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The Law and Special Education Mitchell L. Yell. Chapter One Introduction to the American Legal System.

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1 The Law and Special Education Mitchell L. Yell

2 Chapter One Introduction to the American Legal System

3 The American Legal System: Federalism The American system is a federal system, where the government of the U.S. is made up of the states joined under a central federal government. The American system is a federal system, where the government of the U.S. is made up of the states joined under a central federal government. The Constitution grants certain powers to the national government, and the rest are left to the states. The Constitution grants certain powers to the national government, and the rest are left to the states. The Constitution does not include anything regarding education, so education is governed by the laws of each state. The Constitution does not include anything regarding education, so education is governed by the laws of each state. The federal government is still involved in the progress and growth of education, indirectly through the Constitutions general welfare clause. The federal government is still involved in the progress and growth of education, indirectly through the Constitutions general welfare clause. The federal government provides indirect assistance to education by offering categorical grants to states. The federal government provides indirect assistance to education by offering categorical grants to states.

4 The American Legal System: Sources of Law There are four sources of law, constitutional, statutory, regulatory, and case, all of which exist on the federal and state level. Constitutional Law: The U.S. Constitution is the basic source of law. The U.S. Constitution is the basic source of law. There is a separation of powers between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches There is a separation of powers between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches Federal statutes are based on provisions of the Constitution. For example Article I, Section 8 is the basis for special education provisions. Federal statutes are based on provisions of the Constitution. For example Article I, Section 8 is the basis for special education provisions. The Constitution can be amended by the Congress and the states. The Constitution can be amended by the Congress and the states. The 14th Amendment has become the constitutional basis for special education. The 14th Amendment has become the constitutional basis for special education.

5 The American Legal System: Sources of Law State Constitutions: Each state has its own constitution, which tend to be more detailed than the U.S. Constitution. Each state has its own constitution, which tend to be more detailed than the U.S. Constitution. States have educational mandates in their constitutions. States have educational mandates in their constitutions.

6 The American Legal System: Sources of Law Statutory Law: Congress has the authority to make laws. Congress has the authority to make laws. Laws made by Congress or state legislatures are called statutes. Laws made by Congress or state legislatures are called statutes. The process for enacting laws is long and complicated. The process for enacting laws is long and complicated. Enacted laws (or statutes or acts) is designated a public law (P.L.) if it is intended to apply generally. The laws receive a name and a number. Enacted laws (or statutes or acts) is designated a public law (P.L.) if it is intended to apply generally. The laws receive a name and a number. Most statutes concerning education are state laws. Most statutes concerning education are state laws.

7 The American Legal System: Sources of Law Regulatory Law: The statutes passed by Congress tend to be broad and general in nature. The statutes passed by Congress tend to be broad and general in nature. Congress delegates power to administrative agencies to create regulations (or rules or guidelines) to provide specifics for the statutes. Congress delegates power to administrative agencies to create regulations (or rules or guidelines) to provide specifics for the statutes. Violating a regulation is as serious as violating the law. Violating a regulation is as serious as violating the law. The administrative agencies usually can make rulings on the law and its regulations. The administrative agencies usually can make rulings on the law and its regulations.

8 The American Legal System: Sources of Law Case Law: Case law refers to the published opinions of judges that arise from court cases where they interpret statutes, regulations, and constitutional provisions. Case law refers to the published opinions of judges that arise from court cases where they interpret statutes, regulations, and constitutional provisions. The U.S. legal system places great value in these decisions and the legal precedents they establish. The U.S. legal system places great value in these decisions and the legal precedents they establish. The emphasis on case law is from the legal tradition established in England called common law. The emphasis on case law is from the legal tradition established in England called common law. Common law consists of court opinions in specific disputes. Common law consists of court opinions in specific disputes. Many areas of law consist largely of common law or case law, especially in special education. Many areas of law consist largely of common law or case law, especially in special education.

9 The American Legal System: Sources of Judicial Power Horizontal Power: Supreme Power: In some areas of decision making, the power of the judiciary is virtually supreme, so the courts act as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution. Supreme Power: In some areas of decision making, the power of the judiciary is virtually supreme, so the courts act as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution. Limited Power: Judicial decisions involve the interpretation of laws of the legislative branch, but the legislature can change the law if it disagrees with a courts interpretation. Limited Power: Judicial decisions involve the interpretation of laws of the legislative branch, but the legislature can change the law if it disagrees with a courts interpretation.

