Presentation on theme: "Energy Crisis In Pakistan BY GROUP NO 7 ABDUR-REHMAN,REHAN,JUNAID,UBAID,ANSAAR,SAMI."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Crisis In Pakistan BY GROUP NO 7 ABDUR-REHMAN,REHAN,JUNAID,UBAID,ANSAAR,SAMI
Contents INTRODUCTION. OBJECTIVE. ENERGY RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN. CAUSES OF ENERGY CRISIS. RECOMMENDATIONS. CONCLUSION. BIBLOGRAPHY.
INTRODUCTION Energy Crisis in Pakistan is one of the severe challenges the country is facing today. Electricity, gas, water, fuel is essential part of our daily life and its outage has severely affected the economy and overall living of ours. Thousands have lost their jobs, businesses; our daily life has become miserable. Pakistan is currently facing up to 18 hours of electricity outage a day, is expected to face more if not dealt with in time. Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last few years. The problem becomes more severe during summers. However, this winter was no different. During the peak crisis there was a power outage of 3-4 hours everyday. Those without generators and UPS faced tremendous problems. The prices of both continued to increase due to a sharp increase in their demand. Pakistan is facing power shortage, natural crisis and oil crisis. In a report it is claimed that Pakistan has faced 1000 to 2000 MW shortage of power. And it will likely face 3000MW next year. Pakistan is facing 80 millions tons of oil shortage according to it's need. And is lacking behind the needs of natural gas at about 27 million ton of energy in current year and this ratio will rise in upcoming years. This study is exploratory in nature. We have done our best to conclude and sketch up some recommendations in the light of identified hurdles in the way of implementing the appropriate solution to our problem.
ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN An energy crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other natural resources. The crisis often has effects on the rest of the economy, with many recessions being caused by an energy crisis in some form. In particular, the production costs of electricity rise, which raises manufacturing costs. Pakistans economy is performing at a very high note with GDP growing at an exceptional rate, touching 8.35% in In its history of 58 years, there has been only a few golden years where the economy grew above 7%. This year official expectations are that GDP growth rate will be around 6.5 – 7.0%. For the coming years, the government is targeting GDP growth rate above 6%. With economy growing at such a pace, the energy requirements are likely to increase with a similar rate. For , Pakistans energy consumption touched 55.5 MTOE (Million Tons of Oil Equivalent). The energy consumption is expected to grow at double digit if the overall economy sustains the targeted GDP growth rate of 6% by the government. Pakistans energy requirements are expected to double in the next few years, and our energy requirements by 2015 is likely to cross 120MTOE. By 2030, the nations requirement will be 7 times the current requirement reaching 361MTOE. Pakistans energy requirements are fulfilled with more than 80% of energy resources through imports.
ENERGY RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN
TEN YEARS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION
THE MAIN ENERGY CRISIS HYDEL ENEGRY Water flowing in the rivers has kinetic energy. One the they are used to drive the turbine and produce electricity the power generated as hydel energy. Power produced by the turbine depends on quantity of water flowing/minute and the head of water available. Mostly river flows by melting glaciers on High Mountain. One the water starts flowing in the valley its changes its head very rapidly. This energy can be converted into electrical energy. Two methods are normally used: Dams Run of the river projects. PAKISTAN MAJOR DAMS: Tarbela Dam 9.00MAF Warsak Dam 0.04MAF Mangla Dam 0.61MAF
CRISIS OF HYDEL ENERGY The energy crisis starts from 1990 and still Pakistan is in the crisis of these all as before. The latest and perhaps the most troublesome crisis faced by the Pakistani nation these days is the shortage in supply of electricity. The country is facing a huge electric power crisis these days. Though it has been more than a year since when the country is facing this crisis, but till now no proper solution has been made to this problem neither any proper planning has come into existence since the symptoms and begging of this short supply of electricity. While rolling blackouts or load shedding as it is locally known has always been a staple of daily life in Pakistan, the problem has become acute in the last couple of years.
