Presentation on theme: "MC Medical terms asked in PG entrance examinations! Alphabetical compilation, taken from different medical text books/guide books/self-help books/notes."— Presentation transcript:
MC Medical terms asked in PG entrance examinations! Alphabetical compilation, taken from different medical text books/guide books/self-help books/notes made by author during his studies.
LAST MINUTE REVISION NOTES A useful list of terms for last minute revision before exam..
Disease /TermsDefinition/Features/Seen in Actinic keratosisSeen in SCC Albright's syndromeCharacterized by Polycystic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, short stature, seen in young girls Albumino-cytologic dissociation Seen in Guillain-Barre ( increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count). Alport's syndromeCharacterized by Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness ABM-antibodies+nt in Goodpasture's syndrome Anti-centromere Ab+nt in Scleroderma (CREST) Anti-ds DNA Ab (ANA antibodies) +nt in SLE (type III hypersensitivity) Anti-epithelial cells Ab+nt in Pemphigus vulgaris Anti-gliadin Ab+nt in Celiac disease Anti-IgG Ab+nt in Rheumatoid arthritis Anti-mitochondrial Ab+nt in primary biliary cirrhosis Anti-neutrophil Ab+nt in Vasculitis Anti-platelet Ab+nt in Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Disease/TermDefinition/Features/Seen in ArachnodactylySeen in Marfan's syndrome Argyll Robertson pupilSeen in Neurosyphilis; Accommodation Reflex Present, pupilary reflex absent Arnold-Chiari malformationSeen in Cerebellar tonsillar herniation Aschoff bodiesSeen in Rheumatic fever Atrophy of the mammillary bodies Seen in Wernicke's encephalopathy Auer rodsSeen in AML (specially the promyelocytic M3 type) Auto-splenectomySeen in Sickle cell anemia Babinski's sign+nt in UMN lesion Baker's cyst in popliteal fossaSeen in Rheumatoid arthritis "Bamboo spine" on x-raySeen in Ankylosing spondylitis Barret's esophagusleads to adenocarcinoma esophagus Bartter's syndromeCharacterized by Hyperreninemia
Disease /TermsDefinition/Features/Seen in Basophilic stippling of RBCsSeen in Lead poisoning Becker's muscular dystrophyDue to Defective dystrophin; less severe than DMD Bell's palsyIdiopathic LMN CN VII palsy Bence-Jones ProteinsSeen in Multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda ig light chains in urine), Waldenstrom's-macroglobulinemia-(IgM) Berger's diseaseIgA nephropathy Bernard-Soulier diseaseCharacterized by Defect in platelet adhesion Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis Seen in Sarcoidosis Birbeck granules on EMFeature of Histiocytosis X (Eosinophilic granuloma) Bloody tap on L.P.Seen in SAH Blount's diseaseTibia vara "Blue bloater"Feature of Chronic bronchitis Boot-shaped heart on x-raySeen in Tetralogy of Fallot; RVH Bouchard's nodesSeen in Osteoarthritis (PIP swelling secondary to osteophytes) Boutonniere deformitySeen in Weil Marchesani syndrome Branching rods in oral infection Is Actinomyces israelii
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in "Brown tumor" of boneOsteolytic cysts appearing brown due to hemorrhage, seen in Hyperparathyroidism, Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's disease) Bruton's diseaseSeen in X-Linked agammaglobulinemia Budd-Chiari syndromeCharacterized by Post hepatic venous thrombosis Buerger's diseaseSeen in Small/medium artery vasculitis Burkitt's lymphomaT(8:14); associated with EBV; "starry sky- appearance on histology Burton's linesSeen in Lead poisoning c-ANCA, p-ANCASeen in Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangitis Cafe-au-lait spots on skinFeature of Neurofibromatosis Caisson diseaseCaused due to Gas emboli Calf pseudo-hypertrophySeen in DMD Call-Exner bodiesSeen in Granulose-theca cell tumor of ovary Cardiomegaly with apical atrophyChagas's disease Cerebri-form nucleiMycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-celI lymphoma) Chagas's diseaseCaused by Trypanosome infection
