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2.2 Conditional Statements

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Goals Identify statements which are conditional Identify the antecedent and consequent of a conditional statement Negate conditional statements Write the Inverse, converse, and contrapositive of a conditional statement Bi-conditional statements and equivalence with conditional statements

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Let p and q be statements. A sentence of the form “If p then q” is called CONDITIONAL. It is denoted symbolically by “p → q” p is called the hypothesis and q is called the conclusion. Such a sentence is called conditional because the truth of statement q is conditioned on the truth of statement p.

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Truth Table for conditional propositions A conditional statement that is true by virtue of the fact that its hypothesis is false is often called vacuously true or true by default. The statement “If you show up for work Monday morning, then you will get the job” It is vacuously true if you do not show up for work Monday morning. In general, when the “if” part of an if-then statement is false, the statement as a whole is said to be true, regardless of whether the conclusion is true or false.

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In expressions that include → as well as other logical operators such as ∧, ∨, and ∼, the order of operations is that → is performed last Construct a truth table for the statement form p ∨ ∼ q → ∼ p. Solution By the order of operations given above, the following two expressions are equivalent: p ∨ ∼ q → ∼ p and (p ∨ ( ∼ q)) → ( ∼ p), and this order governs the construction of the truth table. Construct it !!!! A word on order of Operations

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The phrases necessary condition and sufficient condition, as used in formal English, correspond exactly to their definitions in logic. In other words, to say “r is a sufficient condition for s” means that the occurrence of r is sufficient to guarantee the occurrence of s.

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Consider the statement “If John is eligible to vote, then he is at least 18 years old.” The truth of the condition “John is eligible to vote” is sufficient to ensure the truth of the condition “John is at least 18 years old.” In addition, the condition “John is at least 18 years old” is necessary for the condition “John is eligible to vote” to be true.

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If-then Or The statements ∼ p ∨ q and p → q are equivalent Rewrite the following statement in if-then form. Either you get to work on time or you are fired. Solution 1 Let ∼ p be You get to work on time. and q be You are fired The equivalent if-then version, p → q, is If you do not get to work on time, then you are fired.

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If-then Or The statements ∼ p ∨ q and p → q are equivalent Rewrite the following statement in if-then form. Either you get to work on time or you are fired. Solution 2 (or is commutative ) Let ∼ p be You are fired and q be You get to work on time. The equivalent if-then version, p → q, is If you are not fired, then you get to work on time.

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Negation of If-then EXERCISE Use truth tables to show this equivalence

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Practicing negation implications Write the negation for each of the following statements a. If my car is in the repair shop, then I cannot get to class. My car is in the repair shop and I got to class b. If Sara lives in Athens, then she lives in Greece. Sara lives in Athens but not in Greece

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Practice Write each of the following statements in its equivalent contrapositive form a.If Howard can swim across the lake, then Howard can swim to the island. Solution If Howard cannot swim to the island, then Howard cannot swim across the lake. b. If today is Easter, then tomorrow is Monday. Solution If tomorrow is not Monday, then today is not Easter.

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The Converse and Inverse of a Conditional Statement

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Practice For each of the following statements write its negation, its contrapositive, converse, and inverse a.If Howard can swim across the lake, then Howard can swim to the island. b. If today is Easter, then tomorrow is Monday.

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UNDERSTAND THESE CLAIMS 1.A conditional statement and its contrapositive are logically equivalent 1.A conditional statement and its converse are not logically equivalent. 2.A conditional statement and its inverse are not logically equivalent. 3.The converse and the inverse of a conditional statement are logically equivalent to each other.

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P only if Q

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The biconditional of p and q

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“p if and only if q” should mean the same as “p if q” and “p only if q.” p ↔ q ≡ (p → q) ∧ (q → p)

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