10 The American Legal System: Sources of Judicial Power Vertical Power: This regards the hierarchical structure of the system. This regards the hierarchical structure of the system. The levels, from lowest to highest, are the trial court, the intermediate appellate court, and the court of last resort or the supreme court. The levels, from lowest to highest, are the trial court, the intermediate appellate court, and the court of last resort or the supreme court. There are 51 jurisdictions in the U.S.: the federal courts and the 50 state courts. There are 51 jurisdictions in the U.S.: the federal courts and the 50 state courts. Lines of authority exist within the system, but they do not cross jurisdictional lines. Lines of authority exist within the system, but they do not cross jurisdictional lines.

11 The American Legal System: Court Structure The general model of the hierarchy of courts applies to both the federal system and state jurisdictions. Trial Court: This is the first level in the court system, with the purpose of fact-finding. This is the first level in the court system, with the purpose of fact-finding. Once the facts of the case are determined, they can not be appealed. Once the facts of the case are determined, they can not be appealed. Issues of law also arise, but the rulings of the judge on the law can be appealed by a higher court. Issues of law also arise, but the rulings of the judge on the law can be appealed by a higher court. There are almost 100 trial courts, called U.S. District Courts, in the federal judicial system. There are almost 100 trial courts, called U.S. District Courts, in the federal judicial system. In special education cases, fact finding is conducted during the administrative review process, so the trial court determines if the law was applied correctly. In special education cases, fact finding is conducted during the administrative review process, so the trial court determines if the law was applied correctly.

12 The American Legal System: Court Structure Intermediate Appellate Court: When litigants appeal the trial court decision, it is usually heard by the intermediate appellate court. When litigants appeal the trial court decision, it is usually heard by the intermediate appellate court. The appellate court reviews the trial courts decision on the issues of law, to determine if the decision should be affirmed, reversed, or modified. The appellate court reviews the trial courts decision on the issues of law, to determine if the decision should be affirmed, reversed, or modified. Decisions of the appellate court develop law through the creation of precedents. Decisions of the appellate court develop law through the creation of precedents. The appellate court does not retry the case. The appellate court does not retry the case. Each federal appellate court has 12 judges, but cases are usually heard by only 3 judges. Each federal appellate court has 12 judges, but cases are usually heard by only 3 judges. There are 13 U.S. Courts of Appeals. There are 13 U.S. Courts of Appeals. The 13th, called the Federal Circuit, hears appeals throughout the country on specialized matters. The 13th, called the Federal Circuit, hears appeals throughout the country on specialized matters.

13 The American Legal System: Court Structure Court of Last Resort: This is called the Supreme Court in most jurisdictions. This is called the Supreme Court in most jurisdictions. They cannot hear every case that is appealed, so they determine which cases they will hear. They cannot hear every case that is appealed, so they determine which cases they will hear. The court has an appellate function, so its decisions are important sources of law. The court has an appellate function, so its decisions are important sources of law. The U.S. Supreme Court is the highest court in the country. The U.S. Supreme Court is the highest court in the country. The Supreme Court files petitions to ask the Court to consider the case, and the Court will either grant or deny the petition. The Supreme Court files petitions to ask the Court to consider the case, and the Court will either grant or deny the petition. The U.S. Supreme Court grants petition to less than 1% of cases. The U.S. Supreme Court grants petition to less than 1% of cases.

14 The American Legal System: Precedence The American system of law follows the doctrine of stare decisis, or precedence, where courts are expected to follow the decisions of courts in similar cases. The American system of law follows the doctrine of stare decisis, or precedence, where courts are expected to follow the decisions of courts in similar cases. A decision by a higher court controls the decisions of lower courts in the same jurisdiction, which is controlling authority. A decision by a higher court controls the decisions of lower courts in the same jurisdiction, which is controlling authority. Persuasive authority comes from a court that is not controlling. Persuasive authority comes from a court that is not controlling. A court does not have to follow the precedent, but does so because it is persuaded by the decision. A court does not have to follow the precedent, but does so because it is persuaded by the decision. Only published cases can be used for precedence Only published cases can be used for precedence All of the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court are published. All of the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court are published.

15 The American Legal System: Holding and Dicta The holding of the case is the actual ruling on a point or points of law. The holding of the case is the actual ruling on a point or points of law. The dicta consist of the rest of the decision, judicial comments, illustrations, speculations, etc. The dicta consist of the rest of the decision, judicial comments, illustrations, speculations, etc.

