Presentation on theme: "KMT, Grahams Law & Real Gases. Kinetic Molecular Theory 1.Volume of individual particles is zero. 2.Collisions of particles with container walls cause."— Presentation transcript:
KMT, Grahams Law & Real Gases
Kinetic Molecular Theory 1.Volume of individual particles is zero. 2.Collisions of particles with container walls cause pressure exerted by gas.
Kinetic Molecular Theory 3.Particles exert no forces on each other. 4.Average kinetic energy Kelvin temperature of a gas.
Equations Related to KMT Kelvin temperature is an index of the random motions of gas particles (higher T means greater motion.) (The derivation of this equation can be found in many college physics texts)
Root Mean Square Speed Average velocity of the gas particles u RMS = (3RT/M) 1/2 M is in Kg R = J/K mol
Effusion: describes the passage of gas into an evacuated chamber. Diffusion: describes the mixing of gases. The rate of diffusion is the rate of gas mixing.
The Effusion of a Gas into an Evacuated Chamber
Diffusion: HCI(g) and NH 3 (g) Meet in a Tube
Grahams Law Diffusion: Effusion:
Real Gases Must correct ideal gas behavior when at high pressures and low temperatures - volume of molecules becomes significant -attractive forces become important
Gas at Low (a) and High (b) Concentration
Volume Taken up by Gas Particles
Plots of PV/nRT Versus P for Several Gases (200 K)
Plots of PV/nRT Versus P for Nitrogen Gas at Three Temperatures
Calculate the relative rates of diffusion of H 2(g) and Br 2(g) at the same conditions.
The rate of effusion of a particular gas was measured and found to be 24.0 mL/min. Under the same conditions, the rate of effusion of pure methane gas is 47.8 mL/min. What is the molar mass of the unknown gas?
Real Gases – van der Waals Equation corrected pressure corrected volume Van der Waals constants, a and b, are dependent on the type of gas molecule (see table 5.3)
Practice Problems Which gas will diffuse faster, ammonia (NH 3 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 )? What are their relative rates of diffusion? Freon-12 is used as a refrigerant in central home air- conditioners. The rate of effusion of Freon-12 to Freon-11 (molar mass = g/mol) is 1.07:1. The formula of Freon-12 is one of the following: CF 4, CF 3 Cl, CF 2 Cl 2, CFCl 3 or CCl 4