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**Determination of Forward and Futures Prices Chapter 5**

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Some Remarks Will mostly talk about forwards as they are easier to value than futures, but their values are close under certain circumstances Futures on equity indices, currencies and commodities Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Consumption vs Investment Assets**

Investment assets are assets held by significant numbers of people purely for investment purposes (Examples: gold, silver) Consumption assets are assets held primarily for consumption (Examples: copper, oil) Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Short Selling Short selling involves selling securities you do not own**

Your broker borrows the securities from another client and sells them in the market in the usual way Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Short Selling (continued)**

At some stage you must buy the securities back so they can be replaced in the account of the client (unavailability of shares for borrowing is called short-squeeze) You must pay dividends and other benefits the owner of the securities receives Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Measuring Interest Rates**

The compounding frequency used for an interest rate is the unit of measurement Expected rate of return on your investment is quoted as 12% per year after fees. If you have $200,000 in the account, then what is your expected wealth in 30 years (assuming no additional deposits or withdrawals)? Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Measuring Interest Rates**

Annual compounding: 200,000*(1+.12)30 = 5,991,984 Monthly compounding: 200,000*(1+.12/12)30*12 = 7,189,928 Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Continuous Compounding**

In the limit as we compound more and more frequently we obtain continuously compounded interest rates $100 grows to $100eRT when invested at a continuously compounded rate R for time T $100 received at time T discounts to $100e-RT at time zero when the continuously compounded discount rate is R Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Example What continuously compounded rate is equivalent to monthly compounded 15%? Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Example What continuously compounded rate is equivalent to monthly compounded 15%? eR = (1+0.15/12)12 Solve for R: R = 14.91% Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Conversion Formulas Define Rc : continuously compounded rate**

Rm: same rate with compounding m times per year Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Assumptions No transaction costs**

Homogeneous tax on all net trading profits Borrowing and lending is at the same rate No arbitrage can persist These must hold for at least a few key market players Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Notation S0: Spot price today F0: Futures or forward price today T:**

Time until delivery date r: Risk-free interest rate for maturity T Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Gold Example (From Chapter 1)**

For gold F0 = S0(1 + r )T (assuming no storage costs) If r is compounded continuously instead of annually F0 = S0erT Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Arbitrage Strategy If F0 < S0erT, then**

buy forward sell short the underlying invest the proceeds at r for T Cash Flow at t=0, CF0, is zero CFT = S0erT- F0 > 0 Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Example A four-month forward to buy a zero-coupon bond. The current bond price is $930. Continuously compounded 4-month rate is 6% per year. The current forward price is $940. Is there arbitrage? If yes, how would you exploit it? Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Extension of the Gold Example**

For any investment asset that provides no income and has no storage costs F0 = S0erT Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**When an Investment Asset Provides a Known Dollar Income**

F0 = (S0 – I )erT where I is the present value of the income Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Example A 10-month forward on a stock with a price of $50. Cont. compounded 10-month rate is 8%. The dividends of $0.75 are expected in 3, 6 and 9 months. The forward price is $53 now. Is there an arbitrage? Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**When an Investment Asset Provides a Known Yield**

F0 = S0 e(r–q )T where q is the average yield during the life of the contract (expressed with continuous compounding) Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Example A six-month forward on an asset with a 4% dividend yield (semiannually compounded). r = 10%(continuous) S0 = $25 F0 = $24 Any arbitrage? Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Valuing a Forward Contract**

Suppose that K is delivery price in a forward contract F0 is forward price that would apply to the contract today The value of a long forward contract, ƒ, is ƒ = (F0 – K )e–rT Similarly, the value of a short forward contract is (K – F0 )e–rT Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Example A one-year forward on a non-dividend paying stock is entered into when the stock price is $40 and the risk-free rate is 10%. Find the forward price and the initial value of the forward? In six months the stock price is $45 and the risk-free rate is still 10%. What are the forward price and the value of the forward now? Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Forward vs Futures Prices**

Forward and futures prices are usually assumed to be the same. When interest rates are uncertain they are, in theory, slightly different: A strong positive correlation between interest rates and the asset price implies the futures price is slightly higher than the forward price A strong negative correlation implies the reverse Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Indices DJIA, S&P500, S&P MidCap 400 Index, NASDAQ 100 Nikkei 225**

GSCI (negatively correlated with SP) Russell 2000 US dollar Index (six currencies) CAC-40, DAX-30, FT-SE 100 Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Stock Index F0 = S0 e(r–q )T**

Can be viewed as an investment asset paying a dividend yield The futures price and spot price relationship is therefore F0 = S0 e(r–q )T where q is the dividend yield on the portfolio represented by the index Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Stock Index (continued)**

For the formula to be true it is important that the index represent an investment asset In other words, changes in the index must correspond to changes in the value of a tradable portfolio The Nikkei index viewed as a dollar number does not represent an investment asset. Neither does the Value Line index, options on which are traded on Kansas City Board of Trade Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Index Arbitrage When F0>S0e(r-q)T an arbitrageur buys the stocks underlying the index and sells futures When F0<S0e(r-q)T an arbitrageur buys futures and shorts or sells the stocks underlying the index Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Index Arbitrage (continued)**

Index arbitrage involves simultaneous trades in futures and many different stocks Very often a computer is used to generate the trades (program trades) Occasionally (e.g., on Black Monday) simultaneous trades are not possible and the theoretical no-arbitrage relationship between F0 and S0 does not hold Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Futures and Forwards on Currencies**

A foreign currency is analogous to a security providing a dividend yield The continuous dividend yield is the foreign risk-free interest rate It follows that if rf is the foreign risk-free interest rate Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Example Two-month rates in US and Switzerland are 3% and 8%. The spot price of the Swiss franc is $ The futures price for the contract deliverable in two months is $ What arbitrage opportunities does this create? Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Example T=2 months; r= 3%, rf=5%; S=$0.6500; F=$0.6600. Arbitrage?**

Strategy: sell the forward, buy the currency with borrowed funds: CF0 = 0 CFT = F-Sexp((r-rf)T)=$.0122 Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Futures on Consumption Assets**

F0 S0 e(r+u )T where u is the storage cost per unit time as a percent of the asset value. Alternatively, F0 (S0+U )erT where U is the present value of the storage costs. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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Example Silver: S0 = $9/ounce; Storage costs = $.24 per ounce per year payable quarterly in advance; r=10%; T=9/12 yr. Find F0. PV(storage costs) = =U = .06(1+e-.1/4+e-.1/2)= 0.176 F0=(9+.176)e.1*3/4 = 9.89 Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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The Cost of Carry The cost of carry, c, is the storage cost plus the interest costs less the income earned For an investment asset F0 = S0ecT For a consumption asset F0 S0ecT The convenience yield on the consumption asset, y, is defined so that F0 = S0 e(c–y )T Delivery options: deliver as soon as possible if cost of holding an asset outweighs the benefit of owning it Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Futures Prices & Expected Future Spot Prices**

Suppose k is the expected return required by investors on an asset We can synthetically create the underlying by buying a forward and investing F0e–r T now to get ST back at maturity of the futures contract This shows that F0 = E (ST )e(r–k )T Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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**Futures Prices & Future Spot Prices (continued)**

If the asset has no systematic risk, then k = r and F0 is an unbiased estimate of ST positive systematic risk, then k > r and F0 < E (ST ) negative systematic risk, then k < r and F0 > E (ST ) Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 5th edition © by John C. Hull

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