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Technician License Course Chapter 6 Communicating with other hams Lesson Plan Module 13: Contact Basics; Band Plans; Making Contacts; Using Repeaters.

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Presentation on theme: "Technician License Course Chapter 6 Communicating with other hams Lesson Plan Module 13: Contact Basics; Band Plans; Making Contacts; Using Repeaters."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technician License Course Chapter 6 Communicating with other hams Lesson Plan Module 13: Contact Basics; Band Plans; Making Contacts; Using Repeaters

2 The Typical Telephone Conversation Greeting. Identify who is participating. Exchange information, generally taking turns. Salutations. End the conversation.

3 The Typical Ham Contact (QSO) Greeting. Identify who is participating. Exchange information, generally taking turns. Salutations. End the conversation.

4 Radio Manners Speak clearly and distinctly Not too loud or fast Giant party line – choose topics accordingly Avoid controversial subjects Shared use of frequencies No one “owns” a frequency. Defer to established nets

5 Radio Manners Use of phonetics. International Phonetic Alphabet Station identification (FCC 10 minute rule) Every 10 minutes, and at the end of every conversation Schedules with other stations

6 Radio Manners Signal Reports Power level Location RST –Readability (1-5) –Strength (1-9) –Tone (CW only 1-9) –“Your signal is 58”

7 Radio Manners Ham radio is self-regulated. –ARRL Official Observers. Logging contacts – on paper or computer. No longer required, but recommended. Keep as part of your station records. QSLs –Awards Programs

8 QSL Cards

9 Q – Signals originated as shortcuts for Morse Code (CW) sending. Q-Signal QRM QRN QTH QSB QRU QSY QSL QST Translation Adjacent signal noise from other stations Natural or electrical noise (static) My location is Your signal is fading I have no further traffic for you Change frequency to I acknowledge your transmission Attention all amateurs

10 Locators Could be your address. Could be a milepost or where you are on a road. Could be latitude and longitude. You could use the Maidenhead Locator System, which divides the earth into grid squares identified by a four digit number- letter code.

11 Simplex - Split Simplex – Using one frequency and taking turns. Most HF is simplex operation. Uses the least spectrum. Split – Mostly used for contacting DX stations. The DX station will listen on one frequency and transmit on another nearby frequency. Other stations listen on the second frequency and transmit on the first frequency

12 Simplex –Transmitting and receiving on the same frequency. –Each user takes turns to transmit. –Is the preferred method if it works. –Uses the least spectrum.

13 Duplex Half-Duplex - Repeaters use duplex, receiving a signal on one (input) frequency and transmitting on another (output) frequency. Users listen on the repeaters output frequency, and transmit on the input frequency; taking turns talking. Full-Duplex – Like a mobile phone. Users can listen and talk at the same time.

14 Duplex –Transmitting on one frequency while simultaneously listening on a different frequency. –Repeaters use duplex. –Output frequency – the frequency the repeater transmits on and you listen to. –Input frequency – the frequency the repeater listens to and you transmit on.

15 Band Plans A band plan is a way of organizing the use of radio frequencies. –Formal and legal plan. Sections of the band reserved under FCC rules for particular uses. –Informal – gentleman's agreement. A way of dividing up the formal plan so that different uses can coexist. Not a legal requirement, but amateur good practice.

16 What is the term used to describe an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency? (T2B01) A. Full duplex communication B. Diplex communication C. Simplex communication D. Half duplex communication

17 What is the term used to describe an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency? (T2B01) A. Full duplex communication B. Diplex communication C. Simplex communication D. Half duplex communication

18 What is the “Q” signal used to indicate that you are receiving interference from other stations? (T2B10) A. QRM B. QRN C. QTH D. QSB

19 What is the “Q” signal used to indicate that you are receiving interference from other stations? (T2B10) A. QRM B. QRN C. QTH D. QSB

20 What is the “Q” signal used to indicate that you are changing frequency? (T2B11) A. QRU B. QSY C. QSL D. QRZ

21 What is the “Q” signal used to indicate that you are changing frequency? (T2B11) A. QRU B. QSY C. QSL D. QRZ

22 What is a grid locator? (T8C05) A. A letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location B. A letter-number designator assigned to an azimuth and elevation C. An instrument for neutralizing a final amplifier D. An instrument for radio direction finding

23 What is a grid locator? (T8C05) A. A letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location B. A letter-number designator assigned to an azimuth and elevation C. An instrument for neutralizing a final amplifier D. An instrument for radio direction finding

24 Making Contacts Procedural signals on HF and CW HF Voice CQ – Calling any Station Roger – I Acknowledge Over – It’s your turn Clear – Finished transmitting 73 – Best regards CW CQ – Calling any Station R - Roger K – Over (It’s your turn) SK - Finished transmitting 73 – Best regards

25 Making Contacts On repeaters: Simply say your call to establish contact On HF, call CQ – I am calling any station Practice using your radio Being off frequency, low batteries or a bad location can cause problems with your signal.

