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September 22, 2011 IIT, Delhi By Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

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1 September 22, 2011 IIT, Delhi By Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

2 In this presentation.... Introduction Existing standards/ guidelines Summary of Compliance Status of Distilleries Case studies- Observations from a few distilleries Need for revisit Emerging Technologies Way Forward

3 Distillery Industry in India Number of sugar mills: 620 Molasses based distilleries – 300 Molasses based installed capacity : 4.29 bln lit. Gain based distillery units: 100 Grain based installed capacity : 1.8 bln lit. Molasses based distilleries produce spent wash having very high pollution load

4 * Other than cooling tower Average fresh water requirement in molasses based distilleries for different fermentation technologies. Type of Fermen tation Process (a) Molass es Dilutio n fresh water (b) Fresh Non process (RS Production) Polluted Streams for recycle Unpoll uted Strea ms for recycle (g) Total Strea ms for recycle (h) Total fresh water require- -ment (b+c+ d-h) Cooling tower make up (c) Other non process * (d) For process (e) For non process (f) Batch 7.4 – – – – – – – 21.1 Cascade Continuo us 7.7 – – – – – – – – 16.7 Biostill Continuo us 4.0 – – – – – – – – 9.4

5 Average waste water generation in molasses based distilleries for different fermentation technologies. Type of Fermentation Process Waste water generation Spent washSpent leesOther Batch – –0.4 Cascade Continuous 8.5 – – –0.4 Biostill Continuous 6.0 – – –0.4

6 General characteristics of raw spent wash S.No.ParameterBatch processCascade processBiostil process 1Volume, L/L Alcohol ColourDark brown 3PH COD80,000-1,10,0001,10,000-1,30,0001,40,000-1,60,000 5BOD45,000-50,00055,000-65,00060,000-70,000 6Solid Total Total Volatile Inorganic dissolved 90,000-1,20,000 60,000-70,000 30,000-40,000 1,30,000-1,60,000 60,000-75,000 35,000-45,000 1,60,000-2,10,000 80,000-90,000 60,000-90,000 7Chlorides5,000-6,0006,000-7,50010,000-12,000 8Sulphates4,000-8,0004,500-8,5008,000-10,000 9Total nitrogen1,000-1,2001,000-1,4002,000-2,500 10Potassium8,000-12,00010,000-14,00020,000-22,000 11Phosphorus ,600-2,000 12Sodium ,400-1,5001,200-1,500 13Calcium2,000-3,5004,500-6,0005,000-6,500

7 Fermentation Industry : Effluent Discharge Standards (Distilleries, Maltries & Breweries) As notified under the Environment (Protection) Rule, 1986 Sr. No. ParameterRange 1pH Colour & OdourAbsent 3BOD3 (at 27oC, 3 days) mgs/L Max. Disposal into land surface water/ rivers/ streams Disposal on land or for irrigation Suspended solids, mg/L Max.100

8 Protocols/ Guidelines related to Treatment & Disposal options for distillery effluent CREP Action Points: Existing Molasses based Distilleries: Zero Effluent Discharge (100% by Dec. 2005) through – Bio-composting, – Concentration and Incineration – Biomethanation followed by two stage secondary treatment followed by ferti-irrigation – Biomethanation followed by pre-sown irrigation – Biomethanation followed by treatment and Discharge into deep sea. New Distilleries & Expansion of Existing Distilleries (Molasses based) – Zero Effluent Discharge in surface water/ ground water

9 Protocols/ Guidelines related to Treatment & Disposal options for distillery effluent CPCB Resolution (June 2008) New stand alone Distilleries: Concentration – incineration system New attached Distilleries: Bio-methanation followed by bio-composting Concentration– incineration system {Reboiler/ Evaporation/ Concentration followed by incineration of concentrated spent wash in boiler (for power generation)} Existing stand alone Distilleries (expansion): Concentration – incineration system

10 Protocols/ Guidelines related to Treatment & Disposal options for distillery effluent CPCB Resolution (June 2008) Distilleries (both stand alone and attached) not complying with the required environmental standards to switch over to emerging technologies from existing technologies of Ferti-irrigation, One time land application and composting in a time bound manner.