16 The American Legal System: The Opinion A written opinion usually includes a summary of the case, a statement of the facts, an explanation of the courts reasoning, and a record of the decision. A written opinion usually includes a summary of the case, a statement of the facts, an explanation of the courts reasoning, and a record of the decision. It also includes the authors name and names of justices who agree with it. It also includes the authors name and names of justices who agree with it. A concurring opinion is when a judge agrees with the majority of the court on the ruling, but not with the reasoning used to reach the ruling. A concurring opinion is when a judge agrees with the majority of the court on the ruling, but not with the reasoning used to reach the ruling. A dissent is when a judge does not agree with the results reached by the majority. A dissent is when a judge does not agree with the results reached by the majority. Dissents can dissuade the majority justices from judicial advocacy, encourage judicial responsibility, and appeal to outside audiences for correction of perceived mistakes by the majority. Dissents can dissuade the majority justices from judicial advocacy, encourage judicial responsibility, and appeal to outside audiences for correction of perceived mistakes by the majority. Dissents are sometimes used to appeal to a higher court or legislature to correct the courts action. Dissents are sometimes used to appeal to a higher court or legislature to correct the courts action.

17 The Law and Special Education The four branches of the law interact, and laws are sometimes made in one branch in response to developments in another branch. The four branches of the law interact, and laws are sometimes made in one branch in response to developments in another branch. In the development of special education law, actions in the courts created the right to a special education for children with disabilities under the 14th Amendment. In the development of special education law, actions in the courts created the right to a special education for children with disabilities under the 14th Amendment. Following this, Congress passed legislation to ensure the educational rights of children with disabilities, and regulations were made. Following this, Congress passed legislation to ensure the educational rights of children with disabilities, and regulations were made. All states then passed state laws and created state regulations ensuring the provision of special education to qualified children. All states then passed state laws and created state regulations ensuring the provision of special education to qualified children. Disputes have led to federal litigation to interpret the special education law. Disputes have led to federal litigation to interpret the special education law. Some litigation has led to more legislation, which has led to more litigation to interpret it. Some litigation has led to more legislation, which has led to more litigation to interpret it. The development of the law is cyclical, and that is how special education law evolves. The development of the law is cyclical, and that is how special education law evolves.

18 Chapter Two Legal Research

19 Legal research is the process of finding and understanding laws that govern activities in our society. Legal research is the process of finding and understanding laws that govern activities in our society. Special education is among the most frequently litigated areas in education, so there is an extensive body of cases interpreting the rules and regulations involved. Special education is among the most frequently litigated areas in education, so there is an extensive body of cases interpreting the rules and regulations involved. Legal research requires the understanding of a variety of resources. Legal research requires the understanding of a variety of resources.

20 Primary Sources Primary sources are actual statements of the law. Primary sources are actual statements of the law. Enormous amounts of primary source materials available are issued chronologically rather than by subject. Enormous amounts of primary source materials available are issued chronologically rather than by subject.

21 Primary Sources: Statutes and Regulations Federal Statutes Statutes are organized by topic and are published in a series of volumes called the United States Code (U.S.C.). Statutes are organized by topic and are published in a series of volumes called the United States Code (U.S.C.). The 50 titles are divided into chapters and sections. The 50 titles are divided into chapters and sections. Each title contains the statutes that cover a specific subject. Each title contains the statutes that cover a specific subject. Title 20 contains education statutes Title 20 contains education statutes The U.S.C. is considered the official version of federal statutes, and is available on the internet. The U.S.C. is considered the official version of federal statutes, and is available on the internet. There are also two annotated versions of the U.S.C., which contain information pertaining to each statute. There are also two annotated versions of the U.S.C., which contain information pertaining to each statute. They are the United States Code Annotated (U.S.C.A.) and the United States Code Services (U.S.C.S.) They are the United States Code Annotated (U.S.C.A.) and the United States Code Services (U.S.C.S.)

22 Primary Sources: Statutes and Regulations Federal Statutes, cont. Since federal statutes are frequently amended, it is important to locate the most recent version. Since federal statutes are frequently amended, it is important to locate the most recent version. A paper supplement, called a packet part, is included in the back of each book of annotated codes to update it annually. A paper supplement, called a packet part, is included in the back of each book of annotated codes to update it annually. If the statute being researched is recent or currently pending in Congress, it will not be available in the annual pocket part. If the statute being researched is recent or currently pending in Congress, it will not be available in the annual pocket part. U.S.C.A. is updated between pocket part publications by its Interim Pamphlet Service. U.S.C.A. is updated between pocket part publications by its Interim Pamphlet Service. Several methods can be used to find federal statutes. Several methods can be used to find federal statutes.

