5 Red : gateGreen: n type(negative type)sourcedrainn typen type
6 Gate+5 vRed : gateGreen: n type(negative type)sourcedrainn typen typeNMOS 门gate上加 电源电压后，吸引了负电荷堆积在source ,drain 两极间，使该 两极间产生通道，NMOS 就导通了+5 vNMOS Transistor is ON when applying positive voltage on its gate, attracting negative charges to accumulate between two n type area0 vTransistor is OFF when applying ‘O’ voltage on its gate6
7 NMOS: input on gate= 1, NMOS on = 0, NMOS offPMOS : opposite to NMOS (note:a small circle o on symbol)input on gate =0, PMOS on=1, PMOS off
8 Inverter 反相器 input output 1 Input=1, NMOS on, PMOS off Supply voltagePMOSOutput has a path to Supply voltage through PMOSoutputoutput=0inputoutput=1PMOSGroundOutput has a path to ground through NMOSinputoutput1Truth table:it shows the design is inverter
9 NAND 与非门If input1=0, or input2=0, both NMOS are OFF, but one PMOS will be ON. output has path to Supply voltage,so output=1If input1=1, input2=1, both NMOS are ON, output has path to ground. So output=0Supply voltagePMOSPMOSSupply VoltagePMOSInput 1Input 2Input 2outputInput 1outputInput 1Input 2Input 2NMOSNMOSGroundGroundInput Input Output1Out=In1 NAND In2Truth table: shows it is exactly NAND logic
10 Dual design: 举例:NOR与或门:NMOS 并联时,PMOS对偶的部分 串联DDual Design: PMOS in serial, NMOS in Parallel; If input1=0, or input2=0, both NMOS are OFF, but one PMOS will be ON. output has path to Supply voltage,so output=1Supply voltageSupply VoltagePMOSPMOSInput 1Input 2outputNMOSInput 1Input 2Input Input2 Output1Out=In1 NOR In2GroundTruth table: shows it is exactly NOR logic
13 Stick Diagram:Red: polyGreen:Diffusion(n type or p-type):Blue:metal
14 Basic Unix commands cd my_directory (go to the directory) ls my_directory (list)cp (copy)pwd : present working directorymv my_file my_another_directory (move file)mv old_file_name new_file_name (rename)rm file_name (remove file)find . –name “myExample.txt” –printgrep text filesmkdir myDirectory (create new directory)passwd: change passwdchmod 711 ~: change permissionTip:do not use ftp to transfer files, since ftp does not have encryption of your password; use ssh instead.Good link: by Hamid Mahmoodi
15 Magic layout tool Developed by UC Berkeley Being used in Stanford, MIT, USC,etc
16 In command line, type mkdir tutorial cd tutorial Type in command line: magic tutorial One graphic window will pop out(Note: you have one text window, one graphic window respectively now, your cursor should point to the graphic window always). Next time, if you already have tutorial.mag file, do not include .mag in above command; In text window, type colon ”:” to invoke command: :grid 1 If you type colon, you must enter command and carriage before doing anything else. Shape of cursor: when you press SPACE, 4 shapes toggles: cross, arrow, square, hand. Currently we are using cross shape for position rectangular area for a layer. If you unintentionally press the SPAC, and the cursor shape is not cross, then press SPACE as many times as needed till the cross appears. Left click of the mouse button on the window to determine the lower left corner of the layer area, move cursor and right click for the upper right corner. A box will appear.
17 1. First paint p+ type (brown color), with width 4 units :paint pdiff 2. Paint gate which is polysilicon (red), with width: 2, on top of p+ type:paint poly3.Similarly paint n+ type(green):paint ndiffWidth:4 units
19 Paint : metal (blue color) :paint m1 Paint : metal to p+ (pdiffution ) contact:paint pdcPaint :metal to n+ (ndiffution ) contact:paint ndcPaint : metal (blue color):paint m1If white dots appear, those are errors. Box white dot area, type:drc why (design rule check)You will get error message
20 Add more metal(for supply voltage) :paint m1 Tip: frequently save your design, type:save
21 Paint gate(poly) to metal contact(purple) :paint polycontact
23 Inverter Layout: another way : poly is vertical Paint gate(poly) to metal contact(purple) :paint polycontactNwell-contact: paint nwcP+: paint pdiff or :paint brownp-contact: paint pdcontactGate, poly: paint poly or redn-contact :paint ndiffN+: paint ndiff or :paint greenmetal: paint m1Psubstrate-contact :paint pwc
24 Label names: move cursor to point of the layer you want to add label,left click then right click at the same position, then type :label myLabel for example,:label in :label out :label Vdd :label gndinout
26 Once you finish your design, type :saveYou will find a file named tutorial.mag in your directory.To open this magic file, type:magic tutorial (not :magic tutorial.mag)Finally typecd .. will bring you up one level to your home directory. Suppose you will design a NAND, first create directory by typemkdir NANDcd NANDmagic NANDit will open a new magic layout window.
27 Other commands:select area short key: aundo short key: udeleteview short key:v, Vzoom short key:z,Z5: the key on the right panel on the key board, center the area your box positioned. Other key nearby with arrow can be used to move the layout.savequit (to exit)drc whyTipsAfter you are familiar with the layers, you can use shortcut keys and colors, like : pai red is the same as : paint polyYou should point your cursor to the layout window when you type your command in the text window.. dot is to repeat the previous command (compare in Unix: use up, down, left, right arrow )moving: select an area, type ‘a’, move that part using 4 arrows(up, down, left, right) on the right most part on the key board.copy: select an area, move your cure to another point, press ‘c’ in your keyboardpaint: draw a box, if you want to paint metal, move your cursor to metal that in already in your layout, and press middle button
28 Links:Magic brief overviewStep by Step layout example of an inverter:Magic inverter tutorial
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