11 Co-Processing of Distillery Spent wash concentrate in Cement Industry (CPCB, 2010) Co-processing of molasses based distillery spent wash concentrate in Cement Kilns, furnaces of Thermal Power Plants/ Steel Plants, Incinerators

12 Existing Guidelines related to Disposal Options for Distillery Effluent CREP Programme ( ) – Ferti-irrigation – One time application (Pre-sown irrigation) – Bio-composting of pre-treated spent wash – Concentration and drying/ Incineration Emerging Technologies (2008) – Evaporation/ Concentration– Incineration system Co-processing ( ) – Co-processing in cement kilns/ furnaces of TPPs/ Steel Plants.

13 Ferti-Irrigation Practice Biomethanation followed by 2-stage biological treatment to achieve BOD<800 mg/l Storage of treated effluent in lagoons with capacity < one fourth of average yearly utilization of spent wash and impervious liner system (duly lined with 250 micron HDPE sheet and pitched by stone/bricks with cement mortar to prevent leachate). Dilution of treated effluent prior to irrigation to meet critical water quality parameters, Such as N- requirement of crop, soil type. One or more SW irrigations. Further irrigations to be done using fresh water Application of SW each alternate year Command area- radial distance of 20 km Distribution network of impervious conduits In no case the effluent shall be allowed to flow in earthen channels

14 Pre-Sown Irrigation Practice Use of biomethanated SW of BOD < 7000 mg/L. Irrigation application on N-requirement of crop, soil type as advised by agricultural institutions. N- requirement of the crop to be applied in a single dose. Maximum of one third of the SW generated per year shall be utilised for pre-sown irrigation. Application to be done at least 30 days in advance of sowing and on set of rains. Storage lagoon capacity < one fourth of average yearly utilization of spent wash

15 Bio-Composting Practice Open windrows to be 3m long x 2m wide x 1.5m high, with a total volume < 9.0 cu.m. Press-mud as filler material is continuously mixed with pre-treated Spent wash On 30 th day, windrow to be broken down and sieved to remove the oversize contrary material. Screened compost to be stored for about 15 days in heaps about 2m wide x 1.5m high x 20m long to ensure stabilization before sale. Press-mud has an initial C/N ratio of around 20-24, almost stabilized solid material. Distilleries operate for 270 days. Storage of pre-treated effluent < 30 days As per the specifications, with 850 MT press-mud/ acre, (a) for 45 days cycle, SW disposal to be 2125 cum (i.e.70 KLD)

16 Performance Assessment of Distilleries practicing Ferti- irrigation, One time application (Pre- sown irrigation), and Bio-composting

17 Compliance Status of Distilleries under ESS Programme Monitoring carried out in more than 100 distilleries, randomly selected, by teams of scientist & engineers, during the last five years shows significant violation in more than 60% of units.

18 Case Studies- Observations from a few Distilleries

19 40 to 50% effluent disposal through Bio- composting route. Bio-methanation – RO/MEE – Bio-composting. Storage of pre-treated/ raw spent wash in lined/ unlined lagoons with capacity > 30 days. Inadequate ETP and Non-operational treatment units. – Poor Operation & Maintenance of Anaerobic Digesters – Non operation of RO/ MEE Plants

20 Composting process not up to standard: No composting in operation. No press mud availability. No storage sheds for press mud/ final compost. Open storage of large quantity of unfinished/ finished compost. Large unlined/ lined areas under compost yard. No provision for mechanical spray system. Pit composting technique without any pre-treatment with unlined/ broken pits. Unlined bio-composting yard. No spent wash distribution net work in compost yard. No leachate collection system provided to stop the surface run off from compost yard to nearby water body/land.

