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Why a Virtual Global Biorepository? – Towards a Global Network of Biorepositories Ole Seberg Natural History Museum of Denmark October 10 th 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Why a Virtual Global Biorepository? – Towards a Global Network of Biorepositories Ole Seberg Natural History Museum of Denmark October 10 th 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why a Virtual Global Biorepository? – Towards a Global Network of Biorepositories Ole Seberg Natural History Museum of Denmark October 10 th 2011

2 Natural History Collections National Museum of Natural History, WashingtonThe Natural History Museum, London StockholmBerlinCopenhagenParis Natural History Museum of Denmark

3 GGI and Environmental Biorepositories What are the problems? The Biological Problem – the Agony of Choice The Status, Scale, and Organisation of existent repositories The Quality Issue The Informatics Problem Limitations in access Natural History Museum of Denmark

4 The Number of Eukaryote Species on Earth Species CataloguedPredicted± SE Animalia953,4347,700,000958,000 Chromista13,03327,50030,500 Fungi43,271611,000297,000 Plantae215,644298,0008,200 Protozoa8,11836,4006,690 Total1,233,5008,740,0001,300,000 Natural History Museum of Denmark Mora, C. et al How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? PLoS Biology: e

5 The Number of Eukaryote Species in the Ocean Species CataloguedPredicted± SE Animalia171,0822,150,000145,000 Chromista4,8597,4009,640 Fungi1,0975,32011,100 Plantae8,60016,6009,130 Protozoa8,11836,4006,690 Total193,7562,210,000182,000 Natural History Museum of Denmark Mora, C. et al How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? PLoS Biology: e

6 The Number of Known Eukaryote Species on the Globe Species CataloguedPredicted% Grand Total1,438,76910,960,00013 Natural History Museum of Denmark Mora, C. et al How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? PLoS Biology: e

7 The Species Scape Species CataloguedPredicted% Grand Total1,438,76910,960,00013 Species CataloguedPredicted% Grand Total1,750,00014,000,00013 Natural History Museum of Denmark Groombrige, B. & Jenkins, M. D World Alas of Biodiversity: p. 19 Mora, C. et al How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? PLoS Biology: e

8 What to Preserve? – Are all Species Equal? Natural History Museum of Denmark The charismatic species? The nearly extinct species? The threatened species? The ecologically important/unique species? The economically important and potentially important species? The evolutionary important/unique species? The taxonomically important/unique species? The genetically important/unique species? The carriers of important/unique genes? etc.

9 What to Collect? – Systematics and the Agony of Choice Natural History Museum of Denmark

10 What to Preserve? – Are all Species Equal? Natural History Museum of Denmark duplications Avoid unnecessary duplications Decide what to collect and exchange Decide what to collect and exchange Decide what to dispose of Decide what to dispose of The need for immediate access The need for immediate access The replacement cost The replacement cost The irreplaceable objects The irreplaceable objects VS.

11 Summary: What biological resources should be preserved? Who should be responsible for their preservation? How can Biorepositories cope with the vast quantity of information and products emerging from the genomics revolution? Natural History Museum of Denmark

12 GGI and Environmental Biorepositories What are the problems? The Biological Problem – the Agony of Choice The Status, Scale, and Organisation of existent repositories The Quality Issue The Informatics Problem Limitations in access Natural History Museum of Denmark

13 Relative Sizes of Invertebrate Collections DNA Tissue Natural History Museum of Denmark Natural History Collections/ Biorepositories Lessons from Europe

14 Relative Sizes of Mammals Collections Tissue DNA Natural History Collections/ Biorepositories Natural History Museum of Denmark Lessons from Europe

15 GGI and Environmental Biorepositories What are the problems? The Biological Problem – the Agony of Choice The Status, Scale, and Organisation of existent repositories The Quality Issue The Informatics Problem Limitations in access Natural History Museum of Denmark

16 The quality issue Natural History Museum of Denmark Quality management/quality assurance across all BRCs Authenticity of the samples, accuracy of labelling, databases and bioinformatics Standards for ensuring long-term stability of samples Standards for citation of material

17 Natural History Collections/Biorepositories Lesson from Europe Protists FungiAlgae Lichens Plants Seeds Birds Mammals Fish Other vert. Invertebrates Other Invert. Tissue Natural History Museum of Denmark

18 Protists FungiAlgae Lichens Plants Seeds Birds Mammals Fish Other vert. Invertebrates Other Invert. DNA Natural History Museum of Denmark Natural History Collections/Biorepositories Lessons from Europe

19 BRC Task Force Products Biological Resource Centers (BRC) 66-page report released by the OECD in March, chapters: 1.Need for BRCs 2.Increasing Challenges of Biodiversity and Genomics 3.Long-term Financial Support 4.Ensuring Quality & Expertise 5.Access & Restrictions 6.Global Network of BRCs 7.Call for Action Natural History Museum of Denmark

20 GGI and Environmental Biorepositories What are the problems? The Biological Problem – the Agony of Choice The Status, Scale, and Organisation of existent repositories The Quality Issue The Informatics Problem Limitations in access Natural History Museum of Denmark

21 Towards an Integrated Global Network of Biorepository Natural History Museum of Denmark Establishment of a Global internet platform for Biorepositories, by Liaise with National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, and Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, to secure optimal information exchange and reliability. Establishing and expanding types and levels of database documentation (e.g. extension of ABCDDNA) and evaluate possible demands on database language modules

22 GGI and Environmental Biorepositories What are the problems? The Biological Problem – the Agony of Choice The Status, Scale, and Organisation of existent repositories The Quality Issue The Informatics Problem Limitations in access Natural History Museum of Denmark

23 Factors limiting access Protection health and safety Import/export regulations Intellectual property rights (IPR) protection Material transfer agreements Protection of commercial rights Natural History Museum of Denmark

24 Access and Benefit Sharing Natural History Museum of Denmark

25 Access and Benefit Sharing

26 Policy Implementation Lessons from Europe Natural History Museum of Denmark

27 Policy Implementation Lesson from Europe Natural History Museum of Denmark

28 What should a virtual biorepository network provide? Preserve global natural genetic diversity Facilitate research and good scientific practice in biodiversity genomics Secure easy access and exchange of non- human DNA and tissue samples Act as repositories for specimens, samples used in publications Natural History Museum of Denmark

29 What should a virtual biorepository network provide? High quality (perhaps even certified) identifi- cation of samples Standardized rating of the accuracy of identification, sampling location and other data to allow evaluation of collection items and data Coordinated and sustainable access to samples genetic resources Natural History Museum of Denmark

30 What should a virtual biorepository network provide? Improvement of collection quality (by knowledge transfer, specialisation, disaster management) Integration of DNA/tissue, specimen, and sequence data networks Improved safety by exchange of material between DNA and tissue banks Best practices guidelines and standards for linkage and accessibility of samples – e.g., minimally though high-quality digital images Natural History Museum of Denmark

31 Acknowledgement Financial support by SYNTHESYS and EDIT Grants from the Danish Natural Sciences Research Council Logistical and moral support from the SYNTHESYS Team at the Natural History Museum (London) in particular from Rob Huxley and Gemma Maldar Samantha Mohun (Natural History Museum, London) and Tina Jørgensen (Natural History Museum of Denmark) for compiling the questionnaire Birgit Gemeinholzer and Holger Zetzsche (Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, Berlin-Dahlem), Isabel Rey (Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturale, Madrid), Gitte Petersen (NHMD) for their efforts! Natural History Museum of Denmark


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