23 Primary Sources: Statutes and Regulations Finding a Statute by Citation A reference to a primary law source is a citation. A reference to a primary law source is a citation. A citation tells where the law source is located. A citation tells where the law source is located. The standard form for citations is the title number, letters referring to the code, the section number, and subsection. The standard form for citations is the title number, letters referring to the code, the section number, and subsection.

24 Primary Sources: Statutes and Regulations Finding a Statute by Popular Name The statute can be found in the Popular Name Table The statute can be found in the Popular Name Table The Table provides the following information: the popular name, public law and statute at large numbers, date of passage, and the title and code sections. The Table provides the following information: the popular name, public law and statute at large numbers, date of passage, and the title and code sections. Finding a Statute Using the Annotated Code Index The General Indexes to the annotated code may be used to locate the statute if the subject of the statute is known. The General Indexes to the annotated code may be used to locate the statute if the subject of the statute is known. Every title of the annotated codes also has an index in the back of the final book in the series of the title. Every title of the annotated codes also has an index in the back of the final book in the series of the title.

25 Primary Sources: Statutes and Regulations State Statutes Some states organize their statutes in volumes according to subject by name Some states organize their statutes in volumes according to subject by name Most states assign a title or chapter and section number to each subject, similar to the U.S. Code. Most states assign a title or chapter and section number to each subject, similar to the U.S. Code. Most collections have indexes for all laws and for each subject. Most collections have indexes for all laws and for each subject. State statutes are often changed. State statutes are often changed. All stated have the unannotated versions of their codes available on the Internet in some format. All stated have the unannotated versions of their codes available on the Internet in some format.

26 Primary Sources: Statutes and Regulations Federal Regulations Federal administrative agencies produce regulations to implement and enforce federal statutes. Federal administrative agencies produce regulations to implement and enforce federal statutes. These regulations are published in the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) These regulations are published in the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) Finding Regulations by Citation Regulations also have citations that tell where the regulation is located. Regulations also have citations that tell where the regulation is located. The citation is in standard format, which is the title number, C.F.R., section number, and subsection letter and number. The citation is in standard format, which is the title number, C.F.R., section number, and subsection letter and number.

27 Primary Sources: Statutes and Regulations Finding Regulations by Subject The Index and Finding Aids volume of the C.F.R. can be used to search by title. The Index and Finding Aids volume of the C.F.R. can be used to search by title. A keyword search can be conducted on the website at A keyword search can be conducted on the website at Updating Regulations Regulations are often changed in some way. Regulations are often changed in some way. To check if a regulation is up to date, consult the monthly pamphlet entitled Code of Federal Regulations List of Sections Affected (C.F.R.-L.S.A.) or check the website. To check if a regulation is up to date, consult the monthly pamphlet entitled Code of Federal Regulations List of Sections Affected (C.F.R.-L.S.A.) or check the website.

28 Primary Sources: Statutes and Regulations State Regulations State regulations can be difficult to locate. State regulations can be difficult to locate. Special education regulations are often found under the category of education regulations. Special education regulations are often found under the category of education regulations. In many states, regulations are published in loose-leaf form by the promulgating agency. In many states, regulations are published in loose-leaf form by the promulgating agency. Unannotated state regulations and registers are also available on state government websites. Unannotated state regulations and registers are also available on state government websites.

29 Primary Sources: Case Law An important part of legal research is finding cases that interpret statutes and regulations An important part of legal research is finding cases that interpret statutes and regulations Cases are published in volumes, called reporters, which are available in all law libraries Cases are published in volumes, called reporters, which are available in all law libraries

30 Primary Sources: Case Law Federal Cases There are no official publications by the government for federal district or appellate court decisions. There are no official publications by the government for federal district or appellate court decisions. West publishes reporters on decisions of the lower federal courts, and this information is located in electronic databases. West publishes reporters on decisions of the lower federal courts, and this information is located in electronic databases. The published decisions of the U.S. District Courts are collected in the Federal Supplement. The published decisions of the U.S. District Courts are collected in the Federal Supplement. The published decisions by the U.S. Court of Appeals are collected in the Federal Reporter. The published decisions by the U.S. Court of Appeals are collected in the Federal Reporter.