21 50 to 60% effluent disposal through one time land application/ ferti-irrigation. Bio-methanation -- primary clarifier – two-stage extended aeration system – secondary clarifier -- sludge drying beds followed by storage of partially treated effluent in lined/ unlined lagoons for ferti-irrigation/ one time land application. Treated spent wash having high BOD requiring high dilution ration (45 times) resulting in large quantity of fresh water requirement for irrigation. Arrangements with Agriculture Universities for utilization of treated Spent wash with land availability of 1000 to 3000 hectare.

22 Completely filled Lined Lagoons with storage capacity > 3 months. Completely/ partially filled Unlined lagoons spread over 3 to 20 hectares land. Disposal of spent wash with BOD > mg/l, COD mg/l through land application. Spent wash disposal along with storm water into nearby river bodies through bypass pipeline or drains.

23 Public complaint of ground water contamination and regular discharge of coloured effluent through closed pipe. Ground water pollution in nearby areas. Ground water samples indicate contamination with Colour, TDS and high conductivity.

24 Demand & Need for revisiting Guidelines namely, Ferti-irrigation, Pre- sown irrigation and Bio-composting are not able to management equivalent to its generation rate, resulting in accumulation & discharge of SW. Permission for storage of pre-treated SW, resulted in non-operation of treatment units like digesters, RO, MEE. Promote non-conservation of water.

25 Demand & Need for revisiting Ferti-irrigation/ Pre-sown irrigation: High dilution ratio, less no of irrigation requires large command area, which is not available to distilleries. Faulty liner system. Practically not possible to monitoring and effective control. SW irrigation to be employed for about 6 months in a year only.

26 Demand & Need for revisiting Bio-Composting: Faulty liner system for compost yard/ storage lagoon. Unavailability of large press-mud. Unable to handle SW in 1:2.5 to 1:3.5 ratio. Existing practices not in accordance with the principle of composting. Practically not possible to monitoring and effective control.

27 Emerging Technologies Established technologies: Emerging technologies: Emerging Technologies Established technologies: 1. Anaerobic digestion – Biogas 2. Aerobic surface bio-composting - Bio-compost 3. Reverse osmosis - Permeate/Reject 4. Multiple effect evaporation (Concentration) – Concentrate/Process condensate Emerging technologies: 5. Incineration- Spray/ Rotary Dryer, SFB 6. Co-processing 7. Gasification

28 Emerging Technologies About 100 distilleries have installed RO plants About 100 distilleries have installed RO plants About 100 distilleries have installed MEEs About 100 distilleries have installed MEEs About 30 to 40 incineration plants have been installed. About 30 to 40 incineration plants have been installed. 55 to 60 % solids concentrate or spentwash powder is fired in a specially designed boiler with or without subsidiary fuel. 55 to 60 % solids concentrate or spentwash powder is fired in a specially designed boiler with or without subsidiary fuel. Steam generated runs a TG set to generate electricity. Steam generated runs a TG set to generate electricity. Exhaust steam is used in distillery and evaporation plant operations Exhaust steam is used in distillery and evaporation plant operations Potash rich ash as a by-product. Potash rich ash as a by-product.

29 Co-Processing Co-processing in cement industry refers to the substitution of primary fuel and raw material by waste, recovering energy and material from waste. Waste materials used for co-processing are referred to as alternative fuels and raw materials (AFR).

30 Cement Kiln Suitability High temperatures (1400 O C) and residence time of 4 – 5 seconds in an oxygen–rich atmosphere ensure the destruction of organic compounds. Any acid gases formed during combustion are neutralized by the alkaline raw material and are incorporated into the cement clinker. Interaction of the flue gases and the raw material present in the kiln ensures that the non – combustible part of the residue is held back in the process and is incorporated into the clinker in a practically irreversible manner. No waste is generated that requires subsequent processing.

31 Benefits of Co-processing Reduction in Green House gases emission & related benefit of carbon trading Conversion of waste into energy / as a raw mix component Conservation of fossil fuel resource Reduction in energy / cement production costs

32 Department Related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Commerce 95 th Report on Performance of Cement Industry The Committee feels that the co-processing of wastes in cement plants that have successfully been put to trial run need to be commercially implemented. Necessary guidelines be formed for this purpose. The cement plants should start co-processing of waste.

