Presentation on theme: "Wind Energy. Where is Wind Energy Found? ~ Places where there is constant wind ~ Some places are better for wind turbines ~ How is the wind extracted?"— Presentation transcript:
Where is Wind Energy Found? ~ Places where there is constant wind ~ Some places are better for wind turbines ~ How is the wind extracted?
Wind Turbines Wind turbines capture the winds energy with 2 or 3 propeller-like which are mounted on a rotor, to generate electricity. Wind blows and a pocket pressure air forms on the downward side of the blade. Low-pressure pulls the blade toward it, causes the rotor to run. A lift and drag occur making the generator to work to make electricity.
How Does Wind Energy Work? Kinetic energy in the wind changes to electronic energy to be used. The wind blows on the blades and makes them turn. The blades turns a shaft inside the nacelle (the box at the top of the turbine) The shaft goes into a gearbox which increases the rotation speed enough for... The generator, which uses magnetic fields to convert the rotational energy into electrical energy. These are similar to those found in normal power stations. The power output goes to a transformer, which converts the electricity coming out of the generator at around 700 Volts (V) to the right voltage for distribution system, typically 33,000 V. The national grid transmits the power around the country.
Parts of a Wind Turbine
Where is the best place to have a wind farm? California has many windy areas Its normally windier in summer months when wind comes from cooler areas inland. The ocean replaces the hot raising air in Californias warm deserts & central valleys. 3 windiest places: –Altamont Pass (east of San Francisco) –San Gorgonio (near Palm Springs) –Tehachapi (south of Bakersfield) ~ These 3 places = electricity to supply a city the size of San Francisco
For a wind turbine to work… Need miles/hour winds Produce about kilowatts of electricity each (kilowatts = 1,000 watts) 100 watt light bulb = 1,000 watts 300 kilowatt wind turbine = 3,000 light bulbs that use 100 watts! As of 1999, there were 11,368 wind turbines in California
Offshore Wind Turbines East coast sparked interest for turbines to harvest offshore winds Offshore = more expensive Northeast coast offshore development is attractive alternative Europeans have some experience, but w/shallow and sheltered water cites Designed w/confidence in offshore winds (higher energy and lower turbulence)
Wind as a replacement Fossil Fuels Coal Oil Nuclear Power
Advantages Produce No pollution Entirely renewable Infinite Resource
Ready to Become a Significant Power Source Wind could generate 6% of nations electricity by Wind currently produces less than 1% of the nations power. Source: Energy Information Agency
Technologies Improving Larger turbines Specialized blade design Power electronics Computer modeling produces more efficient design Manufacturing improvements
U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Small Wind Turbine Program Advanced airfoils "Super-magnet" generators Low cost manufacturing Smart power electronics Very tall towers "Stealth" low noise & visual impact
Horizontal Axis Turbines Propeller Type Most Common Utility Scale
Vertical Axis Turbines Lift Base Turbine
Vertical Base Turbines Drag Base Turbine
Wind *Wind energy has minor impacts on our environment. *Wind energy plants produce no air pollutants or greenhouse gases.
Impacts that are most commonly addressed. Wildlife and wildlife habitat, including avian impacts. Visual environment Social and economic considerations
Wind Impacts Positive impacts *Wind turbines are relatively quiet. (they are compared to the sound level of a refrigerator) Now they coexist safely with many land uses, including schools, highways, hiking trails and farms. *In the Renewable Energy Policy project studied 25,000 property transactions and did not find evidence of wind power reducing property values. *The FAA requires turbines to be lit and to be at least 200 ft. tall. ***Air quality in the U.S. has improved since the Clean Air Act of 1970 because of these wind turbines. Negative impacts *Have caused bird and bat collisions…mainly in the 80s and the 90s, so far only in the U.S. *Negative environmental impacts of wind power come from the change in habitat that results from the clearing of the land. ***The fact that our growing energy still harms us and the environment. When using the wind turbines we have to use electricity from fossil fuels, which emits CO 2, SO 2, NOx, and much more.
Would you spend your tax dollars to fund this source? Yes, we most definitely would… Wind power is a clean, renewable source of energy which produces no greenhouse gas emissions or waste products. A modern wind turbine is designed to operate for more than 20 years and at the end of its working life, the area can be restored at low financial and environmental costs. Wind power provides at least 10% of our nations electricity needs. Wind is an abundant resource. Wind power is currently the most cost effective renewable energy technology. The cost of generating electricity from wind has fallen dramatically over the past few years. (wind is a free and widely available fuel source) On average 80% of people support wind energy. Wind energy is technology with no associated emissions, harmful pollutants, or waste products. Almost all wind turbines have an undetectable sound.
Bibliography "Alternative Energy." Palmdale Water District. 23 Oct "Wind Energy." 19 July American Wind Energy Association. 23 Oct "Wind Energy." Energy Story. 26 Oct "Wind Energy; How Does Wind Energy Work?" Wind Energy. 13 Oct The British Wind Energy Association. 24 Oct "Wind Energy Topics." U.S. Department of Energy. 23 Oct "Wind Power: Impacts and Issues." Ceere. 13 Oct Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. 26 Oct