31 Primary Sources: Case Law Federal Cases, cont. The complete decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court are published in three sources: The complete decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court are published in three sources: United States Report (U.S.) United States Report (U.S.) Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.) Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.) United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers Edition (L.Ed.) United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers Edition (L.Ed.) The last two are unofficial publications, which include editorial enhancements The last two are unofficial publications, which include editorial enhancements

32 Primary Sources: Case Law Federal Cases, cont. During the lag period between the date the case is decided and when it is published, new cases can be located in weekly updates called advance sheets. During the lag period between the date the case is decided and when it is published, new cases can be located in weekly updates called advance sheets. The most recent slip opinions may also be kept in the reference section of law libraries located within that particular courts jurisdiction. The most recent slip opinions may also be kept in the reference section of law libraries located within that particular courts jurisdiction. Opinions are accessible from official federal court websites daily. Opinions are accessible from official federal court websites daily.

33 Primary Sources: Case Law State Cases The published appellate court decisions for each state can be found in that states official report. The published appellate court decisions for each state can be found in that states official report. Wests National Reporter System provides the published appellate cases for each state, including editorial enhancements. Wests National Reporter System provides the published appellate cases for each state, including editorial enhancements. Advance sheets containing recent cases are also provided for the regional reporters. Advance sheets containing recent cases are also provided for the regional reporters. State court slip opinions can be found in local law libraries, directly from the state appellate courts, or from judicial websites. State court slip opinions can be found in local law libraries, directly from the state appellate courts, or from judicial websites.

34 Primary Sources: Case Law How to Find Cases Cases are published chronologically rather than according to subject. Cases are published chronologically rather than according to subject. Finding Cases by Citation Every published decision has a citation that makes it possible to locate it in the reporters. Every published decision has a citation that makes it possible to locate it in the reporters. Citations follow a standard format of name of case, volume number, name of reporter, page number, and court and year of decision. Citations follow a standard format of name of case, volume number, name of reporter, page number, and court and year of decision.

35 Finding Tools Several finding tools are designed to help the researcher locate primary sources. Several finding tools are designed to help the researcher locate primary sources. These tools include annotated codes, digests, indexes, legal encyclopedias, American Law Reports (ALR) annotations, and Shepards citators. These tools include annotated codes, digests, indexes, legal encyclopedias, American Law Reports (ALR) annotations, and Shepards citators.

36 Finding Tools: The Annotated Codes The annotated versions of the United States Code are powerful research tools. The annotated versions of the United States Code are powerful research tools. These can contain valuable information such as legislative history, cross references to other federal statutes and regulations, references to the American Digest System topics and key numbers, citations to secondary sources, and abstracts of relevant cases that have interpreted a statute. These can contain valuable information such as legislative history, cross references to other federal statutes and regulations, references to the American Digest System topics and key numbers, citations to secondary sources, and abstracts of relevant cases that have interpreted a statute.

37 Finding Tools: The West Digest System For each set of Wests reporters there is a corresponding digest. For each set of Wests reporters there is a corresponding digest. These digests are alphabetical indexes to case law, arranging headnotes of cases by topics and key numbers. These digests are alphabetical indexes to case law, arranging headnotes of cases by topics and key numbers. The West Topic and Key Number System A case published in a West reporter follows a standard format. A case published in a West reporter follows a standard format. First is the title of the case, followed by the docket number, the court in which the case was heard, and the date the courts decision was handed down. First is the title of the case, followed by the docket number, the court in which the case was heard, and the date the courts decision was handed down.

38 Finding Tools: The West Digest System The West Topic and Key Number System, cont. Next is the synopsis of the case. Next is the synopsis of the case. After this is the headnote section, which are editorial enhancements included one-sentence summaries of legal issues arising in a case. Each headnote appears as a boldface number, followed by a topic, an illustration of a key, and a key number. After this is the headnote section, which are editorial enhancements included one-sentence summaries of legal issues arising in a case. Each headnote appears as a boldface number, followed by a topic, an illustration of a key, and a key number. The key number system allows for classification of different points of law. The key number system allows for classification of different points of law. Headnotes are grouped with similar legal topics from every published case that deals with that issue. Headnotes are grouped with similar legal topics from every published case that deals with that issue.

39 Finding Tools: The West Digest System Using the Digest System A number of different digests are published by West. Each one contains headnotes for certain courts and is designed to fill a different need. A number of different digests are published by West. Each one contains headnotes for certain courts and is designed to fill a different need. When using the digests to find cases, it is preferable to begin with the one that is narrowest in scope. When using the digests to find cases, it is preferable to begin with the one that is narrowest in scope. Those interested in federal special education cases should consult the Federal Practice Digest. Those interested in federal special education cases should consult the Federal Practice Digest.

