METACOGNITIVE ABILITIES; ABANDON INEFICIENT STRATEGIES NOVICES DEMONSTRATE LIMITED METACOGNITION; PERSEVERE WITH UNPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES

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STEPS IN HELPING LEARNERS BECOME BETTER PROBLEM SOLVERS

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PRESENTATION OF PROBLEMS 1.

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PRESESNTATION OF PROBLEM IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT ENCOURAGES LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

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1. START IN MININGFULL TERMS 2. RELATE IT TO A FAMILIAR PROBLEM 3. PROVIDE EXAMPLES IN A REAL-WORLD CONTEXT PROMOTING MININGFULL LEARNING 4. REPRESENT IT VISUALY WHEN PRESENTING REMEMBER TO

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2.

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TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE

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GENERAL TRANSFER THE ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE OR SKILLS LEARNED IN ONE CONTEXT IN A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT CONTEXTS SPECIFIC TRANSFER THE ABILITY TO APPLY INFORMATION IN A CONTEXT SIMILAR TO THE ONE IN WHICH IT WAS ORIGINALLY LEARNED

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FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING SITUATIONS

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1. SIMILARITY BETWEEN LEARNING SITUATIONS 2. DEPTH OF LEARNERS ORIGINAL UNDERSTANDING 3. QUALITY AND VARIETY OF EXAMPLES AND OTHER LEARNING EXPERIENCES 4. LEARNING CONTEXT 5. EMPHASIS ON METACOGNITION

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THE END

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