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**Propositional Logic – The Basics (2)**

Truth-tables for Propositions

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**Assigning Truth L ● ~ F True or false? –**

“This is a class in introductory-level logic.” “This is a class in introductory-level logic, which does not include a study of informal fallacies.” “This is a class in introductory-level logic, which does not include a study of informal fallacies.” L ● ~ F

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**How about this one? L ● F T F F**

“This is a class in introductory logic, which includes a study of informal fallacies.” “This is a class in introductory logic (T), which includes a study of informal fallacies (F).” L ● F T F F

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**Propositional Logic and Truth**

The truth of a compound proposition is a function of: The truth value of it’s component, simple propositions, plus the way its operator(s) defines the relation between those simple propositions. p ● q p v q T F T F F T

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**Truth Table Principles and Rules**

Truth tables enable you to determine the conditions under which you can accept a particular statement as true or false. Truth tables thus define operators; that is, they set out how each operator affects or changes the value of a statement.

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**Truth and the Actual World**

Some statements describe the actual world - the existing state of the world at “time x”; the way the world in fact is. “This is a logic class and I am seated in SOCS 203.” - Actually and currently true on a class day. - Possibly true, but not “currently” true on Monday, Wednesday or Friday.

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**Truth and Possible Worlds**

Some statements describe possible worlds - particular states of the world at “time y”; a way the world could be.. “This is a history class and I am seated in SOCS 203.” Possibly true, but not currently true. Actually true, if you have a history class here and it is a history class day/time. A truth table describes all possible combinations of truth values for a statement. It will, in fact, even tell you if a statement could not possibly be true in any world.

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**Constructing Truth Tables**

1. Write your statement in symbolic form. 2. Determine the number of truth-value lines you must have to express all possible conditions under which your compound statement might or might not be true. Method: your table will represent 2n power, where n = the number of propositions symbolized in the statement. 3. Distribute your truth-values across all required lines for each of the symbols (operators will come later). Method: Divide by halves as you move from left to right in assigning values.

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**Constructing Truth Tables - # of Lines**

For statement forms, there are only two symbols. Thus, these require lines numbering 22 power, or 4 lines. p q 1. 2. 3. 4. p q 1. 2. 3. 4.

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**Constructing Truth Tables – Distribution across all Symbols**

Under “p,” divide the 4 lines by 2. In rows 1 & 2 (1/2 of 4 lines), enter “T.” In rows 3 & 4, (the other ½ of 4 lines), enter “F.” p ● q 1. 2. 3. 4. p ≡ q 1. 2. 3. 4. T T F F T T F F

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**Constructing Truth Tables – Distribution across all Symbols**

Under “q,” divide the 2 “true” lines by 2. In row 1 (1/2 of 2 lines), enter “T.” In row 2, (the other ½ of 2 lines), enter “F.” Repeat for lines 3 & 4, inserting “T” and “F” respectively. p ● q 1. 2. 3. 4. p ≡ q 1. 2. 3. 4. T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F

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**Constructing Truth Tables – Operator Definitions**

Thinking about the corresponding English expressions for each of the operators, determine which truth value should be assigned for each row in the table. p ● q 1. 2. 3. 4. p ≡ q 1. 2. 3. 4. T T F F T T F F T T F T F T F F F F F T F T F T

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**Constructing Truth Tables - # of Lines**

Remember that you are counting each symbol, not how many times symbols appear. ( p ≡ q ) ● q 1. 2. 3. 4. 2 symbols: 1 appearance of “p” and 2 appearances of “q”

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**Exercises - 1 1. 2. 3. 4. ( M > P ) v ( P > M ) T T F F T F T T**

Using the tables which define the operators, determine the values of this statement. 1. 2. 3. 4. ( M > P ) v ( P > M ) T T F F T F T T T F T F T T T T T F T F T T F T T T F F

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Exercises – 2 Using the tables which define the operators, determine the values of this statement. [(Q > P) ● ( ~ Q R)] ~ (P v R) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. T T T T F F F F T T F F T T T T T T F F T T F F T T F F T F T F F F F F T T T T T T T T F F F F T T T T T F T F T F T F T F T F F F F F F F F F F F F T F F F T T T F F T T F F T T T F T T T F T F T F T F T F T T F F T T F F

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