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Biomaterials By: Vinita Mehrotra. Outline Definition Definition Characteristics of Biomaterials Characteristics of Biomaterials History History Biomaterials.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomaterials By: Vinita Mehrotra. Outline Definition Definition Characteristics of Biomaterials Characteristics of Biomaterials History History Biomaterials."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomaterials By: Vinita Mehrotra

2 Outline Definition Definition Characteristics of Biomaterials Characteristics of Biomaterials History History Biomaterials Science Biomaterials Science Generations of Biomaterials Generations of Biomaterials Examples of Biomaterials Examples of Biomaterials Detail on Vascular Grafts Detail on Vascular Grafts Detail on Hip Replacements Detail on Hip Replacements Biocompatibility Biocompatibility Challenges Challenges Biomaterials As An Emerging Industry Biomaterials As An Emerging Industry Companies Companies

3 Definition A biomaterial is a nonviable material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems. A biomaterial is a nonviable material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems. Defined by their application NOT chemical make-up. Defined by their application NOT chemical make-up.

4 Characteristics of Biomaterials Physical Requirements Physical Requirements Hard Materials. Hard Materials. Flexible Material. Flexible Material. Chemical Requirements Chemical Requirements Must not react with any tissue in the body. Must not react with any tissue in the body. Must be non-toxic to the body. Must be non-toxic to the body. Long-term replacement must not be biodegradable. Long-term replacement must not be biodegradable.

5 History More than 2000 years ago, Romans, Chinese, and Aztecs used gold in dentistry. More than 2000 years ago, Romans, Chinese, and Aztecs used gold in dentistry. Turn of century, synthetic implants become available. Turn of century, synthetic implants become available Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) introduced in dentistry Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) introduced in dentistry. 1958, Rob suggests Dacron Fabrics can be used to fabricate an arterial prosthetic. 1958, Rob suggests Dacron Fabrics can be used to fabricate an arterial prosthetic.

6 History (Continued) 1960 Charnley uses PMMA, ultrahigh- molecular-weight polyethylend, and stainless steal for total hip replacement Charnley uses PMMA, ultrahigh- molecular-weight polyethylend, and stainless steal for total hip replacement. Late 1960 – early 1970s biomaterial field solidified. Late 1960 – early 1970s biomaterial field solidified Society for Biomaterials formed Society for Biomaterials formed.

7 Biomaterials Science Grow cells in culture. Grow cells in culture. Apparatus for handling proteins in the laboratory. Apparatus for handling proteins in the laboratory. Devices to regulate fertility in cattle. Devices to regulate fertility in cattle. Aquaculture of oysters. Aquaculture of oysters. Cell-silicon Biochip. Cell-silicon Biochip.

8 MetalsSemiconductor Materials CeramicsPolymers Synthetic BIOMATERIALS Orthopedic screws/fixation Dental Implants Heart valves Bone replacements Biosensors Implantable Microelectrodes Skin/cartilage Drug Delivery Devices Ocular implants

9 Biomaterial Science

10 First Generation Biomaterials Specified by physicians using common and borrowed materials. Specified by physicians using common and borrowed materials. Most successes were accidental rather than by design. Most successes were accidental rather than by design.

11 Second Generation of Biomaterials Developed through collaborations of physicians and engineers. Developed through collaborations of physicians and engineers. Engineered implants using common and borrowed materials. Engineered implants using common and borrowed materials. Built on first generation experiences. Built on first generation experiences. Used advances in materials science (from other fields). Used advances in materials science (from other fields).

12 Third generation implants Bioengineered implants using bioengineered materials. Bioengineered implants using bioengineered materials. Few examples on the market. Few examples on the market. Some modified and new polymeric devices. Some modified and new polymeric devices. Many under development. Many under development.

13 Examples of Biomaterial Applications Heart Valve Heart Valve Artificial Tissue Artificial Tissue Dental Implants Dental Implants Intraocular Lenses Intraocular Lenses Vascular Grafts Vascular Grafts Hip Replacements Hip Replacements

14 Heart Valve Fabricated from carbons, metals, elastomers, fabrics, and natural valves. Fabricated from carbons, metals, elastomers, fabrics, and natural valves. Must NOT React With Chemicals in Body. Must NOT React With Chemicals in Body. Attached By Polyester Mesh. Attached By Polyester Mesh. Tissue Growth Facilitated By Polar Oxygen-Containing Groups. Tissue Growth Facilitated By Polar Oxygen-Containing Groups.

