Presentation on theme: "Computers & Society - History (Calculating Years)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Computers & Society - History (Calculating Years) Computer HistoryThe Calculating Years10/20/2009
2 Early Calculating Machines Fingers & ToesProblems?
3 AbacusAbacus is a Chinese Calculator consisting of little balls you can move up and down to calculate your mathematical addition or subtraction problem.Created by Cheng Dawei of the Ming Dynasty.The numbers on the bottom are 1-5 and the ones on top are place holders, they also signify if you going up to nine
4 Abacus One of the earliest “man-made” calculating devices Originated in China about 2600 BCStill used in some parts of the worldClick on the link below for a demonstration on how the Abacus works:
5 John Napier John Napier’s time period was 1550-1617. He was a mathematician.He was well known for popularizing decimal points.
6 Napier’s Bones1617, Napier put Multiplication Tables on Ivory rods or bonesPrimitive form of the ‘Slide Rule’To see how Napier’s Bones work click on the link below:
7 Edmund Gunter1620Put logarithmic scales on 2 strips of wood and fashioned a device similar to the “Modern Slide Rule”Known as the “1st Analog computer”
8 Slide RuleThe slide rule is also known as slipstick.It is used primarily for multiplication and Division, and also for "scientific" functions such as roots, logarithms and trigonometry, but is not normally used for addition or Subtraction.In its most basic form, the slide rule uses two logarithmic scales to allow rapid multiplication and division of numbers.
9 Why the need for Mechanical Calculating Devices? Early Mathematical tables done by handCreated by solving Long & Complex mathematical formulasMany Mistakes!!!Pi ()
10 Leonardo daVinci Made many drawings of calculating machines Never built a working model
11 Blaise Pascal 1623 - 1662 By Chris Woof His earliest work was in helping construct the first mechanical calculators.He also clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuums.Mathematician, Physicist, and religious philosopher.Also developed his Traité du triangle arithmétique (Tritise on the arithmetical Triangle.His contribution to computing was recognized by a computer scientist named Nicklaus Wirth which he used to make a new computer language he called Pascal.By Chris Woof
12 Pascaline1642, age of 19, built 1st mechanical calculating machine that to “Carry over” numberscould add or subtractsimple device, about the size of a shoe box, worked like a car’s odometerit was gear-driven and did not always work properlyBuilt it to assist his father in his Tax office
13 Gottfried LiebnizGottfried Leibniz invented the infinitesimal calculus, with the help of Isaac Newton, and his notation has been used ever since. Gottfried also invented the binary system, foundation of virtually all modern computers architectures. He also invented the first mechanical adding machine that was called the stepped reckoner.
14 Leibniz’s Calculatorin 1673, German mathematician, Gottfried Leibniz improved Pascal’s machinenow could add, subtract, multiply and divide rapidlystill unreliable
15 Charles Thomas He lived from 1785 to 1870. He was known for patenting the first mechanical calculator that actually worked.
16 Charles Xavier Thomasin 1820, Thomas improves Pascal and Leibniz’s machineshe manufactures and sells the first successful mechanical calculator, “Arithometer”it is considered to be the predecessor to the “Modern Desktop calculator”
17 Charles Babbagewas a Computer Pioneer and is considered the “Father of the Modern Computer”very frustrated with the inaccuracy of mathematical tablesdreamed of machines that could compute and print out the mathematical tables
18 Difference EngineBabbage came up with the idea for this engine in 1822began building in 1823it was funded by the British government and himselfnever finished, abandoned the project, though a piece was built and it did work
19 Analytical EngineIt was first described in 1837, but Babbage continued to work on the design until his death in Because of financial, political, and legal issues, the engine was never built. The analytical engine was Babbages 2nd attempt at making a machine of this type, the first was the difference engine, but he realized he could make something better, the Analytical Engine. This machine would have been able to Add, subtract, multiply, divide, and even find square roots, it would even be able to print out the results. With the input as a punch card that you would insert, this was the start to modern day computers.
20 Analytical Engine 1833 Babbage began a more ambitious project would have 4 Basic UnitsStore – hold data & results (Memory)Mill – performed the computations (CPU)System of gears for transferring data between Store & Mill (Data Bus)Separate devices for putting data in and getting results out (Input/Output)These 4 Basic units are found in every computer today!
21 Analytical Engine It was to be programmable only 1 person to operate itwould be Steam poweredNever finished itlack of technologyno real demandWould be built using Babbage’s plans in 1992 and proven to work
22 Lady Ada Lovelacemet Babbage at a party and became intrigued with his Engine designscorresponded with Babbage over his plans and communicate his ideas to otherswrote a plan suggesting to Babbage how he might calculate numbers.this plan became known as the “First Computer Program”so now she is known as the First Computer programmer
23 Punch CardsDefinition:A punch card or punched card (or punch card or Hollerith card or IBM card), is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.Punch Cards were started in the mid 1700s for a convenient way to store information.Charles Babbage perfected its use in the mechanical calculator .Soon after Herman Hollerith made it to be readable by machines.
24 Joseph Jacquard 1804 used punch cards to control the weaving process earliest use of punch cards to control the manufacturing processone person could do the work without help
25 1890 U.S. Federal CensusThe census of 1890 was taken, under the supervision of Robert P. Porter,1 according to an act of March 1, 1889, and modeled after that used for the 1880 Census. The enumeration began on June 2, 1890, because June 1 was a Sunday. The census employed 175 supervisors, with one or more appointed to each state or territory, exclusive of Alaska and Indian territory. 2A significant portion of the 1890 Federal Census was destroyed by a fire at the Commerce Department in Washington, DC on 10 January The records of only 6,160 of the 62,979,766 people enumerated survived the fire.3
26 1890 U.S. Census 1st Data Processing use of punch cards Why? 1880 Census took 7 ½ years to completepopulation was growing even fasterUS Census Bureau had a contest to see if someone could “speed up” the process
27 Herman Hollerith designed the 1890 Census machine developed a machine-readable card concept (Hollerith Code)tabulating time of the Census took 1/8th of the time (2 ½ years) & population had increased by over 3 million1896, formed the “Tabulating Machine Company”this company would merge with one owned by Thomas Watson and be renamed “International Business Machines Corporation” (IBM)
28 Thomas J. Watson 1. Born Feb. 17 1874 2. In 1899 Watson was rewarded with the NCR agency for Rochester.3. Watson joined the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation on May 1, 1914.Watson became general manager of IBM.Watson died.
29 Punch CardsPunch cards would be used throughout the 1900s (even up to the 1980s) as many companies would adopt the TechnologySeveral advancements would occurcards could hold more information without getting biggermachines could add, subtract, multiply & dividealso develop machines to alphabetize
30 Disadvantages of Punch Cards 5 machines needed to use Punch cardsCard Punch to create cardsSorter to put in orderCollator to match and merge cardsCalculator to calculate and/or tallyTabulator to summarize and print resultsPeople handle trays of cards between each stepEach machine started, fed cards & stoppedToo MUCH human intervention!!!
31 The ending of Punch Cards With many different forms of memory the punch card slowly moved out of view then now disappeared.
32 HistoryPunch cards have changed the history of storing information and is still today used in many unusual applications, like the University of Wisconsin's Research Building which is modeled after a punch card.
33 CitationsTruesdell, Leon E. (1965). The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census: US GPO.