Presentation on theme: "Measuring WSIS Targets 2 and 7 on ICTs in Education: Evidence from Latin America & the Caribbean and the Arab States on the digital divide Towards Knowledge."— Presentation transcript:
1Measuring WSIS Targets 2 and 7 on ICTs in Education: Evidence from Latin America & the Caribbean and the Arab States on the digital divideTowards Knowledge Societies for Peace and Sustainable DevelopmentFirst WSIS +10 review meetingParis, France, September 2013Peter WalletUNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS)
2PRESENTATION OUTLINE History and Role of the UIS ICTs in Education Process/ HistoryWSIS Targets on ICTs in EducationData Collection in LAC and the Arab StatesLessons Learned and Way Forward
3WHY MEASURE ICTs IN EDUCATION? UNESCO sector demands, vision and missionInternational Commitments:WSIS (Geneva, 2003) Plan of ActioneLAC2010 (Strategy for the Information Society in Latin America and the Caribbean )Education for All (EFA) goalsMillennium Development Goals (MDGs)New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) e-schools initiativeDemands from analytical communityPartnership on Measuring ICT for Development (ICT4D)UNESCO is assigned to guide policy formulation and methodological work on ICTs in education;UIS is responsible for building and maintaining an international data collection on ICTs in education with differing policy needs;UIS helps monitor the MDG education related goals as well as the 6 EFA goals.NEPAD e-schools initiative had the goal of “equipping all primary and secondary schools with ICT apparatus such as computers, radios, and television sets, phones and fax machines, communication equipment, scanners, digital cameras, copiers, etc. and to connect them to the Internet”.Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (ICT4D) includes all the above agencies and organizations to measure ICT use in various spheres.Education for All Goals:Six internationally agreed education goals aim to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by Goal 1 :Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged childrenGoal 2: Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality.Goal 3 : Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmesGoal 4 : Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults.Goal 5 : Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality.Goal 6 : Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.
4RISE OF ICTs USED IN EDUCATION: Country examples Uruguay (El Ceibal project); provides free laptops for all primary school-age pupils and primary teachers by 2009One laptop per child (2.4 mill. XO computers in 60 countries)Malaysia (Smart School Project); provides schools with latest ICTs and the required training of teachersRussia: (Russia e-learning support project); provides greater access to ICTs in education and teacher professional development; also targets rural areasBelarus (State programmes): Achieved universal connectivity by 2008 by establishing computer labs in all schoolsKenya, Ghana and Uganda (E-reader project) funded by WorldReader; provides children with digital textbooksWe also need to measure the use of ICTs in education given their rapid rise in use in various countries.El Ceibal: project to put a computer in the hand of every primary student and teacher in Uruguay by 2009.One Laptop per Child – 60 countries, 2.4 million XO computers; Uruguay, Peru.Malaysia Smart School Project: The main objective of Smart School project, principally implemented by Ministry of Education, is to deploy latest information technologies to revolutionise the education system.Russia: This is World Bank’s largest free-standing ICT/education project designed to improve the accessibility, quality, and relevance of Russia's general and first level vocational education.Belarus: National policy to achieve universal connectivity in schools; this was almost completely accomplished by setting up computer labs with Internet in all schools by 2008.Worldreader is a US and European non-profit whose mission is to make digital books available to children in the developing world, so millions of people can improve their lives. As of March 2012, we’ve put over 75,000 e-books - and the life-changing, power-creating ideas contained within them – into the hands of children in Sub Saharan Africa.