15 Heart Valve Almost as soon as valve implanted cardiac function is restored to near normal. Almost as soon as valve implanted cardiac function is restored to near normal. Bileaflet tilting disk heart valve used most widely. Bileaflet tilting disk heart valve used most widely. More than 45,000 replacement valves implanted every year in the United States. More than 45,000 replacement valves implanted every year in the United States.

16 Bileaflet Heart Valves

17 Problems with Heart Valves Degeneration of Tissue. Degeneration of Tissue. Mechanical Failure. Mechanical Failure. Postoperative infection. Postoperative infection. Induction of blood clots. Induction of blood clots.

18 Artificial Tissue Biodegradable Biodegradable Polymer Result of Condensation of Lactic Acid and Glycolyic Acid Polymer Result of Condensation of Lactic Acid and Glycolyic Acid

19 Small titanium fixture that serves as the replacement for the root portion of a missing natural tooth. Implant is placed in the bone of the upper or lower jaw and allowed to bond with the bone. Most dental implants are: pure titanium screw-shaped cylinders that act as roots for crowns and bridges, or as supports for dentures. Dental Implants

20 Capable of bonding to bone, a phenomenon known as "osseointegration. Bio-inert, there is no reaction in tissue and no rejection or allergic reactions.

21 Dental Implants

22 Intraocular Lenses Made of PMM, silicone elastomer, and other materials. Made of PMM, silicone elastomer, and other materials. By age 75 more than 50% of population suffers from cataracts. By age 75 more than 50% of population suffers from cataracts. 1.4 million implantations in the United States yearly. 1.4 million implantations in the United States yearly. Good vision is generally restored almost immediately after lens is inserted. Good vision is generally restored almost immediately after lens is inserted.

23 Intraocular Lenses Implantation often performed on outpatient basis. Implantation often performed on outpatient basis.

24 Vascular Grafts Must Be Flexible. Must Be Flexible. Designed With Open Porous Structure. Designed With Open Porous Structure. Often Recognized By Body As Foreign. Often Recognized By Body As Foreign.

25 Hip-Replacements Most Common Medical Practice Using Biomaterials. Most Common Medical Practice Using Biomaterials. Corrosion Resistant high-strength Metal Alloys. Corrosion Resistant high-strength Metal Alloys. Very High Molecular Weight Polymers. Very High Molecular Weight Polymers. Thermoset Plastics. Thermoset Plastics.

26 Some hip replacements ambulatory function restored within days after surgery. Some hip replacements ambulatory function restored within days after surgery. Others require an extensive healing period for attachment between bone and the implant. Others require an extensive healing period for attachment between bone and the implant. Most cases good function restored. Most cases good function restored. After years, implant loosens requiring another operation. After years, implant loosens requiring another operation. Hip-Replacements

27 Hip-Replacements

28 Vascular Grafts Achieve and maintain homeostasis. Achieve and maintain homeostasis. Porous. Porous. Permeable. Permeable. Good structure retention. Good structure retention. Adequate burst strength. Adequate burst strength. High fatigue resistance. High fatigue resistance. Low thrombogenecity. Low thrombogenecity. Good handling properties. Good handling properties. Biostable. Biostable.

29 Vascular Grafts Braids, weaves, and knits. Braids, weaves, and knits. Porosity Porosity Permeability Permeability Thickness Thickness Burst strength Burst strength Kink resistance Kink resistance Suture retention Suture retention Wall thickness Wall thickness Tensile properties Tensile properties Ravel resistance Ravel resistance

30 Vascular Grafts Permeability Braids Braids 350 to 2500 ml cm 2 /min 350 to 2500 ml cm 2 /min Knits Knits Loosely Woven Knits Loosely Woven Knits 1200 to 2000 ml cm 2 /min 1200 to 2000 ml cm 2 /min Tightly Woven Knits Tightly Woven Knits 2000 to 5000 ml cm 2 /min 2000 to 5000 ml cm 2 /min Weaves Weaves Below 800 ml cm 2 /min Below 800 ml cm 2 /min

31 Knit Grafts

32 Filtration and Flow µ viscosity of fluid t thickness of membrane V velocity of fluid Δp pressure drop across membrane

33 Void Content Kozeny-Carmen Equation K o is the Kozeny constant. K o is the Kozeny constant. S o is the shape factor. S o is the shape factor. Φ is the porosity. Φ is the porosity.

