Presentation on theme: "Despite its horrors, WWII did bring an end to the Depression in America. Millions of workers streamed back into the factories to produce airplanes, tanks."— Presentation transcript:
Despite its horrors, WWII did bring an end to the Depression in America. Millions of workers streamed back into the factories to produce airplanes, tanks and guns and to receive a welcome paycheck.
Key Concepts During WWII, the American economy converted to producing materials for the war. WWII ended the Great Depression as millions joined the wartime labor force and after the U.S. joined the war, the military. The war was paid for with taxes and by government borrowing.
Mobilizing the War Economy As Americans came out of the Depression, people were eager to buy cars, refrigerators, and washing machines. Government had to convince them to continue to sacrifice for the war effort. The outcome of the war would depend on our ability to produce war items May 1943: FDR organizes the Office of War Mobilization
Conversion of the Auto Industry Feb 10, 1942: Last day of automobile production Henry Ford built a new factory to produce B- 24 bombers He wanted to build planes on an assembly line (had never been done before) Willow Run Plant 975 acres, employed 42,000+ people
New Opportunities for Profit Secretary of War Henry Stimson You have to let business make money or business wont work. Cost plus system- government paid all development and production costs plus a percentage as profit on anything a company made for the war
New Markets and Methods Robert Woodruff (Coca-Cola) We will see that every m an in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for 5¢ wherever he is and whatever it costs the company. Civilians at home increased their consumption to help support to the program Henry J. Kaiser introduced mass production techniques to shipbuilding 1941: It took 355 days to build a Liberty Ship 1945: It took only 14 days
Workers, the War and Unions Union membership rose 10.5 million in 1941 to 14.8 million in 1945 Labor and business representatives agreed to no strikes or lockouts Strikes did occur, but they were not endorsed by the unions United Mine Workers called a strike in 1943 Coal prices soared and wages remained the same Secretary of the Interior negotiated an end to the strike
Financing the War Tax increases paid for 41% of the cost Revenue Act of 1942 set the income tax rate at 5% U.S. Treasury sold war bonds Other money was borrowed Deficit spending became a habit after WWII
While American soldiers crouched in foxholes overseas, friends and families supported their struggle on the home front. Rationing and conserving resources, like gasoline, scrap metal and rubber, drew most of the country into the war effort.
Key Concepts The mood on the American home front was one of cooperation and determined optimism. American consumers had money in their pockets for the first time in years and they looked for ways to spend it. Shortages of many basic items, such as sugar, meat and gasoline, plagued the wartime economy. The government sought to maintain morale at home through various public relations campaigns.
Prosperity and Popular Culture Money to burn Cars were not available to buy Book sales increased 62% of the population went to the movies each week Baseball and Popular Music 4,000 out of 5,700 major and minor league players enlisted in the military Teams placed want ads in newspapers to find players 1943: Philip Wrigley began the All-American Girls Softball League Became the All-American Girls Baseball League in 1945 Music Frank Loessers Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition White Christmas
Shortages and Controls Clothing-no metal and less cloth available Vests, patch pockets and cuffs eliminated from mens suits 2 piece bathing suits were justified because the military needed the fabric for uniforms Food Sugar couldnt be imported from the Philippines, nor could coffee from Brazil Meat was sent to the military 1941: FDR created the Office of Price Administration to stop inflation Rationing begins in 1942 Sugar,coffee, meat, butter, shoes and gas
Campaigns at Home Government had to create a sense of patriotism and participation in order to convince the public to conserve resources Scrap metal and other materials were collected for war time production Cooking fats were saved to make powder for bullets Play your part, Conserve and collect, Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.
During WWII, thousands of American women rolled up their sleeves and went to work in defense plants and shipyards. Adapting quickly to work usually done by men and overcoming a sometimes cold welcome from fellow male employees, they helped satisfy the Allies urgent need for military goods.
Key Concepts During WWII, American women of all ages went to work. Women were successful in their new jobs despite the hardships and discrimination they faced. At the end of the war, women were strongly encouraged to leave their jobs, whether they wanted to or not.
Rosie the Riveter Fictional character used in posters and propaganda Created by the government to get women to help in the effort
Shifting Patterns of Employment Young single women were already working The goal was to entice older, married women into the workforce 1941: 14.6 million working women, 1944: 19.4 mill. ¾ of working women were married By the end of the war, ½ of women workers were married
The Wartime Working Experience Working conditions for women of color They faced racial and gender discrimination Through lawsuits and protest African American women were able to change some of their workplace situations Benefits of Employment Pay off debts from the Depression Sense of independence Show their patriotism
Problems for Working Women Hostile reactions from male workers Work restrictions Child care Responsibilities in the home Low wages
The Postwar Push to Demobilize Women Women were expected to leave their jobs after the war Men returning from war wanted their jobs back and needed them Some women wanted to go back to domestic work
For many Americans the war broke down racial barriers in the job market. Japanese Americans, however, fell victim to bitter prejudice at home as the U.S. battled Japan abroad.
Key Concepts Events on the home front helped stimulate the movement for equal rights for African Americans. Mexican Americans and Native Americans battled discrimination at home and entered the work force in greater numbers during the war. A large number of Japanese Americans were forced into internment camps by the U.s. government during the war, while others served courageously in the military.
The Wartime Struggle Against Jim Crow During the 1940s, 2 mill+ African Americas migrated from the south to the north and west Population was concentrated in urban ghettos When the war began 1 in 5 African Americans was unemployed Black soldiers in Salina, KS were refused service at a lunch counter that served German POWs Military remained segregated Early 1941, A. Philip Randolph threatened a march on Washington June 25 th FDR signed Executive Order 8802, which opened jobs in defense plants to all Americans 1942: Congress on Racial Equality founded in Chicago
Mexican Americans and Braceros During WWII The Bracero Program 1942 shortage of farm workers An agreement between the U.S. and Mexico to provide transportation, food, shelter and medical care for workers 200,000+ participants When their contracts were over, they were sent back to Mexico Zoot Suit Riots April and May 1943: Fighting breaks out between sailors and Los Angeles residents of Mexican descent Zoot suit consisted of baggy pants and a long jacket Sailors would threaten and attack zoot suiters Early June 1943 fighting was widespread Zoot suiters were usually arrested, sailors were not Military officials restricted sailors leave time
Native Americans and the War at Home 50,000+ worked in war industries Native Americans who had worked in defense plants or served overseas were not as likely to return to reservations
The Japanese American Internment 1/10 of the American population 2/3 of them were American born citizens Others feared sabotage and spying Feb. 19, 1942: FDR signs Executive Order 9066 Secretary of War established military zones and removed Americans of Japanese ancestry from them 110,000 sent to internment camps Relocations happened very quickly Most lost everything they owned
Contd All camps were located in remote areas They had wooden barracks covered with tar paper, surrounded by barbed wire fences and armed guards 17,000 Japanese Americans served in the military 1,200 volunteered from internment camps 442 nd Regimental Combat Team won more medals for bravery than any other in U.S. history 4 cases against relocation were sent ot he Supreme Court All 4 were decided in favor of the government Internees were released in early 1945 Many had been left homeless 1988: Pres. Ronald Reagan signs a law awarding $20,000 to each surviving internee