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Automating Wireless Sensor Network Deployment and Replacement in Pipeline Monitoring Ted Tsung-Te Lai Albert Wei-Ju Chen Kuei-Han Li Polly Huang Hao-Hua.

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Presentation on theme: "Automating Wireless Sensor Network Deployment and Replacement in Pipeline Monitoring Ted Tsung-Te Lai Albert Wei-Ju Chen Kuei-Han Li Polly Huang Hao-Hua."— Presentation transcript:

1 Automating Wireless Sensor Network Deployment and Replacement in Pipeline Monitoring Ted Tsung-Te Lai Albert Wei-Ju Chen Kuei-Han Li Polly Huang Hao-Hua Chu National Taiwan University

2 Motivation TriopusNet System Design Evaluation Limitations Related Work Conclusion Outline

3 Water pipelines are everywhere people live

4 Pipelines carry important resources (gas, oil…etc.)

5 Pipelines carry very important resources (beer pipeline!)

6 Motivation leaking Pipeline monitoring is essential

7 Water contamination (Boston, 2010)

8 Difficult sensor deployment

9 WSN challenges (Deployment and maintenance) Deployment challenges – Difficult to access pipelines to place sensors (often hidden inside walls or underground) – May need to break pipes to install sensors inside Maintenance challenge – Difficult to replace out-of-battery sensors Real pipeline environment – Difficult to ensure network connectivity during sensor placement and replacement

10 Research question Can we automate WSN sensor placement and replacement in pipeline? – While minimize the number of sensor nodes – Good sensing and networking coverage Reduce the human effort bottleneck for long-term, large-scale WSN deployment & maintenance.

11 Single-Release Point the enabling concept Place sensors at a single release point Sensors automatically place themselves in the pipes Single-release point

12 How to realize single-release point? Sensor placement – Mobile sensors – Sensor latch mechanism – Sensor placement algorithm – Sensor localization Sensor replacement – Sensor replacement algorithm

13 Motivation TriopusNet System Design Evaluation Limitations Related Work Conclusion Outline

14 TriopusNet automate WSN deployment in pipeline Triopus node three arms for latching Gateway node Single-release point

15 Sensor placement – Mobile sensors – Sensor latch mechanism – Sensor placement algorithm – Sensor localization Sensor replacement – Sensor replacement algorithm TriopusNet automate WSN deployment in pipeline

16 Mobile sensor (components) Localization sensors (SenSys 10) water pressure + gyro Actuator pull/push a mechanical arm Sensor mote

17 A Telosb-like platform, TinyOS compatible Smaller form-factor, only CPU board is needed = + Kmote CPU board USB board Mobile sensor (kmote) (data processing) (program uploading)

18 Mobile sensor (latch & delatch mechanism) Linear actuator, off-the-shelf from market A motor with gear inside to control the arm Spec: Stroke: 2cm Weight: 15gram Arm extending speed: 2cm/sec 0cm 1cm 2cm

19 Prototype #1 (8cm diameter)

20 Prototype #2 (one motor, three arms)

21 Prototype #2 (6cm diameter)

22 Sensor placement algorithm Where are the optimal locations to place sensors in pipes (after releasing them from the single-release point)? – Networking coverage Interconnectivity among all nodes – Sensing coverage Each pipe segment has at least one sensor – Minimize # of sensor nodes for deployment

23 Sensor placement algorithm branch 1 branch 2 branch 3 faucet 2 faucet 1 faucet 3 faucet 4 water inlet n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root

24 branch 1 branch 2 branch 3 faucet 2 faucet 1 faucet 3 faucet 4 water inlet n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root Sensor placement algorithm

25 branch 1 branch 2 branch 3 faucet 2 faucet 1 faucet 3 faucet 4 water inlet n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root Sensor placement algorithm

26 branch 1 branch 2 branch 3 faucet 2 faucet 1 faucet 3 faucet 4 water inlet n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root Sensor placement algorithm

27 Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root Sensor placement algorithm

28 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root 1st Sensor placement algorithm Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7

29 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root 2nd 1st Sensor placement algorithm Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7