34 Shape Factor

35 Biomaterials: An Example Biomechanics of Artificial Joints

36 Normal versus Arthritic Hip Sir John Charnely: 1960's, fundamental principles of the artificial hip Frank Gunston: 1969, developed one of the first artificial knee joints. Hip replacements done in the world per year: between 500,000 and 1 million. Number of knee replacements done in the world per year: between 250,000 and 500,000. Of all the factors leading to total hip replacement, osteoarthritis is the most common, accounting for 65% of all total hips.

37 Normal versus Arthritic Hip Normal Hip: note the space between the femur and acetabulum, due to cartilage Arthritic Hip: No space visible in joint, as cartilage is missing

38 Two design issues in attaching materials to bone 1) the geometric and material design of the articulating surfaces 2) design of the interface between the artificial joint and the surrounding bone. 2) design of the interface between the artificial joint and the surrounding bone.

39 using a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement to adhere the metal to the bone using a porous metal surface to create a bone ingrowth interface Two attachment methods

40 the acetabulum and the proximal femur have been replaced. The femoral side is completely metal. The acetabular side is composed of the polyethylene bearing surface Overview of femoral replacement

41 The two materials are bonded and equal force is applied to both Load transfer in Composite materials

42 Comparison: Modului of Elasticity Modulus of elasticity of different implant materials and bone (in GPa)

43 Implant bonding A bonded interface is characteristic of a cemented prosthesis (left) non-bonded interface is characteristic of a non- cemented press fit prosthesis (right)

44 Degradation Problems Example of fractured artificial cartilage from a failed hip replacement

45 Biocompatibility The ability of a material to elicit an appropriate biological response in a specific application by NOT producing a toxic, injurious, or immunological response in living tissue. The ability of a material to elicit an appropriate biological response in a specific application by NOT producing a toxic, injurious, or immunological response in living tissue. Strongly determined by primary chemical structure. Strongly determined by primary chemical structure.

46 Host Reactions to Biomaterials Thrombosis Thrombosis Hemolysis Hemolysis Inflammation Inflammation Infection and Sterilization Infection and Sterilization Carcinogenesis Carcinogenesis Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity Systemic Effects Systemic Effects

47 What are some of the Challenges? To more closely replicate complex tissue architecture and arrangement in vitro. To more closely replicate complex tissue architecture and arrangement in vitro. To better understand extracellular and intracellular modulators of cell function. To better understand extracellular and intracellular modulators of cell function. To develop novel materials and processing techniques that are compatible with biological interfaces. To develop novel materials and processing techniques that are compatible with biological interfaces. To find better strategies for immune acceptance. To find better strategies for immune acceptance.

48 Biomaterials - An Emerging Industry Next generation of medical implants and therapeutic modalities. Next generation of medical implants and therapeutic modalities. Interface of biotechnology and traditional engineering. Interface of biotechnology and traditional engineering. Significant industrial growth in the next 15 years -- potential of a multi-billion dollar industry. Significant industrial growth in the next 15 years -- potential of a multi-billion dollar industry.

49 Biomaterials Companies Baxter International develops technologies related to the blood and circulatory system. Biocompatibles Ltd. develops commercial applications for technology in the field of biocompatibility. Carmeda makes a biologically active surface that interacts with and supports the bodys own control mechanisms Collagen Aesthetics Inc. bovine and human placental sourced collagens, recombinant collagens, and PEG-polymers Endura-Tec Systems Corp. bio-mechanical endurance testing ofstents, grafts, and cardiovascular materials Howmedica develops and manufactures products in orthopaedics. MATECH Biomedical Technologies, development of biomaterials by chemical polymerization methods. Medtronic, Inc. is a medical technology company specializing in implantable and invasive therapies. Molecular Geodesics Inc., biomimetic materials for biomedical, industrial, and military applications Polymer Technology Group is involved in the synthesis, characterization, and manufacture of new polymer products. SurModics, offers PhotoLink(R) surface modification technology that can be used to immobilize biomolecules W.L. Gore Medical Products Division, PTFE microstructures configured to exclude or accept tissue ingrowth. Zimmer, design, manufacture and distribution of orthopaedic implants and related equipment and supplies

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