Presentation on theme: "Effort metrics: Man-month. Mythical Man Month – the book Brooks lead development of OS/360 and reflected on the problems experienced in the project. The."— Presentation transcript:
Effort metrics: Man-month
Mythical Man Month – the book Brooks lead development of OS/360 and reflected on the problems experienced in the project. The book consists of a number of essays. The1986-paper started a lot of debate. Countless reviews, discussion, etc. on www. The book is widely recognized and – to a certain extent – timeless. Source of contemplation. Large-system programming has […] been a tar pit […]. Few have met goals, schedules, and budgets. […] Team after team has become entangled in the tar. No one thing seems to cause the difficulty[…]. But the accumulation of simultaneous and interacting factors brings slower and slower motion. Everyone seems to have been surprised by the stickiness of the problem, and it is hard to discern the nature of it. But we must try to understand it if we are to solve it. Mythical Man Month 1st ed. Ch.1-15 (1975) Reflection on NSB Ch.17 (1995) Reflection on MM-M Ch (1995) No Silver Bullet IFIPS paper Ch.16 (1986)
Essay: The Mythical Man Month More software projects have gone awry due to lack of calendar time than for all other causes combined. Why is this cause of disaster so common? 1.Poor estimation techniques. 2.Gutless estimating. 3.Poor progress monitoring. 4.Schedule slippage solved by adding manpower. 5.Confuse effort with progress.
Man- Month The man-month as a unit for measuring the size of a job is a dangerous and deceptive myth. It implies that men and months are interchangeable.
Il mese-uomo (1) Andamento ideale della curva tempo- risorse
Men/Months interchangable Men and months are interchangeable commodities only when a task can be partitioned among many workers with no communication among them (Fig. 2.1). This is true of reaping wheat or picking cotton; it is not even approximately true of systems programming!
Men/Months interchangable The bearing of a child takes nine months, no matter how many women are assigned!
Men/Months interchangable In tasks that can be partitioned but which require communication among the subtasks, the effort of communication must be added to the amount of work to be done
Men/Months interchangable If each part of the task must be separately coordinated with each other part/ the effort increases as n(n-I)/2. The added effort of communicating may fully counteract the division of the original task
Il mese-uomo (2) Andamento reale della curva tempo- risorse
Communication Overhead 10 Members 45 Interactions 5 Members 10 Interactions
Peculiarità del software –Complessità –Labilità –Modificabilità –Invisibilità
Men/Months interchangable The plan First task, twice as long Adding 2, at Milestone A
Men/Months interchangable - Lessons Brooks law: –Adding man power to a late project makes it later. –Calculate overhead when adding man power. –Use quick starters. –Take competences into account. Today: –Plan the project so that slippage are revealed earlier (iterations + use cases).
People and Effort If we fall behind schedule we can always add more programmers and catch to late in the project Has a disruptive effect on the project Schedules slip even further
People and Effort The relationship between the number of people working in software project and overall productivity is not linear The relationship between the number of people working in software project and overall productivity is not linear Fewer people and longer time period is a better option for software development