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Pastured Meatbird Processing Funding for this presentation was provided by USDA's Outreach and Assistance to Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers.

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Presentation on theme: "Pastured Meatbird Processing Funding for this presentation was provided by USDA's Outreach and Assistance to Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pastured Meatbird Processing Funding for this presentation was provided by USDA's Outreach and Assistance to Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers (OASDFR) program (Project number ), part of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, and Risk Management Agency (Award # 11-IE )

2 Broiler Processing Two options – Federal or State Inspected plants – On-farm under Federal Exemption Legal in about half the states, including California Plan BEFORE Starting – Few processors in the US left – Booking far in advance Can be an expensive on-farm investment Ask local growers for solutions Two options – Federal or State Inspected plants – On-farm under Federal Exemption Legal in about half the states, including California Plan BEFORE Starting – Few processors in the US left – Booking far in advance Can be an expensive on-farm investment Ask local growers for solutions

3 Regulations On-Farm Processing States can (and do) modify – Some states no exemption! Can only sell inside state 1,000 & 20,000 Bird Limits Can sell direct to consumer – On farm – Off farm Farmers Markets At consumers home States can (and do) modify – Some states no exemption! Can only sell inside state 1,000 & 20,000 Bird Limits Can sell direct to consumer – On farm – Off farm Farmers Markets At consumers home State or Federal Processing USDA inspected = Federal USDA can cross state lines No bird limits Can sell anywhere Very few operating Scheduling difficulties Can be cost prohibitive No quality control It is illegal to sell birds processed by custom processors! USDA inspected = Federal USDA can cross state lines No bird limits Can sell anywhere Very few operating Scheduling difficulties Can be cost prohibitive No quality control It is illegal to sell birds processed by custom processors!

4 On Farm Processing at a Glance Blue – allowed on farm w/ PPIA Red – on farm w/ additional state regs Grey – not allowed unless inspected Blue – allowed on farm w/ PPIA Red – on farm w/ additional state regs Grey – not allowed unless inspected

5 Preparing for Harvest Typically 7-12 wks – Depends on variety Feed is withheld – 8-12 hours On farm vs. Off farm – Poultry Crates Needed? Gentle Handling – Bruising = less $$$ – Crating density Typically 7-12 wks – Depends on variety Feed is withheld – 8-12 hours On farm vs. Off farm – Poultry Crates Needed? Gentle Handling – Bruising = less $$$ – Crating density

6 Processing Steps & Equipment Killing Loosening Feathers Feather Removal Evisceration Chilling Bagging Killing Loosening Feathers Feather Removal Evisceration Chilling Bagging Killing Cones Scalder Plucker Tables and Sinks Cooling Tank/Cooler Special shrink-wrap bags Killing Cones Scalder Plucker Tables and Sinks Cooling Tank/Cooler Special shrink-wrap bags

7 Processing

8 Killing First step in processing Birds restrained in killing cones – Relaxed by Restraint Upside down Throat is cut, severing arteries – Windpipe is left intact – Birds heart pumps most of the blood out – Peaceful death (as possible) from blood loss First step in processing Birds restrained in killing cones – Relaxed by Restraint Upside down Throat is cut, severing arteries – Windpipe is left intact – Birds heart pumps most of the blood out – Peaceful death (as possible) from blood loss

9 Scalding Scalding – dunking birds in hot water Scalding loosens the birds feathers – Typically gas fired Scald temp. & time for broilers: ~ 145 ˚F for around 1 ¼ minutes Immediately after bleed out! Temperature is important – Too hot = partly cooking the bird – Too cold = poor feather removal Scalding – dunking birds in hot water Scalding loosens the birds feathers – Typically gas fired Scald temp. & time for broilers: ~ 145 ˚F for around 1 ¼ minutes Immediately after bleed out! Temperature is important – Too hot = partly cooking the bird – Too cold = poor feather removal

10 Plucking Hand plucking is VERY (!) labor intensive Automatic pluckers are the standard – Can cleanly pluck 4-5 birds in 20 seconds! Hand plucking is VERY (!) labor intensive Automatic pluckers are the standard – Can cleanly pluck 4-5 birds in 20 seconds!

11 Evisceration Head & Feet Removal Oil Sack Removal Organ Removal – Cut below breast – Remove innards – Cut around vent – Save liver, heart, & gizzard Crop & Esophagus Removal Head & Feet Removal Oil Sack Removal Organ Removal – Cut below breast – Remove innards – Cut around vent – Save liver, heart, & gizzard Crop & Esophagus Removal

12 Carcass Cool-Off Regulated by Law for Safety Under 40 ˚F with in 4 hours Inhibits bacteria growth – Slows spoilage – Lengthens shelf-life Usually done in a chill tank – 1 ½ - 2 lbs ice per bird – Filled with cool water Regulated by Law for Safety Under 40 ˚F with in 4 hours Inhibits bacteria growth – Slows spoilage – Lengthens shelf-life Usually done in a chill tank – 1 ½ - 2 lbs ice per bird – Filled with cool water

13 Packaging & Storage Bag birds after chilling Remove air from bags – Avoid freezer burn – Shrink Wrap bags attractive & effective Clean fresh birds can stay good a week Frozen birds stay good for around a year – Chicken freezes around 28 ˚F Make sure you have freezer/fridge space! Bag birds after chilling Remove air from bags – Avoid freezer burn – Shrink Wrap bags attractive & effective Clean fresh birds can stay good a week Frozen birds stay good for around a year – Chicken freezes around 28 ˚F Make sure you have freezer/fridge space!

14 Shop to Processing Shed Farm processes 10,000 chickens/yr

15 Mobile Processing Units (MPU)

16 Resources Organizations – ATTRA – the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service – – American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) Magazines – GRIT! – APPPA Magazine ATTRA Publications – Pastured Poultry Nutrition – Meat Chicken Breeds for Pastured Production – Small Scale Poultry Processing Books – APPPA Raising Poultry on Pasture – Ten Years of Success. 246 p. Organizations – ATTRA – the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service – – American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) Magazines – GRIT! – APPPA Magazine ATTRA Publications – Pastured Poultry Nutrition – Meat Chicken Breeds for Pastured Production – Small Scale Poultry Processing Books – APPPA Raising Poultry on Pasture – Ten Years of Success. 246 p.

17 Resources Poultry Products Inspection Act Exemption - Processing Equipment – Featherman Equipment Company - – Poultry Man LLC - Poultry Shrink Bags – Cornerstone Farm Ventures - Poultry Labels and Design – Growers Discount Labels - Poultry Products Inspection Act Exemption - Processing Equipment – Featherman Equipment Company - – Poultry Man LLC - Poultry Shrink Bags – Cornerstone Farm Ventures - Poultry Labels and Design – Growers Discount Labels -


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