30 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root 2nd 1st 3rd Sensor placement algorithm Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7

31 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root 2nd 1st 3rd 4th Sensor placement algorithm Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7

32 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root 2nd 1st 3rd 4th 5th Sensor placement algorithm Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7

33 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root 2nd 1st 3rd 4th 5th 6th Sensor placement algorithm Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7

34 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root 2nd 1st 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Sensor placement algorithm Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7

35 n7 n6 n5 n2 n4 n3 n1 root 2nd 1st 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Sensor placement algorithm Post-order traversal : n1 -> n2 -> … n7 Reasons: 1. Assure nodes cover all pipes 2. Allow blockage-free movement (bottom-up placement)

36 Testing packet received ratio Good link quality, placement completed Bad link quality Sensor placement algorithm Gateway node Single-release point

37 Sensor localization Pressure graph Previous PipeProbe system [SenSys10] – cm-level positional accuracy Vertical pipe location – Water pressure changes at different height levels Horizontal pipe location – Node distance = node velocity * node flow time Pipe turn detection – Gyroscope

38 Data Collection Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) in TinyOS Multi-sink tree to balance network load Gateway node Single-release point

39 Low Battery… Sensor replacement algorithm Gateway node Single-release point

40 Motivation TriopusNet System Design Evaluation Limitations Related Work Conclusion Outline

41 Testbed

42 150cm 200cm Testbed spatial layout Single-release point

43 Evaluation metrics Automated sensor placement – # Nodes for pipeline deployment – Data collection rate – Energy consumption Automated sensor replacement – Data collection rate

44 Scenario 3 Scenario 1 Scenario 4 Scenario 2 Experimental procedure (4 test scenarios) 5 tests for each scenario gateway Single-release point

45 # Deployed Nodes (Static v.s. TriopusNet deployment) TriopusNetA TriopusNetB TriopusNetC Avg # of nodes deployed -Static: 7.5 -TriopusNet: 4.4 Avg. node-to-node distance: 173cm Std: 58cm Static (90cm)

46 Avg. node-to-node distance

47

48

49

50 Data collection rate Each node sent 1000 packets to gateway -80% nodes achieve 99% packet receive rate -All nodes > 87% rate

51 Energy consumption (node placement) Each node requires 2.4 actuations on average (1 actuation consumes ~1J)

52 Evaluation metrics Automated sensor placement – # nodes for sensing/networking coverage – Data collection rate – Energy consumption Automated sensor replacement – Data collection rate

53 Test scenario and result for replacement Set these two nodes to low battery level and trigger replacement Data collection rate Initial deployment After replacement Without replacement

54 Motivation TriopusNet System Design Evaluation Limitations Related Work Conclusion Outline

55 automatic faucet Limitation: Lack automatic faucets

56 Limitation: Node size

57 Low Battery… Limitation: Node size Single-release point

58 Motivation TriopusNet System Design Evaluation Limitations Related Work Conclusion Outline

59 Detect and localize leakage by pressure and ultrasonic sensors PipeNet (IPSN07, pipeline monitoring)

60 NAWMS (SenSys08, water flow sensing)

61 toilet kitchen sink shower HydroSense (Ubicomp09, water event sensing) Single-point pressure-based sensor of water usage

62 Multi-point sensing Single-point sensing Single-release point NAWMSHydroSenseTriopusNet PipeNet Comparison to related work

63 Motivation TriopusNet System Design Evaluation Limitations Related Work Conclusion Outline

64 Conclusion Automated sensor placement and replacement to reduce human deployment and maintenance effort: mobile sensors with self-latching mechanism from a single-release point Results show smaller number of sensor nodes with good sensing/networking coverage TriopusNet: automating WSN deployment and replacement in pipeline monitoring

65 Thank shepherd (Prof. Gian Pietro Picco) & reviewers for valuable comments Questions & Answers TriopusNet: Automating WSN Deployement and Replacement in Pipeline Monitoring Ted Tsung-Te Lai, Albert Wei-Ju Chen, Kuei-Han Li Polly Huang, Hao-hua Chu Ubicomp lab National Taiwan University


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