6/9/2014 1 Hurricane Basics A Presentation on Hurricane Basics. Part of the Hurricane Learning Series By Hurricaneville.
6/9/2014 2 Hurricane Basics AGENDA Introduction Factors In Hurricane Development Stages Of Hurricane Development The Saffir-Simpson Scale Components of a Hurricane Origins of a Hurricane Hurricane Tracks Effects from a Hurricane Naming of Hurricanes Credits
6/9/2014 4 Hurricane Basics INTRODUCTION Hurricanes are among the most fiercest forces on earth. They are a vast mass of clouds that form in the tropics, and bring heat to the poles. These tropical cyclones bring high winds, heavy rains, and dangerous tides from the coast to areas farther inland.
6/9/2014 5 Hurricane Basics INTRODUCTION Hurricanes occur throughout all the tropical regions of the world. Consequently, they are described with different terminology. They are called Typhoons in the Western Pacific, Cyclones in the Indian Ocean and Southern Pacific, and sometimes Willy- Willys in Australia.
6/9/2014 6 Hurricane Basics Factors In Hurricane Development
6/9/2014 7 Hurricane Basics FACTORS IN HURRICANE DEVELOPMENT Hurricanes can develop into very powerful storms if the conditions in the atmosphere are right. Below are several key factors in hurricane development. First, you need a spinTropical Disturbances develop from the convergence of trade winds in the tropics. All tropical systems must have some sort or rotation. Warm water a must---Hurricanes are a vast heat engine that need sea surface temperatures to be at least 80 degrees in order to grow and mature. No shearing allowedUnlike tornadoes, hurricanes are a vertically stacked system that move from east to west. Therefore, they must have high pressure and light winds aloft.
6/9/2014 8 Hurricane Basics Stages Of Hurricane Development
6/9/2014 9 Hurricane Basics STAGES OF HURRICANE DEVELOPMENT Hurricanes go through several different stages of development before they reach hurricane status. Tropical Wave--Is the first step toward a hurricane. They are areas of low pressure that lack a closed center of circulation. About hundred of these develop each year in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical Depression--Develops when a tropical wave develops a closed low level circulation, and wind speeds in excess of 20 knots, or 25 mph. Tropical StormDevelops when a tropical depression has sustained wind speeds of 35 knots, or 39 mph. HurricaneDevelops when a tropical storm has sustained wind speeds of 65 knots, or 74 mph.
6/9/2014 10 Hurricane Basics The Saffir-Simpson Scale
6/9/2014 11 Hurricane Basics THE SAFFIR-SIMPSON SCALE Once a tropical system matures to a hurricane, it can continue to strengthen to even greater heights. The stronger the hurricane, the more catastrophic the damage can be upon landfall. Below is the Saffir-Simpson Scale, which is used to measure a hurricanes intensity and potential for damage. CategoryWindsPressureDamage One 74-95 mph >=28.94 in. Minimal Two 96-110 mph 28.50-28.91 in. Significant Three 111-130 mph 27.91-28.47 in. Severe Four 131-155 mph 27.17-27.88 in. Extreme Five >155 mph <27.17 in. Catastrophic
6/9/2014 12 Hurricane Basics Components Of A Hurricane
6/9/2014 13 Hurricane Basics COMPONENTS OF A HURRICANE There are several key components to a mature hurricane: The Eye, Eyewall, Central Dense Overcast, and Outflow. Below is a brief explanation of each. The EyeIs the center of circulation, and area of lowest pressure in tropical storm or hurricane. It is most notably known as the deceptive area of calm in the storm. EyewallIt is the solid ring of showers and thunderstorms surrounding the eye. This is where the hurricanes highest winds are usually located. Central Dense OvercastThe circular mass of embedded showers and thunderstorms in the heart of a hurricane. OutflowProbably the most critical piece of a hurricanes machinery. It is the outer fringes of the hurricane where heat energy is released into the atmosphere.
6/9/2014 14 Hurricane Basics Origins Of A Hurricane
6/9/2014 15 Hurricane Basics ORIGINS OF A HURRICANE Hurricanes form in several regions of the Tropical Atlantic. Below is a brief description of each. Gulf of MexicoThis region is the most conducive for hurricane development throughout the year with sea surface temperatures between 85 and 90 degrees. Western CaribbeanThis region is where a lot of hurricanes form in the initial and final months of every hurricane season. Cape Verde IslandsThis region is commonplace for the development of the classic hurricane that occurs during the peak months of August and September of each hurricane season.
6/9/2014 17 Hurricane Basics HURRICANE TRACKS Hurricanes take several basic routes depending on there origin. Below is a brief description of each. Forming in the Gulf of Mexico, and heading northward into the Southeastern United States. Forming in the Western Caribbean, and moving into Central America, or the Yucatan Peninsula, and then later moving into the Gulf before landfalling again in Northern Mexico, or Southern Texas. Forming near the Cape Verde Islands, and moving West through the Caribbean, and then either making landfall along the Gulf Coast, or Eastern Seaboard of the United States.
6/9/2014 18 Hurricane Basics Effects From A Hurricane
6/9/2014 19 Hurricane Basics EFFECTS FROM A HURRICANE Hurricanes can bring a variety of effects. Some are greater than the others. Below is a brief description of each. RainProbably the most underrated of all effects from a tropical storm or hurricane. Amounts can be as high as several feet. WindThe next most devastating effect behind storm surge, hurricanes can have winds up to and above 200 mph. TornadoesMany do not realize it, but hurricanes can produce tornadoes upon landfall. The friction between the storm and land produces a great deal of instability, and thus, Tornadoes. Storm SurgeThe most deadly effect from a hurricane, this rising dome of water that accompanies landfall accounts for about 90 percent of all hurricane deaths.
6/9/2014 20 Hurricane Basics Naming Of Hurricanes
6/9/2014 21 Hurricane Basics NAMING OF HURRICANES Tropical Storms and Hurricanes are often referred to by name throughout the world, particularly in the Atlantic Basin. They are named so that it is easier to explain and effectively communicate information on them to residents that could be effected. The National Weather Service began naming tropical storms and hurricanes in 1953 by using names of girls.National Weather Service In 1979, The National Hurricane Center got with the times, and gave tropical storms, and hurricanes boys names as well. The National Hurricane Center has a complete list of current names of tropical storms and hurricanes for the current six year cycle as well as a list of retired names.National Hurricane Center
6/9/2014 23 Hurricane Basics CREDITS Hurricaneville Gregs Weather Center Hurricane City The Weather Channel The National Hurricane Center Rutgers Meteorology Department World Book Encyclopedia Essentials of Meteorology: An Invitation To The Atmosphere. The Weather Book
6/9/2014 24 Hurricane Basics We here at Hurricaneville hoped you enjoyed, and learned a lot from this presentation.