SOLUTION TO HYDEL ENERGY Pakistan is in the grip of a serious energy crisis that is affecting all sectors of the economy and the various segments of the society. As the situation stands to-day, there are hardly any immediate solutions to resolve the issue. A change of attitude and a change of life style is needed at the national level which should be triggered by the ruling elite and followed by all segments of the society that have access to electricity. At best there could be some short and long-term solutions to the crisis but they need immediate planning and execution with an enormous investment. Two key elements of a possible solution are: change of attitude and change in lifestyles. The current energy consumption trends in Pakistan are extremely inefficient, whether it be in the domestic, industrial, trade or commercial sectors. With minimal effort, well over ten per cent of national electricity can be saved by applying only the first level of energy conservation that is a change in attitude. It is simple, instant and effective and all it requires is a stop to using energy unnecessarily. Leaving lights and home appliances on even when they are not being used is a common practice in our society. Similarly, many businesses such as shops dealing in cloth and garments, jewellery, cosmetics, home appliances and electronics are usually extravagantly lit. It is commonly observed that shops that could do with two or three 40- watt tube lights to meet the desired level of luminance use as many as 15 to 20 tubes. Not only does this increase power consumption, it also generates heat and makes the environment uncomfortable The solutions
Thermal energy Thermal energy is the thermal type of energy. With all known history available, wood always used for heating and cooking. In 2 nd world war fossils fuels entered in the form of coal to get energy. Until liquid fuels were discovered and because of their convinces of transportation they took over as major of energy source. Once the steam engines were invented then the coal or liquid fuels was burnt in the in boilers and heat producers steam which is used to drive an electrical generators, or any other mechanical devices. Rudolph diesel invention of diesel engine revolution the energy concept and today we see sine the majority of machine moving on diesel engines. The choice of gensets strictly depends on the requirement of client, before ordering a power plant following points to be considered Expected demand of the power Type of fuel required Space available for the power plant Availability of gun sets Availability of local service back up and stock of parts Price is paramount importance and hidden expenses should be locked carefully.
CRISIS OF THERMAL ENERGY The oil crisis facing the world, is not about supply or about the increase in demand. It is about the speculators who are pumping huge amounts of money into forecasting a serious shortage ahead. Not now but in the future. And that the prices will escalate enough for them to make a killing. The US government must be wondering at the irony of this windfall benefiting a prime enemy of American and Israeli interests at the cost of millions of innocent citizens of the US and Europe, engineered by the greasy gnomes of the oil trade. There is no threat of an oil embargo, nor of a war, it is just pure speculation, funded by the huge mountains of American and European cash at the disposal of the Soroses of the Oil trade. They stand to make a killing at the expense of hapless citizens of the world. As I had written in an earlier piece as far back as 2005, when an attack on Iran was imminent, that the rise in oil at 100 $ a barrel would impact on the food prices has proved prophetic with the current sky high prices of bread in Europe and America.
CAUSES OF ENERGY CRISIS 1.ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY. EFFECT OUR GDP AND ENERGY GROWTH… 2.FLUCTUATION OF OIL PRICES IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET. WAPDA & KESC PURCHASE EXPENSIVE OIL AND TRANSFER COST TO CUSTOMERS…. 3.FAULTY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. WE WASTE TO 15 TO 20 PERCENT ENERGY THROUGH POOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 4.AGING OF EQUIPMENT. UNABLE TO GENRATE REQUIRED ELECTRICITY. 5.UNPRODUCTIVE EFFORTS. SEMINARS & CONFERENCE BUT NO IMPLEMENTION. 6.SILTING PROCESS. IT IS A NATURALLY CAUSED
RECOMMENDATION Govt. must pay circular debt. Govt. must invest to cover up line losses. Industries that consume 32% of our electricity, must apply Energy Conservation Systems and Management measures. They can start producing their own energy with their own investment without depending upon the grid. Industrialists and new investors must consider the Energy Sector as good an investment as any other. Needs image building. Govt. must convert from inefficient gas plants to efficient ones in order to conserve electric energy. Govt. must consider investing in Solar Energy plants to produce Electricity as they provide free energy, and are less mechanical than Wind Energy Plants.
CONCLUSION This study recommends government of Pakistan to take strong steps to over hall its existing infrastructure and transformed it to utilized renewable energy for future needs. Government should also take steps to utilized the coal reserves through it will give us energy for next 25 years. WAPDA is facing huge line losses due to electricity theft or illegal usage of electricity. The burden is beard by the Government so in order to cover up such losses and to ensure adequate and clean facility of electricity; we must ensure that no body breaks into the transmission system.
Key Issues Near term –Identify key decisions and issues that need immediate or near-term resolution. –State consequences of decision postponement. Long term –Identify issues needing long-term resolution. –State consequences of decision postponement. If you are seeking funding, be specific about any issues that require financial resources for resolution.