40 Finding Tools: The West Digest System Using the Digest System, cont. To access the digest system, the researcher needs to determine the relevant topic and key number(s). To access the digest system, the researcher needs to determine the relevant topic and key number(s). The headnotes under each topic and key number are arranged by jurisdictions in chronological order, beginning with the most recent. The headnotes under each topic and key number are arranged by jurisdictions in chronological order, beginning with the most recent. Cases can also be located using the descriptive word indexes, the table of cases volumes, and the words and phrases volumes. Cases can also be located using the descriptive word indexes, the table of cases volumes, and the words and phrases volumes.

41 Finding Tools: Shepards Citators It is critical that the case of interest is still valid, meaning that it has precedential value and hasnt been overruled or reversed. It is critical that the case of interest is still valid, meaning that it has precedential value and hasnt been overruled or reversed. A search of a case in Shepards citators will direct the researchers to other cases and secondary authorities that have cited in it. A search of a case in Shepards citators will direct the researchers to other cases and secondary authorities that have cited in it. The process of shepardizing is an essential part of legal research. The process of shepardizing is an essential part of legal research. Although Shepards remains the only print legal citator system, it now faces competition online. Although Shepards remains the only print legal citator system, it now faces competition online. Shepards citators became available on the LexisNexis online database. Shepards citators became available on the LexisNexis online database. West Group introduced its own citator system, KeyCite, available exlusively online. West Group introduced its own citator system, KeyCite, available exlusively online.

42 Finding Tools: Shepards Citators Once a citation for a case is located in Shepards, the citatory lists every case that has referred to it. Once a citation for a case is located in Shepards, the citatory lists every case that has referred to it. Every case, important or not, that cites the case being researched will be listed. Every case, important or not, that cites the case being researched will be listed. This can lead to numerous listings, especially landmark cases that are cited frequently. This can lead to numerous listings, especially landmark cases that are cited frequently. Shepards listings do not cumulate, so a researcher may need to consult a series of Shepards citators for full coverage of a case. Shepards listings do not cumulate, so a researcher may need to consult a series of Shepards citators for full coverage of a case. Shepards case citators are organized according to the reporters that publish the cases. Shepards case citators are organized according to the reporters that publish the cases. Shepards citators consist of page after page of columns of numbers and symbols. Shepards citators consist of page after page of columns of numbers and symbols. Electronic citators have distinct advantages over Shepards citators in print. Electronic citators have distinct advantages over Shepards citators in print.

43 Secondary Sources Secondary sources are materials that describe and explain the law. Secondary sources are materials that describe and explain the law. They are unofficial, so they have no formal authority, but may have significant persuasive authority. They are unofficial, so they have no formal authority, but may have significant persuasive authority. Secondary sources have two functions: Secondary sources have two functions: to provide citations to primary source material to provide citations to primary source material to introduce the researcher to a particular area of the law by explaining the issues involved to introduce the researcher to a particular area of the law by explaining the issues involved Secondary sources of information include legal encyclopedias, legal newspapers, legal periodicals and law reviews, loose-leaf services, and Internet resources. Secondary sources of information include legal encyclopedias, legal newspapers, legal periodicals and law reviews, loose-leaf services, and Internet resources.

44 Secondary Sources: Legal Periodicals and Law Reviews Legal periodicals can be the best place to begin researching a legal issue, because of their extensive coverage and footnoting to primary authorities and other secondary sources. Legal periodicals can be the best place to begin researching a legal issue, because of their extensive coverage and footnoting to primary authorities and other secondary sources. Law reviews are periodicals that contain articles on legal developments, legal issues, historical research, and empirical studies. Law reviews are periodicals that contain articles on legal developments, legal issues, historical research, and empirical studies. Law review articles are often cited by legal scholars as well as by the courts and can have great persuasive authority. Law review articles are often cited by legal scholars as well as by the courts and can have great persuasive authority. Many law schools publish one or more specialized academic journals in addition to general law reviews. Many law schools publish one or more specialized academic journals in addition to general law reviews. Some examples are: Journal of Law & Education, Index to Legal Periodicals (ILP), Current Law Index (CLI) Some examples are: Journal of Law & Education, Index to Legal Periodicals (ILP), Current Law Index (CLI)

45 Secondary Sources: Legal Periodicals and Law Reviews There are also online databases available to university faculty and students using legal periodicals to research particular legal issues. There are also online databases available to university faculty and students using legal periodicals to research particular legal issues. Many law reviews are now maintaining a web presence and including the full text of articles from recent issues on their websites. Many law reviews are now maintaining a web presence and including the full text of articles from recent issues on their websites. Shepards citators can be used to find journal articles that cite a particular case or statute and to shepardize law review articles. Shepards citators can be used to find journal articles that cite a particular case or statute and to shepardize law review articles.