26 Making Contacts Taking turns and breaking-in. Nets – groups of operators gathered on a specific frequency for a common interest or purpose. Using simplex – 2M MHz and 70 cm MHz

27 What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations in the 70 cm band? (T2A02) A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz

28 What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations in the 70 cm band? (T2A02) A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz

29 What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you know the other station’s call sign? (T2A04) A. Say “break, break” then say the station’s call sign B. Say the station’s call sign then identify with your call sign C. Say “CQ” three times then the other station’s call sign D. Wait for the station to call “CQ” then answer it

30 What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you know the other station’s call sign? (T2A04) A. Say “break, break” then say the station’s call sign B. Say the station’s call sign then identify with your call sign C. Say “CQ” three times then the other station’s call sign D. Wait for the station to call “CQ” then answer it

31 What should you transmit when responding to a call of CQ? (T2A05) A. CQ followed by the other station’s call sign B. Your call sign followed by the other station’s call sign C. The other station’s call sign followed by your call sign D. A signal report followed by your call sign

32 What should you transmit when responding to a call of CQ? (T2A05) A. CQ followed by the other station’s call sign B. Your call sign followed by the other station’s call sign C. The other station’s call sign followed by your call sign D. A signal report followed by your call sign

33 What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ?” (T2A08) A. Call on the quarter hour B. A new antenna is being tested (no station should answer) C. Only the called station should transmit D. Calling any station

34 What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ?” (T2A08) A. Call on the quarter hour B. A new antenna is being tested (no station should answer) C. Only the called station should transmit D. Calling any station

35 What brief statement is often used in place of “CQ” to indicate that you are listening on a repeater? (T2A09) A. Say “Hello test” followed by your call sign B. Say your call sign C. Say the repeater call sign followed by your call sign D. Say the letters “QSY” followed by your call sign

36 What brief statement is often used in place of “CQ” to indicate that you are listening on a repeater? (T2A09) A. Say “Hello test” followed by your call sign B. Say your call sign C. Say the repeater call sign followed by your call sign D. Say the letters “QSY” followed by your call sign

37 What might be the problem if you receive a report that your audio signal through the repeater is distorted or unintelligible? (T7B10) A. Your transmitter might be slightly off frequency B. Your batteries might be running low C. You could be in a bad location D. All of these choices are correct

38 What might be the problem if you receive a report that your audio signal through the repeater is distorted or unintelligible? (T7B10) A. Your transmitter might be slightly off frequency B. Your batteries might be running low C. You could be in a bad location D. All of these choices are correct

39 What is a Repeater? Specialized transmitter/receiver interconnected by computer controller. Generally located at a high place. Receives your signal and simultaneously retransmits your signal on a different frequency. Dramatically extends line-of-sight range. –If both users can see the repeater site.

40

41 A Little Vocabulary First Simplex –Transmitting and receiving on the same frequency. –Each user takes turns to transmit. –Is the preferred method if it works. –Uses the least spectrum.

42 A Little Vocabulary First Duplex –Transmitting on one frequency while simultaneously listening on a different frequency. –Repeaters use duplex. –Output frequency – the frequency the repeater transmits on and you listen to. –Input frequency – the frequency the repeater listens to and you transmit on.

43 Things to Know to Use a Repeater Output frequency. Frequency split. (Offset) –and therefore the input frequency. Repeater access tones (if any). Tone types: Burst CTCSS DCS

44 Repeater Output Frequency Repeaters are frequently identified by their output frequency. –“Meet you on the machine.” Here the specific frequency is used. –“Let’s go to 94.” Here an abbreviation for a standard repeater channel is used meaning MHz. –“How about the NARL repeater?” Here the repeater is referenced by the sponsoring club name.

45 Repeater Frequency Split The split, shifts, or offset frequencies are standardized to help facilitate repeater use. There are + and – shifts depending on the plan. Different bands have different standardized amounts of shift.

