Presentation on theme: "Elasticities The relationship between Demand/Supply and how sensitive the good is to changes in Price, Income, or Other Goods Price Elasticity of Demand."— Presentation transcript:
1ElasticitiesThe relationship between Demand/Supply and how sensitive the good is to changes in Price, Income, or Other GoodsPrice Elasticity of Demand (PED)Income Elasticity of Demand (YED)Cross-Price Elasticity of DemandPrice Elasticity of Supply
2Possible test questions: What factors determine the price and income elasticities of demand for a product?Why might firms be interested to know the price and income elasticities of demand for various products?What are the various factors that determine the value of (i) price elasticity of demand and (ii) income elasticity of demand?Explain the factors which influence price elasticity of supply. Illustrate your answer with reference to the market for a commodity or raw material.
3Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Demand A measure of how much the quantity demanded changes in response to a change in the price of the product.Simple formula:% ∆ in Quantity Demanded of the product% ∆ in price of the product
4In theory, the range in value is from “0 to infinity” in actuality neither of these values will occurValue under 1 – the product has price inelastic demandValue over 1 – the product has price elastic demandValue equal to one – the product has unit (unitary) price elastic demandunitary elasticinelastic elastic123456
5When the price of gasoline rises by 1% the quantity demanded falls by 0.2%, so gasoline demand is not very price sensitive.Price elasticity of demand isWhen the price of gold jewelry rises by 1% the quantity demanded falls by 2.6%, so jewelry demand is very price sensitive.Price elasticity of demand is
6Disregard the negative sign The own price elasticity of demand is always negative.Economists usually refer to the own price elasticity of demand by its absolute value (ignore the negative sign).So, even though the formula says that the own price elasticity of demand is negative, we would say the elasticity of demand is .2 in the first example and 2.6 in the second.
7Perfectly Elastic Demand We say that demand is perfectly elastic when a 1% change in the price would result in an infinite change in quantity demanded.(theoretical)PriceQuantityPerfectly Elastic Demand (elasticity = ¥)
8Perfectly Inelastic Demand We say that demand is perfectly inelastic when a 1% change in the price would result in no change in quantity demanded.(theoretical)PriceQuantityPerfectly Inelastic Demand (elasticity = 0)
9Determinants of Price Elasticity 1. The Availability/Closeness of Substitutes 2. Time Span i.e. oil, inelastic short-run, slightly less long run 3. Proportion of Income Spent 4. Necessity of the product (vs. luxury goods) i.e. habit-forming products have inelastic D
10Warning:Elasticity and Slope of line A straight line will have a slope that is constant, the value of PED over the same line will vary.upper portions- more elasticlower portions – more inelastic
11Significance of Price Elasticity When demand is price elastic:Price and revenue (income) move in opposite directions (indirect relationship)A rise in price will cause a fall in revenueA decrease in price will cause an increase in revenue.When demand is price inelastic:Price and revenue (income) move in the same direction (direct relationship)A rise in price will cause an increase revenue and vice versa
12Elasticity and Taxation If the government increases a tax on a product there will be a greater affect on their revenue when the product has price__________ demand.
13PED and commodities Oil, minerals, food (tangible raw materials) Tend to have inelastic demandTend to have price volatility and the elasticity of demand has a huge effect on revenue for producers and for governments than depend on the export of commoditiesPrice volatility due to supply shifts (short-run supply shifts)
14PED and price discrimination The same good may have different elasticities of demand for different consumers; such as airline tickets and hotel rooms.
15Income Elasticity of Demand Measures the extent to which demand for a product changes in response to a change in incomeFormula: % change in Quantity Demanded% change in Income
16Determinants of Income Elasticity Necessities or luxuries:Necessities have positive, but less than 1 elasticityLuxuries have positive and more than 1Income level of consumers
17Positive Income Elasticity of Demand A rise in income will cause a rise in demand and a fall in income will cause a fall in demand for a product (a normal good)Positive value = normal goodsif the value is 0-1 = income inelastic demand Necessities: bread, milk, petrolIf the value is 1+ = income elastic demand Very elastic: Fine wines and spirits, high quality chocolates, luxury holidays overseas, Consumer durables - audio visual equipment, 3G mobile phones and gym memberships. These are called Superior or Luxury goods
18-+ Negative Income Elasticity of Demand A rise in income will cause a decrease in demand and a fall in income will cause an increase in demand for a product, an inferior goodless than 0 (negative value) = inferior goodExamples include the demand for potatoes, white- bread and low-priced own label foods in supermarkets , bikes in China, but not in developed country….. (surprisingly: cigarettes, why?)
19Uses of Income Elasticity: If a product is income elastic and the economy is getting better the company needs to plan investment. How?Government needs to know what percentage of jobs are income elastic/inelastic to plan for unemployment. Why?
20Positive Income Elastic and inelastic Demand Quantity Demanded
21Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand (CPed) Measures the extent to which demand for one product changes in response to a change in the price of another product% ∆ in Quantity Demanded of the product A% ∆ in price of the product BNote: Positive/Negative sign does matter
22Formula CPED (XED)= %∆QDa %∆ Pb Positive Cross Elasticity (greater than 0)Substitute goods: a rise in the price of one product is likely to cause an increase in demand for its substitute(s)Slightly more than 0 = remote substitutesGreater positive number = close substitutesApples vs. Oranges:Price of oranges increases 10% the demand for apples increases by 12%
23Positive cross elasticity (substitutes) Price oforangesquantity of apples
24Negative Cross Elasticity (Less than 0) Complementary Goods: A rise in price of one product is likely to cause a decrease in demand for it’s complementary good)s)Slightly less than 0 = remote complementsGreater negative number = close complements
25Price Elasticity of Supply Is a measure of the responsiveness of supply to a change in price.Formula: PES = %∆QS%∆PElastic Supply: A percentage change in price results in a greater percentage change in Supply ( 1< PES )Inelastic Supply: When the supply is not very responsive to changes in price ( 0<PES<1 )Perfectly elastic and perfectly inelastic supply is possible in the short-run.
26What are the different curves? (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5) Price s5Quantity suppliedWhat are the different curves? (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5)
28Determinants of Supply Length of time:The immediate time periodNot all inputs (factors of production) can be changedThe short-runOnly some inputs can changeThe long-runAll inputs can be changedSpare capacity of firmsHow much costs rise as inputs increase