46 Secondary Sources: Loose-Leaf Services Loose-leaf services may contain analysis of legal issues and reprints of primary source material in specific subject areas. Loose-leaf services may contain analysis of legal issues and reprints of primary source material in specific subject areas. They may serve as both a finding tool for primary authorities and as a secondary source. They may serve as both a finding tool for primary authorities and as a secondary source. A loose-leaf service is a publication that is issued in a binder with removable pages. A loose-leaf service is a publication that is issued in a binder with removable pages. The information in these is current and much of the information needed to conduct research on a particular topic has already been compiled for the researcher. The information in these is current and much of the information needed to conduct research on a particular topic has already been compiled for the researcher. No two loose-leaf services are the same. No two loose-leaf services are the same.

47 Secondary Sources: Loose-Leaf Services Newsletter Loose-Leaf Services A newsletter is issued regularly and added to the end of the binder. A newsletter is issued regularly and added to the end of the binder. Newly released material supplements the older material in this format. Newly released material supplements the older material in this format. Interfiled Loose-Leaf Services In this format, new pages are sent frequently for insertion into the binder. In this format, new pages are sent frequently for insertion into the binder. The new pages are interfiled and the old pages are discarded. The new pages are interfiled and the old pages are discarded.

48 Computers and Legal Research Legal research is rapidly becoming computerized. The two primary computer-assisted legal research (CALR) systems are Wests Westlaw system and Reed Elseviers Lexis-Nexis. The two primary computer-assisted legal research (CALR) systems are Wests Westlaw system and Reed Elseviers Lexis-Nexis. Advantages: Advantages: contain enormous amounts of information contain enormous amounts of information legal researcher can access the databases and navigate between them quickly legal researcher can access the databases and navigate between them quickly the databases are updated constantly the databases are updated constantly searching within particular databases is simplified searching within particular databases is simplified the ease of moving from one primary or secondary source to another through linksCALR does not replace traditional legal research. the ease of moving from one primary or secondary source to another through linksCALR does not replace traditional legal research. CALR does not replace traditional legal research. CALR does not replace traditional legal research.

49 Computers and Legal Research The Westlaw and Lexis Nexis systems are organized into distinct databases. The primary difference between traditional legal research and computerized research is full-text keyword searching. The primary difference between traditional legal research and computerized research is full-text keyword searching. Steps for using CALR systems The researcher first chooses the appropriate database within which to conduct the search. The researcher first chooses the appropriate database within which to conduct the search. The researcher formulates a query by determining the keywords needed in the documents retrieved. The researcher formulates a query by determining the keywords needed in the documents retrieved. Both of these systems are now accessible to subscribers on their websites.

50 Legal Research Strategies Step 1: Analyze the Problem The first task of the researcher is to analyze the problem and determine the most efficient manner to proceed. The first task of the researcher is to analyze the problem and determine the most efficient manner to proceed. The researcher must decide what legal sources will be needed to answer the question The researcher must decide what legal sources will be needed to answer the question Step 2: Conduct the Research The researcher must locate relevant primary source materials. The researcher must locate relevant primary source materials. The most important element is the location of one good case on the subject being researched. The most important element is the location of one good case on the subject being researched. If a statute or relevant case citation is not available, the researcher should begin with secondary sources. If a statute or relevant case citation is not available, the researcher should begin with secondary sources.

51 Legal Research Strategies Step 2 cont. The ability to move between the sources of law and pull together the relevant information is critical in this stage of research. The ability to move between the sources of law and pull together the relevant information is critical in this stage of research. Step 3: Evaluate the Results The final step of the research process is to evaluate the results. The final step of the research process is to evaluate the results. Since the law is constantly changing, it is critically important that the research be current. Since the law is constantly changing, it is critically important that the research be current. Bringing research up to date should be a continuous part of the process and a distinct part of the evaluation process. Bringing research up to date should be a continuous part of the process and a distinct part of the evaluation process.

