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Timothy Adams Steven Burns Tony Cartwright Michelle Yu.

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Presentation on theme: "Timothy Adams Steven Burns Tony Cartwright Michelle Yu."— Presentation transcript:

1 Timothy Adams Steven Burns Tony Cartwright Michelle Yu

2 Nomex (poly(m-phenylene teraphthalate)) Celazole (Polybenzimidazole) (PBI) Kevlar (poly(p-phenylene teraphthalate)) Zylon (Polybenzobisoxazole) (PBO) Kapton (poly(4,4'-oxydiphenylene- pyromellitimide)) Polyimides Polysulfones Polyaryletheretherketone (PEEK) Phosphazenes Trade Names

3 Firefighting Suits Space Suits Flight Suits Electrical Insulation Heat shields Aircraft Fuselage Welding Protection Sealing Tapes Bushings, Seals Bearings Hot Gas Filtration DuPont, 2007 Nasa 2008

4 Firefighting Suits, 2009

5 Major Time Periods Pre 1800: Limited protective equipment. First leather fire helmets invented. Mid 1800s: Use of wool for some protective clothing. First traditional fire helmet. Post WWI: Use of rubber coats and boots, and use of Bunker Pants. Post WWII: First NFPA standards set. Evolution of the modern turnout gear. Fire Suit History, 2009

6 NFPA Requirements Globe Firefighter Suits, 2009

7 Requirements II Globe Firefighter Suits, 2009


9 Direct Industry, 2009 Wale Apparatus Co., 2009 Performance Products, 2009

10 Poly(2,2-(m-phenylene)-5,5bibenzimidazole Performance Products, 2009

11 Chung, Tai-Shung. 1997 Common Monomers : Tetra-amines (bis-o-diamines) and dicarboxylates R1 and R: Either aromatic or aliphatic functional groups, such as ether, ketone, sulfone, siloxane, silane, phosphine oxide

12 Extreme Flame Resistance Excellent High Energy Radiation Resistance High Chemical and Thermal Stabilities at High Temperatures High Tg Highest Compressive Strength Heat Deflection Temp. = 435 deg. C @ 264 psi Good Mechanical Strength NASA, 2008 Chung, Tai-Shung. 1997

13 PBI Fiber Processing Methods 1.Dry Spinning 2.Wet Spinning 3.Dry-jet Wet Spinning Chung, Tai-Shung. 1997

14 China Suppliers, 2009 Alibaba, 2009, 2009 Sariwarnamas, 2009

15 Synthetic Methods in Step-growth Polymers, 2003

16 Wet spin DMAc Ionic Liquids Dry spin Christian Kubel et al., 2001 Tingting Zhao, 2007

17 Flame resistance Self extinguishing LOI: 28 No melt drip Chemical resistance Solvents & biohazards Long duration Low shrinkage Water Absorption ~9% Gang Sun, 2004, 2009

18 Advantages: Extreme Fire Resistance No smoke or off-gases at 1000F Retains properties up to 760 degrees Celsius and all the way down to -200 degrees Celsius High Chemical Resistance Disadvantages: Higher Water Absorption 15-18% water absorption Cost - More than $70/lb (Smith, 1999) PBINomex VS Advantages: Extreme Fire Resistance Self extinguishing No drip or melt High Chemical Resistance Low Water Absorption ~9% Cost - $14/kg (Volokhina, 1984) Disadvantages: UV degradation In Conclusion…


20 Nomex on Demand Fibers swell when exposed to heat At 250F, the polymer expands to about 5x the thickness Provides better protection when needed and increased mobility when thermal protection is not needed, 2009

21 DuPont, 2009

22 Questions? Acknowledgements: Cleveland Heights Fire Department, 2009

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