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Understanding Repeater Operations b Presented by: b The Cheshire County DX Amateur Radio Club b AD1T.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Repeater Operations b Presented by: b The Cheshire County DX Amateur Radio Club b AD1T."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Repeater Operations b Presented by: b The Cheshire County DX Amateur Radio Club b AD1T

2 Understanding Repeater Operations Designed by: Joel Huntley WA1ZYX

3 Areas to be Discussed b Simplex Operations b Input Frequency b Duplexer b Controller b Hang - Time b Courtesy Beep or Msg b Offsets b Duplex Operations b Output Frequency b CTCSS / PL / CG b Ancillary Functions b Time-Out Timer b Autopatch b Operating Practices

4 Simplex Operations b Refers to operations involving ONE RF Carrier Frequency. b Transmit OR Receive, one at a time b Typical Radio User operates in this mode

5 Duplex Operation b Transmitting AND Receiving at the same time Using TWO Different RF Frequencies. b Typical Repeater Station operates in this mode.

6 Duplex Operations b Input Frequency Repeater Receives on this FrequencyRepeater Receives on this Frequency User Transmits on this FrequencyUser Transmits on this Frequency b Output Frequency Repeater Transmits on this FrequencyRepeater Transmits on this Frequency User Receives on this FrequencyUser Receives on this Frequency

7 Duplex Operations b The Difference in Frequency between Input & Output is called the OFFSET. b Offset is referenced to the Repeaters Output Frequency. Example: Mhz Repeater OutputExample: Mhz Repeater Output Mhz Repeater Input Mhz Repeater Input Equals Mhz OFFSETEquals Mhz OFFSET

8 10 Meter Offset b -100 Khz b Output Mhz b Input Mhz b Offset Khz Must be GENERAL Class or Above!Must be GENERAL Class or Above!

9 6 Meter Offset b Mhz b Output Mhz b Input Mhz b Offset Mhz

10 2 Meter Offset b - OR Khz Depends on OutputDepends on Output b Output Mhz Mhz b Input Mhz Mhz b Offset Khz Khz

11 1.25 Meter Offset 220 Band b Mhz b Output Mhz b Input Mhz b Offset Mhz

12 70 Centimeter Offset 440 Band b - OR Mhz Depends on OutputDepends on Output b Output Mhz Mhz b Input Mhz Mhz b Offset Mhz Mhz

13 2 Meter Bandplan b The 144 to 148 Mhz Amateur Radio 2 Meter band plan.

14 How to Locate Repeaters b Repeater Directory is divided First by Band, then State, then by Region - North, South, Central etc, then by actual location.

15 Duplexers b Allows Repeater to Transmit & Receive at the same time on ONE Antenna To Rec From Xmtr Antenna

16 Types of Repeater Antennas b Commercial Grade Repeater Antennas. b Folded Dipole Style. Can be configured for Omni or Directivity. b StationMaster, Fiberglass Style

17 Feedlines b Most Repeaters use Commercial Grade antenna feedlines. b Higher Frequencies and long runs for high towers mean huge signal losses with cheap cable. b Larger cable, lower losses. Andrews or Cablewave 7/8 Foam

18 More on Antennas b No Ringos or Flimsy Antennas should be used on High Mountain Top Installations! b Need to be RUGGED!! b And Heres Why……………...

19 Severe Ice Build-Up b Top of Mtn After Ice Storm

20 Controller b Interfaces the Receiver by providing Logic and Audio to the Transmitter. b Provides Automatic ID of Repeater b Provides Timers, Messages and other Functions

21 Timers b Hang / Tail Timer Amount of Time the Repeater Transmitter stays on-the-air after User Stops Transmitting.Amount of Time the Repeater Transmitter stays on-the-air after User Stops Transmitting. b Courtesy Timer Time between User end of transmission and Courtesy Reset beep.Time between User end of transmission and Courtesy Reset beep. b Time-Out-Timer Amount of time before Repeater Transmitter shuts off. Usually about 3 minutes.Amount of time before Repeater Transmitter shuts off. Usually about 3 minutes.

22 Courtesy Message b Tells the User when the Time-Out-Timer has reset. Usually after a slight delay to allow for other stations to break in.Usually after a slight delay to allow for other stations to break in. b If a User begins Transmitting Prior to the Courtesy Message, Previous Users Time is added to your Time. After 3 minutes, Repeater will Time-Out.After 3 minutes, Repeater will Time-Out.

23 Autopatch b Additional Function of the Controller that interfaces the Repeater to the Telephone System. b No business calls allowed. Although because of deregulation, some commercial type calls are allowed now.Although because of deregulation, some commercial type calls are allowed now. Ultimately, its up to each Repeater Owner/Trustee. Ask first.Ultimately, its up to each Repeater Owner/Trustee. Ask first.

24 Autopatch Dos & Donts b DO Always ID your station prior to use. b DO Limit Autopatch Use to Necessary calls only. Use Phone BEFORE you leave the Office.Use Phone BEFORE you leave the Office. b DONT Use Autopatch to avoid a Toll Call! Remember, Somebodys paying for that Phone Line. Ma Bell Doesnt give those away to anybody!!!Remember, Somebodys paying for that Phone Line. Ma Bell Doesnt give those away to anybody!!!

25 CTCSS / PL / CG b CTCSS = Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System PL = Private Line Motorolas Trade NamePL = Private Line Motorolas Trade Name CG = Channel Guard General Electrics Trade NameCG = Channel Guard General Electrics Trade Name b Sub-Audible Tone, superimposed on a Transmitted Signal to open a Receivers Squelch. b If a Receiver hears a Signal With the Correct Frequency CTCSS Tone, Squelch Opens, otherwise it ignores the signal.

26 CTCSS / PL / CG b In Repeater Early days, PL was used to keep stations out - ie, Closed Repeater. Available to members only. b Now, because there are so many repeaters, and frequency pairs are becoming scarce, PL allows a user to Select which Repeater one brings up in overlapping areas. b Also Used to keep Interference out of Repeater.

27 Ancillary Functions b Other Functions provided by a Repeater might be Linking to other Repeaters for Wide Area Coverage. b Severe Weather Alerting.

28 Block Diagram Antenna Duplexers Controller Receiver Input Transmitter Output Power Supply

29 Finished Product b The End Result After Putting It All Together!

30 UHF Motorola Micor Keene Repeater b MHz PL Power Amp Transmitter Audio & Squelch Receiver Power Supply Duplexers Controller

31 Operating Practices b Speak in PLAIN Language b Remember, Dont give a user a Signal Strength report on a Repeater. YOU ARE REPORTING the REPEATERS STRENGTH!! b Use Normal Words!!!! b Destinated? What is that word….. b Handle? I have no Idea - Whats your name? b Break Nope, I dont Think So!!!

32 Finances Required b Repeater 1-2K, if actual Repeater. Probably less if a converted mobile unit. b Duplexer $500 and up depending on Band. b Antenna $300 - $1000, Again depending on Band / Style b Feedline $3 to $6 per Foot Typical for Heliax. b Connectors for Heliax $60 - $80 each, 2 req. b Controller $ K Depending on Features

33 The End b If you have any questions….. Contact: b Joel, WA1ZYX at b December 1998


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