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in ChancreSeen in primary syphilis (painless) ChancroidSeen in Hemophilus ducreii (painful) C'harcot's triad1.)Multiple sclerosis(nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech), 2.)cholangitis(jaundice, RUQ pain, fever) Charcot-Leyden crystalsFeature of Bronchial asthma (eosinophiIic membranes) Chediak-Hegashi diseaseDue to Phagocyte deficiency Cherry-red spot on maculaSeen in Tay-Sachs, Nicmann-Pick dis, CRAO Cheyne-Strokes respirationsDue to Central apnea in CHF and elevated intracranial pressure Chocolate atrophic gastritisleads to gastric carcinoma Chvostek's signSeen in Hypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping) Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the Vagina Due to DES exposure in utero Clue cellsPathognomonic of Gardnerella vaginitis (MC Q asked ) Codman's triangle on x-raySeen in Osteosarcoma Cold agglutininsMycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis Cold intoleranceSeen in Hypothyroidism
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in Condyloma auminataIs Anal warts Cotton-wool spotsMC ocular manifestations of AIDS, Chronic hypertension Cough, conjunctivitis, coryza + Fever Is Measles Councilman bodiesSeen in Herpes virus Crescents in Bowman's capsuleSeen in Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis Crigler-Najjar syndromeIs Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia Curling's ulcerIs Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns Currant-jelly sputumSeen in Klebsiella infection Curshmann's spiralsSeen in Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs) Cushing's ulcerSeen in Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury D-dimersSeen in DIC Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra Feature of Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder. Rigidity, resting tremor & bradykinesia) Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea3D, seen in Pellagra (niacin i.e. vitamin B3 deficiency) Diabetes insipidus + exophlhalmos + lesions of skull Characteristic of Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in Dog or cat biteCauses Pasteurella multocida infection Donovan bodiesSeen in Granuloma inguinale infection. Dressler's syndromeIs Post-MI fibrinous pericarditis Dubin-Johnson syndromeIs Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver) Duchenne's muscular dystrophy Due to Deleted dystrophin gene (X-linked recessive) EburnationIs Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone) Edward's syndromeDue to Trisomy 18 (Eighteen) associated with rocker-bottom feet, low-set ears & heart disease Eisenmenger's complexIs Late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected L to R shunt becomes R to L shunt Elastic skinSeen in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Erb-Duchenne palsyInvolves Superior trunk (C5-C6) brachilal plexus injury ("waiter's tip)" Erythema chronicum migrans Seen in Lyme disease Erythema multi-formeCharacterized by Target lesions on skin Erythema marginatumSeen in Rheumatic fever Fanconi's syndromeIs Proximal tubular reabsorption defect "Fat, female, forty, and fertile" Feature of Acute cholecystitis Fatty liverSeen in alcoholism
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in Ferruginous bodiesasbestosis Gardner's syndromeColon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors Gaucher's diseaseGlucocerebrosidase deficiency Ghon focus1° TB Gilbert's syndromeBenign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia Glanzmann's thrombastheniaDefect in platelet aggregation Goodpasture's syndrome Autoantibodies against alveolar and elomerular basement membrane proteins Gower's maneuver Duchenne's (use of patient's arms to help legs pick self off the floor) "Hair-on-end - (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray fl-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis) Hand-Schuller-Christian diseaseChronic progressive histiocytosis HbFThalassemia major HbSSickle cell anemia hCG elevated Choriocarcinoma. hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo) Heberden's nodesOsteoarthritis (DIP swelling 2° to osteophytes) Heinz bodiesG6PD deficiency Henoch-Schonlein purpura Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs Heterophil antibodiesInfectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in High-output cardiac failure,dilated-cardiomyopathy Seen in Wet beriberi (due to thiamine i.e. vitamin B, deficiency) HLA-B27+nt in Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis HLA-DR3 or DR4+nt in DM type I (caused by autoimmune destruction of β-cells Homer Wright rosettes+nt in Neuroblastoma Honeycomb lung on x-rayDue to Interstitial fibrosis Homer's syndromeCharacterized by Ptosis, miosis, enophthalmos & anhydrosis Howell-Jolly bodiesSeen after Splenectomy (or nonfunctional spleen) Huntington's diseaseDue to Caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant) Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility Feature of Kluver-Bucy syndrome (amygdale) Hyperpigmentation of skinPrimary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) Hypersegmented neutophilsSeen in Macrocytic anemia Hypertension + hypokaleiniaFeature of Conn's syndrome Hypochromic microcytosisSeen in Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning Increased α-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Feature of Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects) Increased uric acid levels +nt in Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics IntussusceptionAdenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer's patches)
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in Jane-way lesionsSeen in Infective endocarditis Jarisch-Herxheirner reaction Seen in Syphilis due to overaggressive treatment of an asymptomatic patient that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis Job's syndromeDue to Neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality Kaposi's sarcomaSeen in AIDS pt ( in homosexuals ) Kartagener's syndromeDue to Dynein defect Kayser-Flescher ringsSeen in Wilson's disease Keratin pearlsSeen in Squamous cell carcinoma Kimrnelstiel-Wilson nodulesSeen in Diabetic nephropathy Kluver-Bucy syndromeDue to Bilateral amygdala lesions KoilocytesSeen in HPV infection Koplik spotsSeen in Measles Kussmaul hyperpneaSeen in DKA Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility Seen in Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin deficit), AD Lesch-Nyhan syndromeHGPRT deficiency, gout. mental retardation, self mutilation Li Fraurneni syndromeDue to Mutation of p53 tumor suppressor gene Lewy bodiesParkinson's disease Libman-Sacks diseaseIs Endocarditis associated with SLE Lines of ZahnSeen in Arterial thrombus Lisch nodulesSeen in Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease) Low serum ceruloplasmin+nt in Wilson's disease Lucid intervalFeature of Epidural hematoma "Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on imrnunofluorescence Seen in Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Lytic bone lesions on x-raySeen in Multiple myeloma
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in Mallory bodiesSeen in Alcoholic liver disease Mallory-Weiss syndromeIs Esophagogastric lacerations McArdle's diseaseDue to Muscle phosphorylase deficiency McBurney's signPathognomonic of Appendicitis MLF syndrome (INO)Is Multiple sclerosis Monoclonal antibody spike. 1.Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA),2.MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance),3.Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia MyxedemaSeen in hypothyroidism Neerotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis Feature of Wegener's or Goodpasture's (hemoptysis and glomerular disease) Needle-shaped, negatively birefringment crystals Pathognomonic of gout Negri bodiesSeen in Rabies. Nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss Seen in Alport's syndrome (Anterior Lenticonus) Neurofibrillary tanglesSeen in Alzheimer's disease Niemann-Pick diseaseDue to Sphingomyelinase deficiency No/absent lactation postpartumSheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction) Nutmeg liverSeen in CHF
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in Occupational exposure of asbestos Leads to Malignant mesothelioma "Orphan Annie" nucleiSeen in Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid Osler's nodesSeen in Endocarditis Owl's eyeSeen in CMV infection Painless jaundiceIs feature of Pancreatic cancer (head) Palpable purpura on legs and buttocks Seen in Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) Pancoast's tumorIs Bronchogenic apical tumor associated with Horner's syndrome Parkinson's diseaseDue to Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion Periosteal elevation on x-raySeen in Pyogenic osteromyelitis Peatz-Jeghers syndromeIs Benign polyposis Peyronie's diseaseLeads to Penile fibrosis Philadelphia chromosome Seen in CML (may sometimes be associated with AML) Pick bodiesSeen in Pick's disease Pick's diseaseIs Progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's "Pink puffer"Is Emphysema (centroacinar [smoking], panacinar, (α-1-AT def.) Pizza pie, tomato ketchup & cheese retinopathy Feature of CMV retinitis Plummer-Vinson syndromeIs Esophageal webs with iron deficiency anemia PodagraIs Gout (MP) joint of 1 st great toe.