5POLICY ISSUES AND PARTNERSHIPS: What do we mean by ICTs in education? ICTs in education refers to education models that employ ICTs to support, enhance and enable the delivery of education. Any, all or combinations of the following types of ICTs are included.ICTs in EducationICTs in education refers to education models that employ ICTs to support, enhance and enable the delivery of education.Includes any, all, or a combination of the following:Radio-assisted instruction, television-assisted instruction, computer-assisted instruction, or Internet-assisted instruction.RadioTVComputerInternet
6PARTNERS Korea Education Research and Information Service (KERIS) UNESCO (Bangkok)UNESCO Communication and Information SectorUNESCO Education SectorEconomic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)Inter-American Development BankWorld BankPartnership on Measuring ICT for Development (ICT4D)UIS works with several partners in the ICTs in education work including:UNESCO Communication and Information SectorAsian data collection: KERIS and MESTThe World Bank on policy; the World Bank also developed a questionnaire based on UIS indicators for their SABER data collection.ECLAC and Inter-American Development Bank for the previous data collection in LAC countries in 2011.World Bank: SABER Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) is an initiative that helps countries systematically examine and strengthen the performance of their education systems to achieve learning for all. The World Bank is working with partners around the world to develop diagnostic tools that benchmark education policies according to evidence-based global standards and best practice.Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (to be discussed later in the presentation)
7WORKING GROUP FOR ICT STATISTICS IN EDUCATION (WISE): CORE INDICATORS Adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC) through the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development at its 40th session in February 2009ED Proportion of schools with a radio used for educational purposes (for ISCED level 1-3)ED Proportion of schools with a TV used for educational purposes (for ISCED level 1-3)ED Proportion of schools with a telephone communication facility (for ISCED level 1-3)ED Learner-to-computer ratio in schools with CAI (for ISCED level 1-3)ED4. bis Learner-to-computer ratio (for ISCED level 1-3)ED Proportion of schools with Internet access at school, by type (for ISCED level 1-3)Fixed narrowband Internet access (using modem dial-up, ISDN)Fixed broadband Internet access (DSL, cable, other fixed broadband)Both fixed narrowband and broadband Internet accessED Proportion of learners who have access to the Internet at school (for ISCED level 1-3)ED Proportion of learners enrolled by gender at the post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiarylevel in ICT-related fields (for ISCED level 4 and level 5- 6)ED8 Proportion of ICT-qualified teachers in primary and secondary schools (for ISCED level 1-3)EDR1 Proportion of schools with electricity (for ISCED level 1-3) --- Reference indicatorInformed by the International working group for ICT statistics in education (WISE) made up of 25 developed and developing countries, UIS developed a list of core indicators, which may be disaggregated by ISCED levels and by sector.The information above is available in the UIS Guide to Measuring ICTs in education
8WISE: BEYOND THE CORE INDICATORS Development of an international questionnaire and instructional manual for ICTs in educationGuide to Measuring ICTs in Education, which covers the 10 core indicators as well as an extended 43 indicators covering:Political commitmentInfrastructureTeaching staff and developmentCurriculumParticipation skills and outputOutcomes and impact
9CONTENT OF THE GUIDE ON ICTs IN EDUCATION Detailed specifications:Statistical definitionsPurposeData requirementInterpretationMethodological issues and limitationsServes as methodological reference material and facilitates operational implementationThe information above is available in the UIS Guide to Measuring ICTs in education
10Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (ICT4D) Statistical FrameworkMid-term ReviewWorld Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)As a follow up to the World Summit on Information Society (WSIS), a list of ten targets were identified.Partnership has written a publication on measuring these targets, as well as providing an analytical mid-term review based on pilot data collectionExplain the partnership more in detail and mention the statistical framework publication and mid term review.
