Presentation on theme: "Flexible Budgets and Standard Costs"— Presentation transcript:
1Flexible Budgets and Standard Costs Chapter 22Chapter 22 explains flexible budgets and standard costs.
2Prepare a flexible budget for the income statement Learning Objective 1Prepare a flexible budget forthe income statementThe first learning objective is to prepare a flexible budget for the income statement.
3Static vs. Flexible Budgets Static BudgetFlexible BudgetPrepared for only one level of sales volumePrepared for several different volume levels within a relevant rangeSeparates fixed and variable costsVariance = difference between actual and budgetThe master budget is a static budget, which means that it is prepared for only one level of sales volume. The static budget does not change after it is developed. A variance is the difference between an actual amount and the budgeted amount. The variances are classified as either:• Favorable (F) if an actual amount increases operating income, OR• Unfavorable (U) if an actual amount decreases operating income.A flexible budget summarizes costs and revenues for several different volume levels within a relevant range. Flexible budgets separate variable costs from fixed costs; it is the variable costs that put the “flex” in the flexible budget. To create a flexible budget, you need to know:• Budgeted selling price per unit• Variable cost per unit• Total fixed costs• Different volume levels within the relevant rangeFavorable – actual amount increases incomeUnfavorable – actual amount decreases incomeCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
4Prepare an income statement performance report Learning Objective 2Prepare an income statement performance reportThe second learning objective is to prepare an income statement performance report.
5Static Budget Variances Flexible Budgetbased on actualnumber of outputsStatic Budgetbased on expected number of outputsActualResultsFlexible Budget VarianceSales Volume VarianceIt is not enough to know that a variance occurred. Managers must know why a variance occurred—to pinpoint problems and take corrective action. If sales are less than budgeted, a static budget will underestimate both sales and total costs.If sales are more than budgeted, the static budget will overestimate. These variances are called static budget variances because actual activity differed from what was expected in the static budget. To develop more useful information, managers divide the static budget variance into two broad categories:• Sales volume variance—arises because the number of units actually sold differed from the number of units on which the static budget was based.• Flexible budget variance—arises because the company had more or less revenue, or more or less cost, than expected for the actual level of output.Static Budget VarianceCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6Budget Variances Sales Volume Variance Flexible Budget Variance Master Budget(for the expected number of units to be sold)Flexible Budget(for the number of units actually sold)Flexible Budget VarianceThe formulas for computing the variances are shown here. The sales volume variance is based on two different sales levels: expected sales and actual sales. The flexible budget variance, however, is based on the actual sales level only.Flexible Budget(for the number of units actually sold)Actual results(for the actual number of units to be sold)Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
7Exercise 22-16Exercise requires the completion of an income statement performance report. The missing amounts are those of the flexible budget variances and the static budget amounts. To compute the flexible budget variances, the difference between the actual results are compared to the flexible budget amounts. There was no difference in sales revenue. However, both actual variable and actual fixed costs were higher than the flexible budget. This results in unfavorable variances.To compute the static budget, the sales volume variances are subtracted from the flexible budget. Since the variance for sales for output was favorable, this means more units were sold than expected. This is also why sales revenue has a positive volume variance. The sales volume variance for variable costs was unfavorable. This means the flexible budget amount was greater than the static budget. The favorable variance for sales and the unfavorable variance for costs are netted together to produce an overall $10,000 favorable sales volume variance in operating income.Given the increase in sales revenue, the sales department should be commended. However, the unfavorable variances in costs should be explored.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
8Identify the benefits of standard costs and learn how to set standards Learning Objective 3Identify the benefits of standard costs and learn how to set standardsThe third learning objective is to identify the benefits of standard costs and learn how to set standards.