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in Podocyte fusionSeen in Minimal change disease on EM Polyneuropathy, cardiac pathology, and edema Seen in Dry beriberi (due to thiaminei.e. vitamin B 1 deficiency) Polyneuropathy preceded by GI or respiratory infection.- Is Guillian-Barre syndrome Pompe's disease Due to Lysosomal glucosidase deficiency associated with cardiomegaly Port-wine stainSeen in Hemangioma Positive anterior "drawer sign"Due to Anterior cniciate ligament injury Pott's diseaseSeen in Vertebral tuberculosis PSaMMoma bodies Seen in Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary, Meningioma, Mesothelioma Pseudorosettes tumor cell arrangement Seen in Glioblastoma multiforme PseudorosettesSeen in Ewing's sarcoma Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosisFeature of Horner's syndrome (Pancoast's tumor) Rash on palms and solessecondary syphilis, Rocky mountain spotted fever Raynaud's pulmonary pseudomonas and S. aureus infections Is Cystic fibrosis Red urine in the morningSeen in Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Reed-Sternberg cellsPathognomonic of Hodgkin's lymphoma Reid index (increased)+nt in Chronic bronchitis Reinke crystals+nt in Leydig cell tumor Reiter's syndrome Is Conjunctivitis+Urethritis+arthritis. Renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemangiomas + adenomas Is Von Hippel-Lindau disease Renal epithelial casts in urineSeen in Acute toxic/viral nephrosis Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent Seen in Pseudogout Rib notchingSeen in Coarctation of aorta
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in Rotor's syndromeIs Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinernia Rouleaux formation (RBCs)Seen in Multiple myeloma S3 heart sound+nt in L to R shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), MR, LVF (CHF) S4 heart sound+nt in AS, hypertensive subaortic stenosis Schiller-Duval bodies+nt in Yolk sac tumor Senile plaques+nt in Alzheimer's disease Sezary syndromeIs Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Sheehan's syndromeDue to Postpartum pituitary necrosis Shwartzman reaction+nt in Neisseria meningitidis Signet ring cells+nt in Gastric carcinoma Simian crease+nt in Down syndrome Sipple's syndromeIs MEN type ha Sjogren's syndromeCharacterized by Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis Skip lesions+nt in Crohn's disease Slapped cheeks+nt in Erythema infectiosum ( fifth disease) Smith antigen+nt in SLE "Smudge cell"+nt in CLL Soap bubble on x-ray+nt in Giant cell tumor of bone Spike and dome on EM+nt in Membranous glomerulonephritis Spitz neavusIs Benign juvenile melanoma Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails +nt in Endocarditis Starry-sky patternSeen in Burkitt's lymphoma "Strawberry tongue"Seen in Scarlet fever Streaky ovariesSeen in Turner's syndrome String sign on x-raySeen in Crohn's disease Subepithelial humps on EM+nt in Poststreptocoecal glomerulonephritis Suboccipital lymphadenopathy Seen in Rubella Sulfur granulesSeen in Actinomyces israelii infection Swollen gums, bruising, poor wound healing, anemia Seen in Scurvy (ascorbic acid i.e. vitamin C deficiency. Vit C is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis) Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo) +nt in Aortic valve stenosis
Disease/TermDefinition/Feature/Seen in T(8;14)+nt in Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation) t(9;22)+nnt in Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid) t(14;18)+nt in Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation) Tabes dorsalisSeen in tertiary syphilis Tendon xanthomas (classically +nt in Achilles tendon) Seen in Familial hypercholesterolemia Thumb sign on lateral x- ray Seen in Epiglottitis (H. intluenzae infn.) Thyroidization of kidneySeen in Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis "Tram-track" appearance on LM Seen in Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Trousseau's sign +nt in Visceral cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (migratory thrombophlebitis), hypo-calcemia (carpal spasm) Virchow's node Is Left supraclavicular node enlargement due to metastatic carcinoma of the stomach Virchow's triad Seen in Pulmonary embolism (triad of blood stasis, endothelial damage, hyper-coagulation) Von Recklinghausen's disease Neurofibromatosis with café-au-lait spots Von Recklinghausen's disease of Bone Is Osteitis fibrosa cystica (brown tumor) VSDIs MC congenital heart disease Wallenberg's syndromeLeads to PICA thrombosis Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome Seen in Adrenal hemorrhage associated with meningococcemia Waxy casts+nt in Chronic end stage renal disease WBC casts in urine+nt in Acute pyelonephritis WBCs in urine+nt in Acute cystitis Wermer's syndromea/k/a MEN type 1 Whipple's diseaseIs Malabsorption syndrome caused by Tropheryma whippelii infn. Wilson's diseaseIs Hepatolenticular degeneration "Wire loop- appearance on LM Seen in Lupus nephropathy "Worst headache of my life" Is Berry aneurysm (rupture) associated with adult polycystic kidney disease Xanthochromia (CSF). +nt in Subarachnoid hemorrhage Xerostomia + arthritis + keratoconjunctiVitiS sicca Is Sjogren's syndrome Zenker's diverticulumIs Upper GI diverticulum Zollinger-Ellison syndromeIs Gastrin secreting tumor associated with ulcers
Disclaimer:- This PPP was made in large interest of Doctors preparing for PG entrance examination, also useful for practicing Doctors for quick brush up. Non-medicos are not supposed to use this info for self treatment. REFERENCE:- various medical text books/guide books/self-help books/class notes. This list is bound to grow in future. All comments & suggestions are welcome. I have taken maximum care of accuracy and tried to be precise in my best of knowledge & kept it to the point, as I was inspired by books I read. Send your comments at firstname.lastname@example.org@drjha.in Visit www.drjha.in for regular updates.www.drjha.in