Presentation on theme: "By: Yasmine Alkema, Dylan Comerford, and Tori Davis"— Presentation transcript:
1By: Yasmine Alkema, Dylan Comerford, and Tori Davis CoalBy: Yasmine Alkema, Dylan Comerford, and Tori Davis
2HistoryEvidence dating back to 100AD tells us that Romans used coal in England during the second and third centuriesIndustrial RevolutionDuring the first part of the 1800’s the Industrial Revolution moved it’s way to the United States of America. During this time, coal was used to fuel the boilers of steamships as well as steam-powered railroadsDuring the Civil War weapon producing factories started using coal to increase efficiencyAround 1875, coke (made from coal) replaced charcoal which was the main fuel source of iron furnaces that produced steelSteel was used to make weaponsThe first time burning coal was used to generate electricity was in the the early 1880’sIt was used for homes and factories and now it is used by America for almost half of it’s entire electric sector
3What part of our energy needs do we currently derive from coal? In 2012 the United States was the largest energy consumer in the worldThe majority of the United States energy consumption is powered by fossil fuelsIn order from first to last the following sources of fuel are used to keep the U.S running; petroleum 25%, coal 22%, natural gas 22%, nuclear power 8.4%, and finally renewable energy which is 8%
4What part of our energy needs do we currently derive from coal? In the United States 40% of the energy consumption comes from the electric sector. Coal plays a substantial role in delivering electricity to the U.S.92% of the coal that is consumed in the U.S is used for the generation of electricity.92% of the power coming to Americans televisions, radios, microwaves and so on is made possible by the burning of coal to generate the required electricity.In order to produce all of this electricity, the U.S currently has roughly 1400 coal- fired electricity generating units in operationThese electricity generating units are spread out across the country which total close to 600 plantsTogether these coal-fired plants generate more than one third of the United States electricity. In order to create this amount of electricity more than 800 million short tons of coal is used during production.
5Has this been changing over time? The U.S holds the worlds largest estimated reserves of coal and is actually a net exporter of it.During 2012’s production analysis, more than one billion short tons of coal was produced by the U.S. even though America has an abundance of coal and uses coal for basically all of it’s electricity usage, BUT the usage of coal is actually declining in the U.S.For the last 60 years coal has been the largest source of the United States electricity usage. To present day it still is, however, Americans are using coal less and lessSince the 1950’s the U.S has produced more coal than it was able to consume almost every year, hints the fact that the U.S is a net exporter of the resource.
6Has this been changing over time? Since 1950 the United States consumption of coal has been on the constant riseFrom the U.S consumption of coal increased roughly by 100 million short tons.From U.S coal consumption increased a substantial amount by 400 million short tons.From coal consumption increased a further 50 million, however, that is where the increase in consumption started to slow down dramaticallyFrom consumption dropped roughly by 200 million short times, which is the highest drop in the past 62 years.
7Why has it been changing? Coal consumption during the past 5 years in the U.S has declined for one main reason: Power producers have substituted coal for a cheaper, lower priced substitute called natural gasThanks to natural gas’s strong price competition the production of electricity using coal has slowed down rapidly in recent yearsNatural gas is cheaper than coalIn the competitive price driven market in which these two resources lay, natural gas has been winning the battle for the past 5 or so years.Pound for pound natural gas uses less space to store than coal which keeps costs down for producersIn the last couple years the value of many major energy producers stocks have been falling
8Advantages of coal One of the most abundant sources of energy Reliable to produce electricityReduces the dependence on using oilNot dependent on weather comparing to other forms of renewable energy like wind or solar powerInexpensive compared to other fossil fuelsCoal energy is an affordable energy source because of the coal’s stable price compared to other fuel sources-it has wide and long-lasting reserves and it is available for much of the world, it is found in many more places than fossil fuels.
9Advantages of coalVersatile enough to be used for recreational activities such as BBQ’s or a home fireplaceCan be safely stored and can be drawn upon to create energy in time of emergencyTransporting coal is relatively simpleIt does not require the upkeep of high-pressure pipelines and there is no need for extra security when transporting it
10Supply from coal reserves This graph shows that the supply from coal reserves is twice better than from natural gas and 3.5 times better than from oil. Coal can guarantee supply for about 160 years.
11Disadvantages of coal Nonrenewable energy source Coal cannot be recycled so it will eventually run out in the future because we consume too much of itBurning coal is not environmentally friendlyCoal releases harmful byproducts and gas emissions such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen.Nitrogen is a powerful greenhouse gas, which causes pollution and contributes to global warming and climate changeToxins that are released by the burning of coal and the transformation into electricity produces 25% of United states global warming emissionsThe burning of coal is also responsible for almost 80% of all carbon emissions produced by the U.SCoal mining ruins the environment and puts the lives/health of people (specifically the coal miners) in danger
12Disadvantages of coal Storage cost is high Costs are especially high if required to have enough in stock for multiple years to assure power production availabilityHas the lowest energy density per unit volumeThe amount of energy generated per cubic meter is lower than any other fossil fuel
13Current issues with coal Negative effect on the environmentThe process of burning coal results in a chemical reactions with oxygen in the air. For the most part, the carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.The production of carbon dioxide adds to the supply already in the atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect and thereby increasing the temperature of the EarthThis change in temperature leads global warmingHealth and safety dangers of coal miningCoal consists largely of carbon and hydrogen.
14Global warming Affects every sector of the economy Ex. Agriculture A report from the Environmental Protection Agency stated that live stock problems will increase due to global warming. Heat stress will reduce breeding and some of the live stock diseases that now plague the South will shift northward.New tropical diseases will also invade the South.Problems with agricultural pests will multiply as well. More pests will survive over the warmer winters, and they will breed more generations over the longer summers.
15Coal mining Unpleasant occupation Idealists have called it a job unfit for humansConstant contact with dirt, often without room to stand upAlthough there have been many improvements in recent years, it is still one of the most dangerous occupations, regularly killing over 100 men per year in the United StatesHealth Issues
16Health Issues Black Lung disease Miners are exceptionally susceptible to emphysema and a variety of other lung diseasesHave more than 20 times the normal risk of death from silicosis or pneumoconiosisHave about 2.5 times the normal risk of dying from bronchitis, pneumonia, or tuberculosisDie an average of 3 years younger than the rest of the population
17Are we currently making efficient use Coal? The use of coal to fuel Americans energy needs is extremely inefficientA typical coal plant in the United States is only 33% efficient, which results in a lot of wasted resources which impact the cost factor as well as the environmentThere is nothing clean about coal-burning plants; however, the burning of coal still remains the largest source of the United States electricity.
18what policies might correct Coal’s Inefficiency? Rome as not built in a day and America is not going to stop using coal by tomorrow.There are steps that the U.S can take in order to achieve a more efficient and clean future:A healthy energy future relies on smart/ efficient solutionsMany states across America have invested in efficient renewable energy.Currently at least 34 states receive some part of their energy from wind power. Clean energy is not only helpful to the environment but contributes to the well being of the U.S economy too.The cost of natural gas and wind power is competitively priced and is cheaper than coal. A study by the Apollo Alliance recently found that renewable energy can generate 40% more jobs per dollar invested than coal.
19The future of coalNo future; the market has decided that coal is no longer competitiveMost of the industries already try to multiply the utility scale of the solar power and adding wind powerWill no longer be the main source of energy in the future because of its high costs and its costs associated with those environmental concernsNo new coal plants are being built, but renewable energy sources like solar and wind plants are being developed around the world