9Standard Costs Budget for a single unit Each unit has standards for: QuantityPriceMost companies use standard costs to develop their flexible budgets. Think of a standard cost as a budget for a single unit. In a standard cost system, each input has both a quantity standard and a price standard.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
10Price StandardsDirect materialsConsider early-pay discounts, freight-in, and receiving costsManagers look for ways to cut costsDirect laborConsider pay rates, payroll taxes, and fringe benefitsAccountants work with human resource managersManufacturing overheadAccountants work with production managersAppropriate allocation base chosenThe price standard for direct materials starts with the base purchase cost of each unit of inventory. Accountants help managers set a price standard for materials after considering early-pay discounts, freight-in, and receiving costs. World-class businesses demand continuous reductions in costs. This can be achieved several ways, such as working with suppliers to cut their costs, using the Internet to solicit price quotes from suppliers around the world, and sharing information.For direct labor, accountants work with human resource managers to determine standard labor rates. They must consider basic pay rates, payroll taxes, and fringe benefits. Job descriptions reveal the level of experience needed for each task.Accountants work with production managers to estimate manufacturing overhead costs. Production managers identify an appropriate allocation base, such as direct labor hours or direct labor cost. Accountants then compute the standard overhead rates.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
11Quantity StandardsDirect materialsConsider product specifications, spoilageDirect laborConsider time requirementsUse of time-and-motion studies and benchmarkingManufacturing overheadBased on overhead application rateProduction managers and engineers set direct material and direct labor quantity standards. To set its labor standards, a company may analyze its plant operations. Some companies conduct time-and-motion studies to streamline various tasks.Many companies set quantity standards based on “best practices.” This is often called benchmarking. The best practice may be an internal benchmark from other plants or divisions within the company or it may be an external benchmark from other companies. Internal benchmarks are easy to obtain, but managers can also purchase external benchmark data.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
12Summary of Standard Setting Issues Price StandardQuantity StandardDirect MaterialsResponsibility: Production managersResponsibility: Production managers & engineersFactors: Purchase price, discounts, delivery, credit policyFactors: Product specifications, spoilage, production schedulingDirect LaborResponsibility: Human resource managersFactors: Wage rate, payroll taxes, fringe benefitsFactors: Time requirementsManufacturing OverheadFactors: Nature and amount of resources needed forsupport activitiesThis table summarizes who is responsible for setting standards for each of the cost elements and what factors come into play when setting the standards.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
13Benefits of Standard Costs Helps managers:In budget preparationTarget levels of performanceIdentify performance standardsSet sales pricesDecrease accounting costsU.S. surveys show that more than 80% of responding companies use standard costing. Over half of responding companies in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden, and Japan use standard costing. Why? Standard costing helps managers:• Prepare the budget• Set target levels of performance• Identify performance standards• Set sales prices of products and services• Decrease accounting costsCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
14Variances Price Variance Efficiency Variance Total Cost Variance Actual PriceXActual QuantityStandard PriceXActual QuantityStandard PriceXStandard QuantityPrice VarianceEfficiency VarianceThis diagram shows how price and efficiency variances are computed.Total Cost VarianceCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
15Price Variance (AP – SP) x AQ OR Measures how well the business keeps unit costs within standards(Actual Price x Actual Quantity)(Standard Price x Actual Quantity)ORA price variance measures how well the business keeps unit prices of material and labor inputs within standards. As the name suggests, the price variance is the difference in prices (actual price per unit – standard price per unit) of an input, multiplied by the actual quantity of the input.Actual Quantity(Actual Price – Standard Price)(AP – SP) x AQCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
16Efficiency (Quantity) Variance Measures how well the business keeps unit costs within standards(Standard Price x Actual Quantity)(Standard Price x Standard Quantity)ORAn efficiency or quantity variance measures how well the business uses its materials or human resources. The efficiency variance is the difference in quantities (actual quantity of input used – standard quantity of input allowed for the actual number of outputs) multiplied by the standard price per unit of the input.Standard Price(Actual Quantity – Standard Quantity)(AQ – SQ) x SPCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
17Variances Static Budget Variance Flexible Budget based on actual number of outputsStatic Budgetbased on expected number of outputsActualResultsPrice VarianceEfficiency VarianceThis table illustrates these variances and emphasizes two points.• First, the price and efficiency variances add up to the flexible budget variance.• Second, static budgets play no role in the price and efficiency variances.The static budget is used only to compute the sales volume variance—never to compute the flexible budget variance or the price and efficiency variances for materials and labor.Flexible Budget VarianceSales Volume VarianceStatic Budget VarianceCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
18Compute standard cost variances for direct materials and direct labor Learning Objective 4Compute standard cost variances for direct materials and direct laborThe fourth learning objective is to compute standard cost variances for direct materials and direct labor.