46 Repeater Access Tones Sometimes multiple repeaters can be accessed at the same time unintentionally. To preclude unintentional access, some repeaters require a special subaudible tone to be present before the repeater controller will recognize the signal as a valid signal and turn on the repeater. These tones are called by various names (depending on equipment manufacturer). –CTCSS (continuous tone coded squelch system) –PL (a Motorola trade name for CTCSS) –Privacy codes or tones –DCS (digital coded squelch)

47 Repeater Access Tones Access tones are usually published along with repeater frequencies. Repeater Directory. Could also be announced when the repeater identifies. –“PL is 123.0” Tones are generally programmed into the radio along with frequency and offset.

48 Repeaters Most repeaters have a single receiver and transmitter, operating at a single site. Some repeaters have additional receivers linked to the transmitter, for increased coverage. These are called auxiliary stations.

49 Repeater Linking Some repeaters can be linked to other repeaters. Some are linked by radio (auxiliary) links. Some can be linked to other repeaters via the internet using Internet Radio Linking Protocol (IRLP). Node numbers may be included in repeater directories. Enter a node number using the keypad on the microphone.

50 Repeater Controller Device that controls the repeater operation. –Station identification (Morse code or synthesized voice). Same ID requirements as you have. –Time-out protection. Sometimes called the alligator. Protects against continuous transmission in the event of a stuck PTT or long winded hams. –Courtesy tone – repeater time-out timer reset.

51 Which of the following stations transmits signals over the air from a remote receive site to a repeater for retransmission? (T1A11) A. Beacon station B. Relay station C. Auxiliary station D. Message forwarding station

52 Which of the following stations transmits signals over the air from a remote receive site to a repeater for retransmission? (T1A11) A. Beacon station B. Relay station C. Auxiliary station D. Message forwarding station

53 What is the most common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band? (T2A01) A. Plus 500 kHz B. Plus or minus 600 kHz C. Minus 500 kHz D. Only plus 600 kHz

54 What is the most common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band? (T2A01) A. Plus 500 kHz B. Plus or minus 600 kHz C. Minus 500 kHz D. Only plus 600 kHz

55 What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band? (T2A03) A. Plus or minus 5 MHz B. Plus or minus 600 kHz C. Minus 600 kHz D. Plus 600 kHz

56 What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band? (T2A03) A. Plus or minus 5 MHz B. Plus or minus 600 kHz C. Minus 600 kHz D. Plus 600 kHz

57 What term is used to describe the use of a sub- audible tone transmitted with normal voice audio to open the squelch of a receiver? (T2B02) A. Carrier squelch B. Tone burst C. DTMF D. CTCSS

58 What term is used to describe the use of a sub- audible tone transmitted with normal voice audio to open the squelch of a receiver? (T2B02) A. Carrier squelch B. Tone burst C. DTMF D. CTCSS

59 Which of the following common problems might cause you to be able to hear but not access a repeater even when transmitting with the proper offset? (T2B04) A. The repeater receiver requires audio tone burst for access B. The repeater receiver requires a CTCSS tone for access C. The repeater receiver may require a DCS tone sequence for access D. All of these choices are correct

60 Which of the following common problems might cause you to be able to hear but not access a repeater even when transmitting with the proper offset? (T2B04) A. The repeater receiver requires audio tone burst for access B. The repeater receiver requires a CTCSS tone for access C. The repeater receiver may require a DCS tone sequence for access D. All of these choices are correct

61 Which of the following describes the common meaning of the term “repeater offset?” (T4B11) A. The distance between the repeater’s transmit and receive antennas B. The time delay before the repeater timer resets C. The difference between the repeater’s transmit and receive frequencies D. The maximum frequency deviation permitted on the repeater’s input signal

62 Which of the following describes the common meaning of the term “repeater offset?” (T4B11) A. The distance between the repeater’s transmit and receive antennas B. The time delay before the repeater timer resets C. The difference between the repeater’s transmit and receive frequencies D. The maximum frequency deviation permitted on the repeater’s input signal

63 How might you obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP? (T8C09) A. From the FCC rulebook B. From you local emergency coordinator C. From a repeater directory D. From the local repeater frequency coordinator

64 How might you obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP? (T8C09) A. From the FCC rulebook B. From you local emergency coordinator C. From a repeater directory D. From the local repeater frequency coordinator

65 How do you select a specific IRLP node when using a portable transceiver? (T8C10) A. Choose a specific CTCSS tone B. Choose the correct DSC tone C. Access the repeater autopatch D. Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID

66 How do you select a specific IRLP node when using a portable transceiver? (T8C10) A. Choose a specific CTCSS tone B. Choose the correct DSC tone C. Access the repeater autopatch D. Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID


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