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Complex Cognitive Processes Magdalena Mulvihill. The problem Solving model.

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Presentation on theme: "Complex Cognitive Processes Magdalena Mulvihill. The problem Solving model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex Cognitive Processes Magdalena Mulvihill

2 The problem Solving model

3 Implement the strategy Identify the problem Represent the problem Select a strategy Evaluate the results

4 Well defined problem

5 A problem that has only one correct solution to a certain method of finding it.

6 But… Even though some teachers claim that they explain the problem well some students think different

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9 Ill defined

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11 =6 2+2+2=6 $2.00 per cookie or per pound ?

12 Algorithm A specific set of steps for solving a problem

13 heuristics GENERALY, WIDELY APPLICABLE PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES

14

15 BECAUSE EXPERTS ARE INDIVIDUALS… …WHO ARE HIGHLY SKILLED OR KNOWLEDGEABLE IN A GIVEN DOMAIN

16 THERE EXIST FOUR IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NOVICES AND EXPERTS

17 When REPRESENTING PROBLEMS EXPERTS SEARCH FOR CONTEXT AND RELATIONSHIP IN PROBLEMS NOVICES SEE PROBLEMS IN ISOLATED PIECES

18 PROBLEM-SOLVING EFFICIENCY EXPERTS SOLVE PROBLEMS RAPIDLY AND POSSES MUCH KNOWLEDGE THAT IS AUTHOMATIC NOVICES SOLVE PROBLEMS SLOWLY AND FOCUS ON MECANICS

19 When PLANNING FOR PROBLEM SOLVING EXPERTS PLAN CAREFULLY BEFORE ATTEMPTING SOLUTIONS TO UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMS NOVICES PLAN BRIEFLY WHEN ATTEMPTING SOLUTIONS TO UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMS; QUICKLY ADOPT AND TRY SOLUTIONS

20 When MONITORING PROBLEM SOLVING EXPERTS DEMONSTRATE WELL-DEVELOPED METACOGNITIVE ABILITIES; ABANDON INEFICIENT STRATEGIES NOVICES DEMONSTRATE LIMITED METACOGNITION; PERSEVERE WITH UNPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES

21 STEPS IN HELPING LEARNERS BECOME BETTER PROBLEM SOLVERS

22 PRESENTATION OF PROBLEMS 1.

23 PRESESNTATION OF PROBLEM IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT ENCOURAGES LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

24 1. START IN MININGFULL TERMS 2. RELATE IT TO A FAMILIAR PROBLEM 3. PROVIDE EXAMPLES IN A REAL-WORLD CONTEXT PROMOTING MININGFULL LEARNING 4. REPRESENT IT VISUALY WHEN PRESENTING REMEMBER TO

25 2.

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29 TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE

30 GENERAL TRANSFER THE ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE OR SKILLS LEARNED IN ONE CONTEXT IN A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT CONTEXTS SPECIFIC TRANSFER THE ABILITY TO APPLY INFORMATION IN A CONTEXT SIMILAR TO THE ONE IN WHICH IT WAS ORIGINALLY LEARNED

31 FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING SITUATIONS

32 1. SIMILARITY BETWEEN LEARNING SITUATIONS 2. DEPTH OF LEARNERS ORIGINAL UNDERSTANDING 3. QUALITY AND VARIETY OF EXAMPLES AND OTHER LEARNING EXPERIENCES 4. LEARNING CONTEXT 5. EMPHASIS ON METACOGNITION

33 THE END

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