Presentation on theme: "Understanding Repeater Operations b Presented by: b The Cheshire County DX Amateur Radio Club b AD1T."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding Repeater Operations b Presented by: b The Cheshire County DX Amateur Radio Club b AD1T
Understanding Repeater Operations Designed by: Joel Huntley WA1ZYX
Areas to be Discussed b Simplex Operations b Input Frequency b Duplexer b Controller b Hang - Time b Courtesy Beep or Msg b Offsets b Duplex Operations b Output Frequency b CTCSS / PL / CG b Ancillary Functions b Time-Out Timer b Autopatch b Operating Practices
Simplex Operations b Refers to operations involving ONE RF Carrier Frequency. b Transmit OR Receive, one at a time b Typical Radio User operates in this mode
Duplex Operation b Transmitting AND Receiving at the same time Using TWO Different RF Frequencies. b Typical Repeater Station operates in this mode.
Duplex Operations b Input Frequency Repeater Receives on this FrequencyRepeater Receives on this Frequency User Transmits on this FrequencyUser Transmits on this Frequency b Output Frequency Repeater Transmits on this FrequencyRepeater Transmits on this Frequency User Receives on this FrequencyUser Receives on this Frequency
Duplex Operations b The Difference in Frequency between Input & Output is called the OFFSET. b Offset is referenced to the Repeaters Output Frequency. Example: 443.800 Mhz Repeater OutputExample: 443.800 Mhz Repeater Output 448.800 Mhz Repeater Input 448.800 Mhz Repeater Input Equals +5.000 Mhz OFFSETEquals +5.000 Mhz OFFSET
10 Meter Offset b -100 Khz b Output 29.620 Mhz b Input 29.520 Mhz b Offset -.100 Khz Must be GENERAL Class or Above!Must be GENERAL Class or Above!
6 Meter Offset b -1.00 Mhz b Output 53.090 Mhz b Input 52.090 Mhz b Offset - 1.000 Mhz
2 Meter Offset b - OR +.600 Khz Depends on OutputDepends on Output b Output 146.805 Mhz 147.030 Mhz b Input 146.205 Mhz 147.630 Mhz b Offset -.600 Khz +.600 Khz
1.25 Meter Offset 220 Band b - 1.600 Mhz b Output 224.720 Mhz b Input 223.120 Mhz b Offset - 1.600 Mhz
70 Centimeter Offset 440 Band b - OR + 5.00 Mhz Depends on OutputDepends on Output b Output 443.800 Mhz 449.875 Mhz b Input 448.800 Mhz 444.875 Mhz b Offset + 5.000 Mhz - 5.000 Mhz
2 Meter Bandplan b The 144 to 148 Mhz Amateur Radio 2 Meter band plan.
How to Locate Repeaters b Repeater Directory is divided First by Band, then State, then by Region - North, South, Central etc, then by actual location.
Duplexers b Allows Repeater to Transmit & Receive at the same time on ONE Antenna To Rec From Xmtr Antenna
Types of Repeater Antennas b Commercial Grade Repeater Antennas. b Folded Dipole Style. Can be configured for Omni or Directivity. b StationMaster, Fiberglass Style
Feedlines b Most Repeaters use Commercial Grade antenna feedlines. b Higher Frequencies and long runs for high towers mean huge signal losses with cheap cable. b Larger cable, lower losses. Andrews or Cablewave 7/8 Foam
More on Antennas b No Ringos or Flimsy Antennas should be used on High Mountain Top Installations! b Need to be RUGGED!! b And Heres Why……………...
Severe Ice Build-Up b Top of Mtn After Ice Storm
Controller b Interfaces the Receiver by providing Logic and Audio to the Transmitter. b Provides Automatic ID of Repeater b Provides Timers, Messages and other Functions
Timers b Hang / Tail Timer Amount of Time the Repeater Transmitter stays on-the-air after User Stops Transmitting.Amount of Time the Repeater Transmitter stays on-the-air after User Stops Transmitting. b Courtesy Timer Time between User end of transmission and Courtesy Reset beep.Time between User end of transmission and Courtesy Reset beep. b Time-Out-Timer Amount of time before Repeater Transmitter shuts off. Usually about 3 minutes.Amount of time before Repeater Transmitter shuts off. Usually about 3 minutes.
Courtesy Message b Tells the User when the Time-Out-Timer has reset. Usually after a slight delay to allow for other stations to break in.Usually after a slight delay to allow for other stations to break in. b If a User begins Transmitting Prior to the Courtesy Message, Previous Users Time is added to your Time. After 3 minutes, Repeater will Time-Out.After 3 minutes, Repeater will Time-Out.
Autopatch b Additional Function of the Controller that interfaces the Repeater to the Telephone System. b No business calls allowed. Although because of deregulation, some commercial type calls are allowed now.Although because of deregulation, some commercial type calls are allowed now. Ultimately, its up to each Repeater Owner/Trustee. Ask first.Ultimately, its up to each Repeater Owner/Trustee. Ask first.
Autopatch Dos & Donts b DO Always ID your station prior to use. b DO Limit Autopatch Use to Necessary calls only. Use Phone BEFORE you leave the Office.Use Phone BEFORE you leave the Office. b DONT Use Autopatch to avoid a Toll Call! Remember, Somebodys paying for that Phone Line. Ma Bell Doesnt give those away to anybody!!!Remember, Somebodys paying for that Phone Line. Ma Bell Doesnt give those away to anybody!!!
CTCSS / PL / CG b CTCSS = Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System PL = Private Line Motorolas Trade NamePL = Private Line Motorolas Trade Name CG = Channel Guard General Electrics Trade NameCG = Channel Guard General Electrics Trade Name b Sub-Audible Tone, superimposed on a Transmitted Signal to open a Receivers Squelch. b If a Receiver hears a Signal With the Correct Frequency CTCSS Tone, Squelch Opens, otherwise it ignores the signal.
CTCSS / PL / CG b In Repeater Early days, PL was used to keep stations out - ie, Closed Repeater. Available to members only. b Now, because there are so many repeaters, and frequency pairs are becoming scarce, PL allows a user to Select which Repeater one brings up in overlapping areas. b Also Used to keep Interference out of Repeater.
Ancillary Functions b Other Functions provided by a Repeater might be Linking to other Repeaters for Wide Area Coverage. b Severe Weather Alerting.
Finished Product b The End Result After Putting It All Together!
UHF Motorola Micor Keene Repeater b 443.800 MHz 141.3 PL Power Amp Transmitter Audio & Squelch Receiver Power Supply Duplexers Controller
Operating Practices b Speak in PLAIN Language b Remember, Dont give a user a Signal Strength report on a Repeater. YOU ARE REPORTING the REPEATERS STRENGTH!! b Use Normal Words!!!! b Destinated? What is that word….. b Handle? I have no Idea - Whats your name? b Break 19 -- Nope, I dont Think So!!!
Finances Required b Repeater 1-2K, if actual Repeater. Probably less if a converted mobile unit. b Duplexer $500 and up depending on Band. b Antenna $300 - $1000, Again depending on Band / Style b Feedline $3 to $6 per Foot Typical for Heliax. b Connectors for Heliax $60 - $80 each, 2 req. b Controller $500 - 1K Depending on Features
The End b If you have any questions….. Contact: b Joel, WA1ZYX at b firstname.lastname@example.org December 1998