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Molecules at the same temperature have the same average kinetic energy. (T KE) KE is proportional to the speed of the molecules and the mass of the molecules. KE = ½ mv 2
Grahams Law Diffusion – a gas spreading out Grahams Law deals with the effusion of two gases into each other. Effusion – a gas moving through a small hole
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B Consider two gases at the same temperature and pressure in a box with two partitions, separated by a wall with a hole that can be opened.
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B Gas A effuses into Gas B, and … Gas B effuses into Gas A, so that … …eventually both gases will be evenly distributed in the box.
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B The ratio of the rates at which Gas A and Gas B effuse into each other is … … inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses.
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B The bottom line: the lighter the gas, the faster it moves!
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B Suppose nitrogen and an unknown gas, both at the same temperature and pressure, are in the box. The rates of effusion are …
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B … 0.0160 moles/L/min for the nitrogen and 0.0205 mol/L/min for the unknown. What is the molecular weight of the unknown?
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B Start with the equation for Grahams Law
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B Square both sides, then solve for the molecular mass of compound x
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B M x = 17.0g/mol
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B What is the unknown gas? The gas is smelly, dissolves in water to make a basic solution, and has a molar mass of 17 g/mol.
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B Ammonia gas, NH 3, has a strong smell, and...
OH - Grahams Law Gas A Gas B … it reacts with water … … it reacts with water … NH 3 (g) + HOH(l) NH 3 (g) + HOH(l) … which is a basic solution, OH - NH 4 + +
Grahams Law Gas A Gas B 1 x 14.0 + 3 x 1.0 = 17.0 g/mol … and ammonia, NH 3, has a molar mass of 17.0 g/mol.
How do smells travel to your nose? Graham’s Law Thomas Graham studied the effusion and diffusion of gases. –Diffusion is the mixing of gases through.
Gases and the Kinetic Molecular Theory. Speeds of gas molecules. For a single molecule. Kinetic energy is: KE = ½ mv 2 m = mass; v = velocity For a collection.
Gases Diffusion and Effusion. Objectives Describe the process of diffusion State Graham’s law of effusion State the relationship between the average.
Graham’s Law Rate of Diffusion and Effusion. Introduction When we first open a container of ammonia, it takes time for the odor to travel from the container.
Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) 1.Gases consist of large numbers of molecules that are in continuous, random motion. 2.The volume of all of the gas molecules.
Ch. 10 & 11 - Gases V. Two More Laws (p , ) Read these pages first!
Drill – 3/22/11 A gas has a volume of 1.75 L at -23ºC and 150.0kPa. At what temperature would the gas occupy 1.30 L at 210.0kPa?
For your lab… What should you have in your conclusion? What is the point of “concluding”?
Gases Two More Laws Chapter 14. Dalton’s Law b The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.
Graham’s Law of Diffusion HCl NH cm NH 4 Cl(s) Choice 1: Both gases move at the same speed and meet in the middle.
Remember according to Avogadro’s law, one mole of any gas will occupy the same volume as one mole of any other gas at the same temperature regardless.
Graham’s Law of Diffusion Graham’s Law KE = ½mv 2 Speed of diffusion/effusion –Kinetic energy is determined by the temperature of the gas. –At the same.
Kinetic Theory All matter consist of small particles. All matter consist of small particles. The molecules are in constant, random, rapid motion. The.
AP Chemistry “The Behavior of Gases” Effusion and Diffusion Root Mean Speed Average Kinetic Energy.
KMT and Graham’s Law. Molecular Speed Of A Gas Depends on the mass of the gas molecules and the temperature they are at R is in different units and has.
Diffusion, Effusion, and Graham’s Law of Diffusion.
Unit 4 Sections A14a-c In which you will learn about: Combined gas law Dalton’s law Graham’s Law.
Gases Part 2 Gas Stoichiometry What is the volume of CO 2 produced at 37 0 C and 1.00 atm when 5.60 g of glucose are used up in the reaction: C 6 H 12.
Additional Gas Laws. Graham’s Law b Diffusion Spreading of gas molecules throughout a container until evenly distributed. b Effusion Passing of gas molecules.
The Gas Laws Learning about the special behavior of gases Objective #4 Section 21.5, Note pack pg. 11.
Warm-up 1. What formula will you use if you are given volume and pressure? 2. A sample of gas at 47°C and 1.03 atm occupies a volume of 2.20 L. What volume.
Diffusion vs. Effusion Diffusion - The tendency of the molecules of a given substance to move from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower.
Section 10.5 The Kinetic Molecular Theory. The Kinetic Molecular Theory In this section… a.Gases and Gas Laws on the Molecular Scale b.Molecular speed,
Kinetic Molecular Theory. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Kinetic-Molecular Theory This is a model that aids in our understanding of what happens to gas particles.
Molecular Compostion of Gases Effusion and Diffusion.
Chapter 5 The Gas Laws. Pressure Force per unit area. Gas molecules fill container. Molecules move around and hit sides. Collisions are the force.
Lecture 1810/14/05. Quiz 6 1. H 2 (g) and N 2 (g) react completely to form NH 3 (g). If the final pressure in the flask is 4 atm, what was the total pressure.
Gas Law Example Problems Mrs. Diksa/Miss Santelli.
Chapter Gases: Mixtures and Movements. The surface of a latex balloon has tiny pores through which gas particles can pass. The rate at which.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow.
KMT, Grahams Law & Real Gases. Kinetic Molecular Theory 1.Volume of individual particles is zero. 2.Collisions of particles with container walls cause.
Chapter 5 Gases. Reactions Involving Gases in reactions of gases, the amount of a gas is often given as a volume the ideal gas law allows us to convert.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter (KMT) 1.gases are mostly empty space 2.gas particles are in constant and random motion 3.collisions are elastic 4.gas.
Grahm’s Law of Effusion Effusion Equation Application.
Gases Chang Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Outline Gas Characteristics Pressure The Gas Laws Density and Molar Mass of a Gas Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure Kinetic.
Chapter 11 Molecular Composition of Gases. Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes N2N2 1 volume H 2 3 volumes → → 2 NH 3 2 volumes When measured.
NOTES: 14.4 – Dalton’s Law & Graham’s Law Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures: ● At constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture.
Ch. 10 Gases. Properties Expand to fill their container Highly compressible Molecules are far apart.
Gas Density: Summary The molar concentrations and densities of gases increase as they are compressed (less volume, right?), but decrease as they are heated.
Chapter 14 The Behavior of Gases. Section 14.3 Ideal Gases l\
Objective/Warm-Up SWBAT solve Dalton’s Law and Graham’s Law Problems. What is the ideal gas law?
Unit IX: Gases… Part II Chapter 11… think we can cover gases in one day? Obviously not… since this is day 2… but let’s plug away at it!
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1. Identify the four factors that affect gases. Pressure Volume Number of moles Temperature a. b. c. d. P V n T (Kelvin)
Grahams Law r a = m b r b m a. Grahams Law r a = rate at which substance a travels r b = rate at which substance b travels m a = mass of substance a m.
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