Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 1 Prof. Dr. Peter-Tobias Stoll Institute for International Law and European Law Department for.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 1 Prof. Dr. Peter-Tobias Stoll Institute for International Law and European Law Department for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 1 Prof. Dr. Peter-Tobias Stoll Institute for International Law and European Law Department for International Economic and Environmental Law /4662 Platz der Göttinger Sieben, 5 * D Göttingen * Germany

2 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 2 University of Bremen / FEU International Workshop on ABS, tK and BS Undoing the Knot in A & BS Transactions: In Search of Amicable Solutions The EU Approach Towards an ABS Regime in an International Law Perspective

3 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 3 Overview 1. EU Position 2. Reflection: Common Ground / Concepts

4 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 4 EU Position a. Elements: -Intl Access Standards -User Measures -Link b. What's New?

5 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 5 Source: Letter to the CBD Executive Secretary,

6 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 6 International Standards on National Access Law and Practice Guidance on national access legislation,... model legislation...; Essential procedural and substantive elements... need be reflected in national access frameworks... This should include 1. specific rules on PIC requirements... ; 2. clear legal status and rules on... acquisition of genetic resources...; 3. availability and accessibility of information on how to obtain PIC; 4. limitations on time and costs for obtaining PIC decisions; 5. existence of a procedure for simplified access for non-commercial research.... notify up-to-date information.... Clearing House national access rule apply in a non-discriminatory way.

7 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 7 Support of Compliance Mandatory disclosure requirement in patent applications International definition of misappropriation of genetic resources Unilateral declarations by users Internationally recognised certificate of compliance Promoting and building on ABS-related codes of conduct Engaging with public research funding agencies Integrationg TK in ABS Regime

8 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 8 Common Ground / Concepts Genetic Resources – the CBD approach 1.) The rationale of sovereign resource rights 2.) Benefit-sharing – a higher level of fairness and cooperation 3.)A long story of appropriations - a tragedy of the commons? 4.)Symbolic rules – real conflicts

9 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 9 1.) The rationale of sovereign resource rights Critically incomplete mismatch: control of substance / value in information structural control deficits: movements of material difficult to monitor capture of results of uncertain and long-lasting r&d + commercialization legal deficit: no acknowledgement of sovereign title in other jurisdictions and scracely any obligation to that effect Sovereign Right Preexisting... In the way defined, GR form part of sovereignty over resources the CBD did only clarify A justification in itself – not an environmental instrumentality

10 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 10 2.) Benefit-sharing – a higher level of fairness and cooperation Distinctively higher level of justice, fairness and cooperation fair and equitable, BS obligations Accomodating N+S interests sovereign right -> <- facilitation of access BS -> Two levels – two sorts of justice CBD intergovernmental relations iustitia distributiva: social justice in social systems Individual use transactions iustitia commutativa: justice of exchanges in private agreements

11 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 11 3.)A long story of appropriations - a tragedy of the commons? The FAO Undertaking as a forerunner 1983 common heritage of mankind 1989 recognition of plant breeder's rights Farmer's Rights 1991 Protection of breeding lines State sovereign rights on genetic resources The CBD 1992(general) sovereign right on GR, facilitation, BS The TRIPS and the patent system 1995Multilateral and enforceable standards for IP at the level of industrialized countries et seq. Tendency to extend patent protection

12 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 12 3.)A long story of appropriations - a tragedy of the commons? we often neglect, that the CBD is a step in a development of assigning proprietary rights to biotechnology this development reflects North and South claims to biotechnology and its benefits and is an issue of justice this is problem, because proprietary rights a not well suited to do justice. ideally, other means of (re-) distribution should be chosen equity / efficiency tradeoff

13 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 13 4.)Symbolic rules – real conflicts cases, where a legislation the functional, legal-technical effect and impact of which is questionable in reality aims at sending a message to society / political structures may be the case with the CBD (?) but the entitlements and the conflict is there have to be solved in some

14 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 14 Defining transactions on use of GR and TK high level of fairness and cooperation accomodating interests of N and S two levels of transactions (interstate/private transactions) – two forms of justice

15 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 15 Genetic Resources – the CBD approach The rationale of sovereign resource rights Sovereign Entitlement in Genetic resources Sovereignty – territorial sovereignty – sovereignty over natural resources biological and genetic resources covered in the form defined in the CBD e.g. as material => CBD does not cover the information => The system of legal control rests on the material as a sort of the substantive carrier, while the value is in the information, which is a public good

16 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 16 Genetic Resources – the CBD approach The Rationale of Sovereign Resource Rights Resource states have a right to dispose upon the resources and to rule upon related transactions Genetic resources are unique as their price is mainly linked to possible commercialization resulting from further value-adding with high uncertainties on a longer time scale taking typically place in other jurisdictions The (transborder) movement of genetic resources (e.g. material) is difficult to control for a resource State Under international law, third States have no obligation to honor, to recognize and to enforce a foreign sovereign entitlement in resources (with private property titles, it might be different)

17 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 17 Genetic Resources – the CBD approach Benefit-sharing – a Higher Level of Fairness

18 Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 18 Genetic Resources – the CBD approach Symbolic rules – real problems


Download ppt "Bremen AB&S Conference: EU Position / Intl Law Perspective 1 Prof. Dr. Peter-Tobias Stoll Institute for International Law and European Law Department for."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google