11Target 2: Connect all secondary and primary schools with ICTs Proportion of schools with a radio used for educational purposesProportion of schools with a television used for educational purposesLearners-to-computer ratioProportion of schools with Internet access, by type of accessReflects the importance of connecting schools with ICTs
12Target 7: Adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the information society, taking into account national circumstancesProportion of ICT-qualified teachers in schoolsProportion of teachers trained to teach subjects using ICTProportion of schools with computer-assisted instructionProportion of schools with Internet-assisted instructionReflects the importance of enabling schools to benefit from ICT. Emphasis is on teacher training and on use of advanced forms of ICT-assisted instruction
13LAC and Arab States ICT QUESTIONNAIRE: Themes Policy and CurriculumICT Infrastructure in SchoolsPupils’ access to/participation in programmes using ICTsTeachers’ ICT Related Training and Use of ICT
14Indicator 2.3: Learners-to-computer ratio This indicator measures the number of children enrolled versus the number of computers available for pedagogical use in schoolsThe figure shows LCR for 24 countries with data ranging from 122:1 in primary and secondary education in the Dominican Republic to 1:1 for combined primary and secondary education in Uruguay where it is national policy through its El Ceibal project to provide one laptop computer for every child and teacher. Pupils also have substantially greater potential access to computers in Cayman Islands, Barbados and Chile where the LCRs are below 10:1 for both primary and secondary education.On the other hand children in Nicaragua, Grenada, Bolivia and Paraguay have much poorer access to computers in school given the relatively high LCRs reported in those countries—particularly in primary education (more than 50:1).According to the figure, most countries provide greater numbers of computers to secondary education than to primary education, which reflects the greater integration of computer use in higher levels of education. For example in Trinidad and Tobago, Argentina and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the primary level LCR is approximately 5, 4 and 3 times higher than the secondary LCR, respectively, and this results in substantially less opportunity for accessing and using computers in primary educational institutions.In contrast, data from Cuba data show almost no difference between the primary and secondary level LCRs: 28:1 and 27:1, respectively suggesting a more equitable approach to national planning for the integration of ICTs in education. In Nicaragua, where access to computers is very poor at both primary and secondary levels, the LCR data show that contrary to most other countries, access to computers decreases from primary education (74:1) to secondary education (84:1).
15Indicator 2.4: Proportion of schools with Internet access Connectivity is an important step in terms of building infrastructure to support the implementation of ICTs in education, particularly for Internet-assisted instruction (IAI). In fact one of the goals of eLAC is to connect all public educational institutions to the Internet, via broadband connections. Moreover, the WSIS targets and UIS core indicators include the indicator the proportion of schools with Internet access by type.Unfortunately only a few countries can provide connectivity data by type of access. Many countries can however provide data on total connections.Figure shows the proportion of primary and secondary educational institutions with any type of Internet connection. Similar patterns emerge—as countries in the Caribbean region have full connectivity in primary and secondary education institutions.In contrast, relatively fewer educational institutions in a number of South and Central American countries also have Internet connections. Fewer than 20% of primary and secondary schools have an Internet connection in Nicaragua.In Columbia, the majority of connections are not via fixed broadband. In Argentina significant proportions of Internet connections are also not via broadband.In addition the figure also shows that in the vast majority of countries, secondary educational institutions are given priority for Internet connectivity. For example, secondary educational institutions are 3.5, 2.5, 2.2, and 1.9 times more likely to have an Internet connection than primary educational institutions in Ecuador, Turks and Caicos, El Salvador and Brazil respectively.Figure above does not disaggregate the data according to type of Internet connection. Data on this is less frequently available at the country level. Information on broadband versus narrowband connectivity is significant as it sheds light on the capacity of learners to perform activities online that require significant bandwidth including streaming video, video-conferencing and using heavy applications embedded online, also regarding animations, etc.. Narrowband Internet connections limit pupil’s ability for much online learning.Based on the 15 countries that provide Internet connection data by type, 9 report that all Internet connections reported in Figure XX, are broadband including the majority of Caribbean countries where all schools have Internet connections as well as schools in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Trinidad and Tobago. In contrast Table XX shows those countries which have both broadband and fixed narrowband Internet connections. In Argentina for example, out of 29% and 50% of primary education and secondary institutions, respectively, that are connected, not much more than half are connected by broadband. While slightly more than half of all Internet connections are broadband in primary educational institutions in Dominica, all secondary level connections are broadband. This priority shown for supplying secondary schools with broadband over primary schools is also the case for Anguilla.
