Presentation on theme: "Standard Costing and Variance Analysis UAA – ACCT 202 Principles of Managerial Accounting Dr. Fred Barbee."— Presentation transcript:
Standard Costing and Variance Analysis UAA – ACCT 202 Principles of Managerial Accounting Dr. Fred Barbee
Planning Decision Making Decision Making Organizing & Directing Controlling Evaluating The Work of Management
Establish Standards Measure Actual Compare Actual/Std. Take Action Revise? The Control Process
Standard Costs Standard Costs are Predetermined Used for planning labor, material, and overhead requirements Benchmarks for measuring performance. Used to simplify the accounting system.
Standard Costs Direct Material Managers focus on quantities and costs that exceed standards, a practice known as management by exception. Type of Product Cost Amount Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Standard
Accountants, engineers, personnel administrators, and production managers combine efforts to set standards based on experience and expectations. Setting Standard Costs
Should we use practical standards or ideal standards? Engineer Managerial Accountant
Setting Standard Costs Practical standards should be set at levels that are currently attainable with reasonable and efficient effort. Production manager
Setting Standard Costs I agree. Ideal standards, based on perfection, are unattainable and discourage most employees. Human Resources Manager
A Standard is... A benchmark or norm for measuring performance. They are expected levels of performance. They are monetary measures to which actual costs are compared.
Standard Costs... Are realistically predetermined costs for Direct materials Direct labor Factory overhead They are typically expressed as cost per unit of finished product.
Why Standard Costs? They are useful in preparing operating budgets. They make it easier to pinpoint production costs that must be controlled. They are useful in evaluating performance of managers and workers.
Why Standard Costs? They help in setting realistic prices. They simplify accounting procedures for inventories and product costing.
Cost Assignment Approaches Actual Normal Standard Manufacturing Costs Actual Standard DL Actual Standard MOH Actual Budgeted Standard Cost System DM
Setting DM Standards Price Standards Final, delivered cost of materials, net of discounts. Quantity Standards Use product design specifications.
Setting DL Standards Rate Standards Use wage surveys and labor contracts. Time Standards Use time and motion studies for each labor operation.
Setting VOH Standards Rate Standards The rate is the variable portion of the predetermined overhead rate. Activity Standards The activity is the base used to calculate the predetermined overhead.
Standards vs. Budgets Are standards the same as budgets? A budget is set for total costs. A standard is a per unit cost. Standards are often used when preparing budgets.
Standard Cost Variances Cost Standard This variance is unfavorable because the actual cost exceeds the standard cost. A standard cost variance is the amount by which an actual cost differs from the standard cost.
HOTS, Inc. To illustrate the use of standard costs, consider Herman O Thompson Sports, Inc. (HOTS, Inc.), a manufacturer of a popular jogging suit. The company wishes to have standard costs developed for the suit in terms of Direct Material, Direct Labor and Manufacturing Overhead.
Determining Standard Cost The Quantity Decision – the amount of input to be used for a standard unit of output. The Pricing Decision – the amount that should be paid for the quantity of the input to be used.
Standard DM Price/Unit The standard price per unit for DM should be the final, delivered cost of materials. Specified quantity of materials, Quantity discounts, Transportation (freight) costs, Receiving and handling costs, Seasonal availability (if any).
Standard DM Price/Unit A material known as crylon is used in the jogging suits. The standard price for a yard of crylon is determined as follows: Purchase Price, Grade A Crylon$5.70 Freight, by Truck.40 Receiving & Handling.10 Less Discount (20,000 yard lots)(.20) Standard Price Per Yard$6.00
Standard DM Quantity/Unit The amount of materials that should go into each finished unit of product Engineered (bill of materials) requirements, Expected spoilage of RM, Unavoidable waste, DM in scrapped WIP (Rejects).
Standard DM Quantity/Unit The standard quantity of crylon that goes into one jogging suit is computed as follows: Bill of Materials Requirement2.8 Yds Allowance for Waste0.6 Yds Allowance for Rejects0.1 Yds Standard Quantity/Jogging Suit3.5 Yds
Standard DM Quantity/Unit Once the price and standard quantities have been set, the standard cost of materials (crylon) for one unit of finished product can be computed. 3.5 Yards per jogging suit x $6.00 per yard = $21.00
Standard Rate For DL Hour The standard rate per hour for DL should include all costs associated with DL workers: Hourly wage rates Expected labor mix Fringe benefits Employment taxes
Standard DL Rate Per Hour The standard rate per hour for the expected mix is determined by using average wage rates, fringe benefits, and employment taxes for the labor mix. Average wage rate per hour$13 Average fringe benefits4 Average employment taxes1 Standard rate per DL hour$18.
Standard Hours Per Unit Engineered labor time per unit. Allowance for breaks, personal needs, and cleanup. Allowance for setup and other machine downtime. Allowance for rejects.
Standard DL Hours Per Unit The standard hours determined to produce a jogging suit is determined as follows: Basic labor time per unit1.4 Hrs Allowance for breaks & cleanup0.1 Hrs Allowance for setup and downtime0.3 Hrs Allowance for rejects0.2 Hrs Standard Hours Per Jogging Suit2.0 Hrs
Standard DL Costs Once the time and rate standards have been set, the standard cost of labor for one unit of product can be computed. 2.0 Hrs per Jogging Suit x $18 per Hour = $36 per Suit
Variable OH Standards Standards exist for VOH and are typically expressed in terms of rate and hours. The rate is the variable portion of the POR The hours represent the base used to apply overhead to products.
Variable OH Standards HOTS, Inc. applies MOH costs to products on the basis of DL hours. The variable portion of the POR is $4 per DL hour. Using this rate, the standard cost of variable overhead for one unit of product is (2 DL Hours x $4 per Hour = $8 per suit).
Standard Cost Card After standards have been set for DM, DL and MOH, a standard cost card can be prepared. The cost card indicates what the final, manufactured cost should be for a unit of product.
HOTS, Inc. Standard Cost Card For Jogging Suits Direct Materials Direct Labor Variable Overhead Standard Cost Per Unit Quantity 3.5 Yds. 2.0 Hrs. Price $6/Yd. 18/Hr. 4/Hr. Cost $ $65
A General Model For Variance Analysis Variable Production Costs AQ x APAQ x SPSQ x SP Total Variance Variance DM Price Variance DL Rate Variance VOH Spending Var. DM Quantity Var. DL Efficiency Var. VOH Efficiency Var.