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35 State wise Distribution of Distilleries, Cement Plants, TPPs and Iron & Steel Industries Sl. No. StateNo. of Distilleries Molasses based Distilleries No. of Cement Plants No. of TPPs No of I&S Ind. TotalAttach ed with Sugar Mills 1Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh3662 5Daman & Diu Delhi--2- 7Goa Gujarat Haryana

36 State wise Distribution of Distilleries, Cement Plants, TPPs and Iron & Steel Industries Sl. No. StateNo. of Distilleries Molasses based Distilleries No. of Cement Plants No. of TPPs No of I&S Ind. TotalAttache d with Sugar Mills 10Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala9821--

37 Sl. No. StateNo. of distille ries Molasses based Distilleries No. of Cement Plants No. of TPPs No of I&S Ind. TotalAttached with Sugar Mills 15Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Meghalaya Nagaland Orissa Punjab Pondicherry Rajasthan Sikkim11----

38 Sl. No. StateNo. of Distiller ies/ Breweri es Molasses based Distilleries No. of Cement Plants No. of TPPs No of I&S Ind. TotalAttach ed with Sugar Mills 24Tamilnadu Tripura Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total

39 Distilleries vis-à-vis Emerging Technologies Fermentation & Distillation Industries400 Molasses based Distilleries300 Distilleries attached with Sugar Mills125 Distilleries with Concentration- incineration system 30 Distilleries with MEE system100 Distilleries directed for adoption of Emerging Technologies 60

40 Different treatment technology routes for distillery effluent/spent wash Biomethanation followed by multi-effect evaporation followed by drying/ incineration/ co-processing. Biomethanation followed by reverse osmosis followed by drying/ incineration/ co-processing. Biomethanation followed by reverse osmosis followed by multiple effect evaporation followed by drying/ incineration/ co-processing. Concentration through RO/ MEE followed by drying/ incineration/ co-processing.

41 Why Emerging Technologies ? To attain actual ZLD. To operate throughout the year Promotes water conservation (80-90% water recycled/ reused). No requirement of storage lagoons and hence the least chances of pollution. Co-processing- a more cost effective/ trouble fee operational option. Successfully demonstrated in about 30 distilleries.

42 Way Forward Distilleries are important for growth and development. Shifting towards zero liquid discharge paradigm is feasible and must be implemented to save rivers and help maintain Nirmal and Aviral Dhara. Improvements in technology and following best practices can lead to substantial reduction in water consumption and lower the cost of attaining zero discharge paradigm. Emerging Technologies, namely RO, MEE, Slop fired boilers, Spray/ Rotary Dryers, Co- processing are capable of attainment of ZLD. Experience of about 4 to 5 years of operation of emerging technologies are available with distilleries. More than 10% of distilleries have adopted emerging technologies Distilleries are important for growth and development. Shifting towards zero liquid discharge paradigm is feasible and must be implemented to save rivers and help maintain Nirmal and Aviral Dhara. Improvements in technology and following best practices can lead to substantial reduction in water consumption and lower the cost of attaining zero discharge paradigm. Emerging Technologies, namely RO, MEE, Slop fired boilers, Spray/ Rotary Dryers, Co- processing are capable of attainment of ZLD. Experience of about 4 to 5 years of operation of emerging technologies are available with distilleries. More than 10% of distilleries have adopted emerging technologies

43 Way Forward Fiscal and financial schemes may be formulated by Government Departments and Financial Institutions to support industry. Expert Committee constituted by CPCB to revisit the effluent & emission standards vis-à-vis emerging technologies implementability & cost economics Fiscal and financial schemes may be formulated by Government Departments and Financial Institutions to support industry. Expert Committee constituted by CPCB to revisit the effluent & emission standards vis-à-vis emerging technologies implementability & cost economics

44 Thank You !!


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