16Indicator 7.1: Proportion of ICT-qualified teachers in schools Regarding the proportion of ICT-qualified teachers in primary and secondary education institutions, less than 10% of all primary and secondary teachers are trained to teach basic computer skills or computing in 14 out of 21 countries providing data. For example, no primary and secondary in Suriname, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Grenada are ICT-qualified. On the other hand Aruba trains all of its teachers in primary and secondary education to teach basic computer skills. In Uruguay which has implemented its El Ceibal project, the proportion of teachers trained to teach basic computer skills is 37% at the primary and secondary levels.
17Indicator 7.2: Proportion of teachers trained to teach subjects using ICTs In contrast, 15 out of 24 countries presented above provide data on the proportion of teachers trained to teach using ICTs and this figure is typically greater than those trained to teach basic computing. Data shows wide variation in terms of country policy regarding the formal training of teachers to teach subjects using ICT. In Cuba, the Montserrat and in Cayman Islands, 100%, 100% and 90% of primary and secondary teachers, respectively, have been trained formally to teach using ICTs. Formal training of how to use ICTs in teaching different subjects is lacking in Guyana, Mexico and Suriname where 6%, 2% and 0% percent of teachers have been trained to use ICTs in their teaching.
18ICT-assisted instruction by type and by level of education, 2011 Egypt continues to be challenged in establishing basic ICT infrastructure such as acquiring computers to keep pace with enrolment and connecting these to the Internet, the main emphasis is nevertheless on the integration of CAI where 86% and 96% of primary and secondary educational institutions, respectively, have access to this type of ICT-assisted instruction. In contrast, traditional types of ICT-assisted instruction are not emphasized in Egypt despite that a significant proportion of the geography of Egypt is rural and/ or remote.Palestine also has challenges in terms of establishing infrastructure to support CAI and IAI across the entire educational system, and has lowest rate of all five countries under analysis. In contrast to Egypt, Palestine commonly uses older forms of ICT-assisted instruction to help fill in gaps left by a lack of infrastructure needed to support CAI and IAI.Jordan and Oman both have strong policy orientations towards the uptake of ICTs in education and continue to provide a wide array of ICT-assisted instruction types.Data from Qatar reflects the public sector only
19Latin America and the Caribbean Gender: Females versus males Enrolment in programmes providing computer-assisted instruction (CAI)For the majority of countries surveyed in the LAC and Arab States regions, there are no substantial gender-based differences in terms of enrolments in programmes offering CAI in primary education. However in a minority of countries there are some differences and these typically occur in countries where resources are scarcest suggesting competition for resources. For example, 13 and 21 percent of females and males are enrolled in programmes offering CAI in Nicaragua. In Grenada 62 and 71 percent of females and makes are similarly enrolled. In Palestine, preference is for females as 56 of females are in programmes offering CAI compared to 52 percent of males.Latin America and the CaribbeanArab States
20Lessons Learned More data is needed on the digital divide and gender International comparability: What is meant by teacher training on ICTs? Broadband, upload and download speeds vary significantly by country, however data on speeds is difficult to obtain from schoolsMerging ICTs: Categories have limited life spanMore indicators on usage and outcomes required, secondary sources?
21WAY FORWARDRegional perspective to data collection for ICT in education statisticsLatin America and the Caribbean:REPORTS published in Spanish and EnglishArab States (2011/2012): Coordinated by UNESCO Communications sectorREPORT to be released in March 2012Asia and Pacific (2012): Partnership with KERIS (Rep. of Korea)REPORT to be released in June 2013Francophone sub-Saharan Africa: Data collection in 2013Anglophone sub-Saharan Africa: Data collection in 2014Global perspective to data collection for ICT in education statistics: Potential strategies for 2015?
22THANK YOUFor more information on UIS statistics on ICT in education, please visit the UIS website: Peter Wallet