19Computing Variances Gather necessary data: Identify fixed and variable costsCompare actual results with flexible budgetPrepare flexible budget based on standard costsCompute actual quantities and prices of materials and laborThe first step in identifying the causes of the cost variance is to identify the variable and fixed costs and prepare a comparison of actual results with the flexible budget. Next, a flexible budget based on standard costs is prepared. Last, actual quantities and costs are computed.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
20(Actual Price – Standard Price) Exercise 22-18Direct materials price varianceActual Quantity(Actual Price – Standard Price)2900 yards($1.15 – $1.10)Exercise requires the computation of the direct materials price variance, direct materials efficiency variance, direct labor price variance, and the direct labor efficiency variance.Quality, Inc., produced 1,000 units of the company’s product in The standard quantity of materials was three yards of cloth per unit at a standard price of $1.10 per yard. The accounting records showed that 2,900 yards of cloth were used and the company paid $1.15 per yard.To compute the direct materials price variance, the difference between actual price and standard price is multiplied by the actual number of yards of fabric actually used. Since the actual price exceeded the standard price, the variance is unfavorable.$145 UCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
21Exercise 22-18 (continued) Direct materials efficiency varianceStandard Price(Actual Quantity – Standard Quantity)2900 yards – (1000 units x 3 yards)$1.10To compute the direct materials efficiency variance, the difference between the actual number of yards used and the standard is multiplied by the standard price. The standard quantity was given for one unit as 3 yards of fabric. To determine the standard quantity for the 1000 units, multiply three yards by Since less yards of material was used, the efficiency variance is favorable.$110 FCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
22Exercise 22-18 (continued) Actual price x Actual quantityStandard price x Actual quantityStandard price x Standard quantity$1.15 x 2900 = $3,335$1.10 x 2900 = $3,190$1.10 x 3000 = $3,300Price varianceEfficiency variance$145 U$110 FTo summarize the materials variances, this diagram shows each materials variance and the total materials variance.Total materials variance$35 UCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
23Exercise 22-18 (continued) Direct labor price varianceActual Hours(Actual Price – Standard Price)650 hours($9.50 – $10.00)Standard time was one direct labor hour per unit at a standard rate of $10 per direct labor hour. Employees worked 650 hours and were paid $9.50 per hour.To compute the direct labor price variance, the actual hourly pay is subtracted from the standard and multiplied by the actual hours worked. Since the actual labor rate is $0.50 less per hour than standard, the variance is favorable.$325 FCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
24Exercise 22-18 (continued) Direct labor efficiency varianceStandard Price(Actual Hours – Standard Hours)650 hours –(1,000 units x 1 hour/unit)$10.00To compute the direct labor efficiency variance, standard hours are subtracted from actual hours. Since the standard is one hour per unit and 1,000 units were produced, the standard hours equal 1,000. The difference is then multiplied by the standard labor rate. Since the employees worked 350 hours less than standard, this labor variance is also favorable.$3,500 FCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
25Exercise 22-18 (continued) Actual price x Actual hoursStandard price x Actual hoursStandard price x Standard hours$9.50 x 650 = $6,175$10.00 x 650 = $6,500$10.00 x 1,000 = $10,000Price varianceEfficiency variance$325 F$3,500 FThis diagram shows the individual labor variances and the total labor variance.Total labor variance$3,825 FCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
26Analyze manufacturing overhead in a standard cost system Learning Objective 5Analyze manufacturing overheadin a standard cost systemThe fifth learning objective is to analyze manufacturing overhead in a standard cost system.
27Total Overhead Variance Actual overhead costminusThe total overhead variance is the difference between actual overhead cost and standard overhead allocated to production.Standard overhead allocated to productionCopyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
28Allocating Overhead in a Standard Cost System Overhead allocated to productionStandard (predetermined) overhead rateStandard quantity of the allocation base allowed for actual outputThe overhead allocated to production is computed by multiplying the standard overhead rate by the standard quantity of the allocation base allowed for actual output. For example, if the overhead rate is based on direct labor hours, the standard hours for the production level achieved would be used.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
29Overhead Flexible Budget Variance Shows how well managers controlled overhead costsActual overhead costsFlexible budget overhead for actual outputTo see why a total overhead variance occurred, it is split into two components:• The overhead flexible budget variance• The production volume varianceThe overhead flexible budget variance tells how well managers controlled overhead costs. It is computed by subtracting the flexible budget amount for actual production from the actual overhead costs incurred.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
30Overhead Production Volume Variance Occurs when actual production differs from expected productionFlexible budget overhead for actual outputStandard overhead allocated to actual productionThe second component of the total overhead variance is the overhead production volume variance. This variance arises when actual production differs from expected production.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
31Learning Objective 6Record transactions at standard cost and prepare a standard cost income statementThe sixth learning objective is to record transactions at standard cost and prepare a standard cost income statement.
