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Total Replacement Partial Replacement Replacement Model.

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Presentation on theme: "Total Replacement Partial Replacement Replacement Model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Total Replacement Partial Replacement Replacement Model

2 Fulfillment Model: Christianity is the true religion but it does not reject, but rather confirms good elements in others Mutuality Model: a rough parity between all religions; all ways lead to the same end goal Three bridges: 1) PHILOSOPHICAL (Hick) 2) MYSTICAL (Panikkar) 3) ETHICAL (Knitter) Acceptance Model: there are real differences among religions and they are legitimate (different ends in different religions!) Replacement Model: Christianity, the only way, replaces other faiths (either totally or partially) C) Knitter: TYPOLOGY

3 Knitter, p. 19 In the final analysis, Christianity is meant to replace all other religions…Its the dominant attitude, the one that generally has held sway throughout most of Christian history. Although views differed about the way this replacement was to be carried out and why it was necessary, Christian missionaries throughout the centuries have cast forth into the world with the conviction that it is Gods will to make all peoples Christians. Overview

4 Knitters typology: two forms of replacement model: total and partial replacement a) Total= older Protestantism with Barth as key figure and Evangelicalism/ Fundamentalism; b) Partial: mainline Protestantism (Pannenberg, Tillich; WCC, etc.) Overview

5 Christianity as the True Religion Taking the New Testament and Jesus Seriously Acts 4:12; 1 Cor 3:11; 1 Tim 2:5; John 14:6; 1 John 5:12 Jesus only Savior Rom 1:21; 3:9 All are lost John 3:36; Rom 10:14,17 Faith needed One Way Makes Sense Main Features of Total Replacement (Knitter, ch.1)

6 Majority of Christians prior to the Enlightenment – and a large number even afterwards – has held this view in one way or another In contemporary scene, Fundamentalists and more conservative Christians subscribe to this view Representatives of Total Replacement Model

7 Karl Barth represented many key convictions of this view He did not call revelation any knowledge of God outside of self-revelation of God in Christ He did not see any contact point between religions (religiosity) and faith in God He didnt see any connection between the God of the Bible and God of the Philosophers Universalist? Christ as Electing and the Elected Representatives of Total Replacement Model

8 This model helps defend the uncompromising monotheism of the Bible and uniqueness of self-revelation of God Its weaknesses include A dismissal of general revelation and the innate (partial) knowledge of God – in a person having been created in the image of God A radical discontinuity between nature and grace Lack of emphasis on the saving Love of God with regard to all people(s) The tendency to be pejorative of other religions and people in other faiths, even though they have been created in the image of God Reflections of Total Replacement Model

9 A difference between total and partial models Partial replacement closer to Fulfillment model Most of the views in ch. 2 (WCC and theologians such as Pannenberg, Newbigin, Tillich, Samartha, etc.) are not supportive of replacement model but rather either inclusivist or Fulfillment model or soft pluralism (Samartha) Total and Partial: Same or different models?

10 It appears that it is only Fundamentalism and conservative Evangelicalism that fall neatly under Knitters Replacement Model (mostly total replacement) Evangelical theologies of religions fall in to two camps Evangelicals can be found both in (exclusivistic) total replacement and (inclusivistic) partial replacement Evangelical theologies and Replacement Model?

11 God Present in Other Religions? Yes And No! Revelation: Yes! Salvation: No! Value of Dialogue Limits of Dialogue! Main Features of Partial Replacement (KNITTER)

12 While there are some revelatory elements in other religions, religions are not salvific There are some contact points between the God of the Bible and the deities of religions Some good features in other religions can be affirmed The value of interfaith dialogue is affirmed Main Features of Partial Replacement (Knitter, ch.2)

13 World Council of Churches Religious plurality and Christian self-understanding (Inter-religious dialogue and cooperation) dialogue and cooperation Mainline Protestant Churches Presbyterian Principles for Interfaith Dialogue (www.pcusa.org/interfaith/study/principles.htm) Presbyterian Principles for Interfaith Dialogue Wolfhart Pannenberg (baptizedLutheran) Lesslie Newbigin (Anglican) Clark Pinnock (evangelical) Examples of Partial Replacement Model

14 Christianity as the True Religion Taking the New Testament and Jesus Seriously Acts 4:12; 1 Cor 3:11; 1 Tim 2:5; John 14:6; 1 John 5:12 Jesus only Savior Rom 1:21; 3:9 All are lost John 3:36; Rom 10:14,17 Faith needed One Way Makes Sense Main Features of Total Replacement (Knitter, ch.1)

15 Majority of Christians prior to the Enlightenment – and a large number even afterwards – has held this view in one way or another In contemporary scene, Fundamentalists and more conservative Christians subscribe to this view Representatives of Total Replacement Model

16 Karl Barth represented many key convictions of this view He did not call revelation any knowledge of God outside of self-revelation of God in Christ He did not see any contact point between religions (religiosity) and faith in God He didnt see any connection between the God of the Bible and God of the Philosophers Universalist? Christ as Electing and the Elected Representatives of Total Replacement Model

17 This model helps defend the uncompromising monotheism of the Bible and uniqueness of self-revelation of God Its weaknesses include A dismissal of general revelation and the innate (partial) knowledge of God – in a person having been created in the image of God A radical discontinuity between nature and grace Lack of emphasis on the saving Love of God with regard to all people(s) The tendency to be pejorative of other religions and people in other faiths, even though they have been created in the image of God Reflections of Total Replacement Model

18 A difference between total and partial models Partial replacement closer to Fulfillment model Most of the views in ch. 2 (WCC and theologians such as Pannenberg, Newbigin, Tillich, Samartha, etc.) are not supportive of replacement model but rather either inclusivist or Fulfillment model or soft pluralism (Samartha) Total and Partial: Same or different models?

19 It appears that it is only Fundamentalism and conservative Evangelicalism that fall neatly under Knitters Replacement Model (mostly total replacement) Evangelical theologies of religions fall in to two camps Evangelicals can be found both in (exclusivistic) total replacement and (inclusivistic) partial replacement Evangelical theologies and Replacement Model?

20 God Present in Other Religions? Yes And No! Revelation: Yes! Salvation: No! Value of Dialogue Limits of Dialogue! Main Features of Partial Replacement (KNITTER)

21 While there are some revelatory elements in other religions, religions are not salvific There are some contact points between the God of the Bible and the deities of religions Some good features in other religions can be affirmed The value of interfaith dialogue is affirmed Main Features of Partial Replacement (Knitter, ch.2)

22 World Council of Churches Religious plurality and Christian self-understanding (Inter-religious dialogue and cooperation) dialogue and cooperation Mainline Protestant Churches Presbyterian Principles for Interfaith Dialogue (www.pcusa.org/interfaith/study/principles.htm) Presbyterian Principles for Interfaith Dialogue Wolfhart Pannenberg (baptizedLutheran) Lesslie Newbigin (Anglican) Clark Pinnock (evangelical) Examples of Partial Replacement Model


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