32Standard Cost Accounting Systems Materials inventory and Manufacturing wages are recorded at standard pricesUnfavorable variances are recorded as debits; favorable variances are recorded as creditsWork in process inventory is recorded at standard quantities and standard pricesTo be alerted of variances quickly, companies can adopt standard costing for recording journal entries. The Materials inventory, Manufacturing wages, and Work in process accounts are debited at standard costs. Each variance has a separate account, with unfavorable variances debited and favorable ones credited.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
33Standard Cost Entries: Direct materials price variance GENERAL JOURNALDATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDITMaterials inventoryDirect materials price varianceAccounts payableTo record purchase of direct materialsstandard price)(if U-debit, if F-credit)actual price)The entry to record purchases of materials requires a debit to Materials inventory at the standard price of materials purchased. Accounts payable is credited at the actual price. If the materials price variance is unfavorable (actual price is greater than standard), the Materials price variance account is debited. If the price variance is favorable, the Materials price variance is credited.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
34Standard Cost Entries: Direct materials efficiency variance GENERAL JOURNALDATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDITWork in process inventoryDirect materials efficiency varianceMaterials inventoryTo record use of direct materialsstandard price & quantity)(If U-debit, if F-credit)standard price & actual quantity)The entry to record the use of direct materials in production includes a debit to Work in process for the standard price multiplied by the standard quantity. Materials inventory is credited for the standard price multiplied by the actual quantity. If the materials quantity variance is favorable (actual materials used is less than standard), the variance account is credited. If it is unfavorable, it is debited.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
35Standard Cost Entries: Direct labor price (rate) variance GENERAL JOURNALDATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDITManufacturing wagesDirect labor price(rate) varianceWages payableTo record labor costsstandard rate)(If U-debit, if F-credit)actual rate)To record labor costs, Manufacturing wages is debited at the standard labor rate for the hours worked. Wages payable is credited at the actual amount of wages. If the labor rate variance is unfavorable (actual labor rate is greater than the standard), the variance account is debited. If it is favorable, it is credited.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
36Standard Cost Entries: Direct labor efficiency variance GENERAL JOURNALDATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDITWork in process inventoryDirect labor efficiency varianceManufacturing wagesTo allocate direct labor to productionstandard rate & hours)(If U-debit, if F-creditstandard rate & actual hours)The entry to record the use of direct labor in production includes a debit to Work in process for the standard rate multiplied by the standard hours. Manufacturing wages is credited for the standard rate multiplied by the actual hours. If the labor efficiency variance is unfavorable (actual hours worked is more than standard), the variance account is debited. If it is favorable, it is credited.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
37Standard Cost Entries: Actual and allocated overhead GENERAL JOURNALDATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDITManufacturing overheadVarious accountsTo record actual overhead costs incurredWork in process inventoryTo allocate overhead costs to production(actual costs incurred)To record actual overhead costs incurred, Manufacturing overhead is debited and various accounts (accounts payable, accumulated depreciation, etc.) are credited – both at actual amounts. To allocate overhead costs to production, Work in process is debited and Manufacturing overhead is credited. The amount is computed by multiplying the standard overhead rate by the standard amount of the allocation base, such as direct labor hours or machine hours.(standard OH rate x standard allocation base )Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
38Standard Cost Entries: Completing production and COGS GENERAL JOURNALDATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDITFinished goods inventoryWork in process inventoryTo record completion of goods at standard costCost of goods soldTo record the cost of goods sold at standard costThe entries to record the completion and sale of goods are the same as we learned in an earlier chapter. The amounts are at standard cost.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
39Standard Cost Entries Overhead flexible budget variance GENERAL JOURNALDATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDITOverhead flexible budget varianceOverhead production volume varianceManufacturing overheadTo record overhead variances and close out theManufacturing overhead accountThe last entry is to close out Manufacturing overhead and record the overhead variances. This entry assumes both variances are unfavorable. Also, overhead is underapplied. Therefore, it is zeroed out with a credit.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
40Management needs to know about a company’s cost variances Management needs to know about a company’s cost variances. Shown here is a standard cost income statement that highlights the variances for management. The statement starts with sales revenue at standard and adds a favorable sales revenue variance to yield actual sales revenue.Next, the statement shows the cost of goods sold at standard cost. Then the statement separately lists each manufacturing cost variance. Note: variances shown in parentheses are decreases (favorable), which are subtracted. Variances without parentheses are increases (unfavorable). This is followed by cost of goods sold at actual cost. At the end of the period, all the variance accounts are closed to zero out their balances—just like other temporary accounts. Operating income is thus closed to Income summary.Copyright (c) 2009 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.