52 Chapter Three Legal Research on the Internet

53 The Internet offers the legal researcher a wealth of information and can be a useful adjunct to the law library. –Through these resources on the Internet, it is possible to monitor current legislation and regulations on a state and federal level, as well as developments in the courts. The Internet is particularly useful because the researcher can access information quickly. –Using the Internet, one can access the full opinion of the court within hours after it is announced. –Analyses of the courts decision may be available almost as quickly.

54 Legal Research on the Internet Currently the Internet contains much of interest to the legal researcher, but it is not a substitute for the law library. Today all state appellate and federal court systems maintain websites that may post their decisions daily, but these opinions generally date back only 10 years and do not include editorial enhancements. The same is true of state and federal statutes available online.

55 The World Wide Web The World Wide Web has become the most flexible, commonly used, and rapidly growing component of the Internet. To access documents on the Web, an individual user must have a web browser to locate and display web pages.

56 Internet Research Tools Directories and Search Engines: Two widely used tools for locating pages of interest on the Web are directories and search engines. Directories divide websites into categories and subcategories allowing the researcher to continue clicking to narrow the search. Search engines index pages from the Web and enable the researcher to search using keywords and advanced searching techniques. Entering legal terms will generally yield many results, of which very few may be useful. Legal search engines are growing in number. –LawCrawler is user-friendly and does an excellent job of searching legal resources on the free Internet.

57 Internet Research Tools Online Communities: Electronic mail, or , allows one user on the Internet to send messages to other users on the Internet. has made it easy to quickly and easily communicate and exchange information with others in a variety of ways. –Discussion groups are a means of communicating simultaneously through with a group of recipients interested in similar information. A resource similar to discussion groups is the newsgroup or usenet –This is essentially an electronic bulletin board of various newsgroups where comments and responses are posted, creating a thread on a particular topic.

58 Internet Research Tools Weblogs (Blogs): A typical weblog or blog is an electronic journal arranged in reverse chronological order that is updated frequently, usually dailoy. –Highly respected law professors, attorneys, and law librarians are beginning to maintain law-related blogs, or blawgs, to present their opinions and analyses of legal issues. Free creation tools and hosting is available for those who wish to maintain a weblog, and weblog directories and search engines assist the researcher in locating blogs on particular topics.

59 Internet Research Tools Electronic Newsletters: ED.gov is one example of the accessibility of electronic newsletters. –On this website, you can search the archives or subscribe by to receive various weekly, biweekly, and monthly updates and newsletters addressing issues of interest to educators. It is now commonplace for professional associations and governmental entities to supply news of their activities through electronic newsletters and updates.

60 Law-Related Resources on the Internet Though there is not an abundance on material directly related to legal issues in special education, many websites contain important material on the law and special education. The Law and Special Education: The purposes of The Law and Special Education website are to: –provide readers and instructors using the text with updates regarding legal developments in special education –provide links to legal resources on the Internet –provide access to special education statutes, regulations, and court cases –provide instructors with ancillary materials

61 Law-Related Resources on the Internet Special Ed Connection: Special Ed Connection is a fee-based Internet service, designed to serve as a reference center for subscribers who need to stay informed on special education issues. It allows subscribers to search its entire website or particular databases from its homepage and offers other advanced searching capabilities. Education Law Association (ELA): The Education Law Association (ELA) is a nonprofit organization that brings together educational and legal scholars and practitioners with a special interest in education law

62 Law-Related Resources on the Internet Wrightslaw: Wrightslaw is a wesbsite with advocacy and law libraries that include links to cases, statutes and regulations, articles, newsletters, and other topical resources addressing special education law issues. The Council for Exceptional Children: The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is the largest international professional organization dedicated to the education of students with disabilities. Its website provides news on legislation affecting special education and also maintains links to other online resources.

63 Government Resources Online Many useful websites for researchers interested in special education law are either sponsored in whole or part by the federal government or are produced by the federal government for the purpose of providing government information to its citizens. Government Sponsored Websites: These websites serve as resource centers for those in the special education community. The U.S. Department of Education: –The U.S. Department of Education maintains a website that can be useful to teachers, researchers, and students. –ED.gov contains information on the Education Department initiatives, resources for teachers and researchers, grants and funding opportunities, and Department of Education publications.

64 Government Resources Online Education Resource Information Center (ERIC): –The Education Resource Information Center (ERIC) maintains a publicly accessible centralized database of more than 1 million citations to journal and non-journal literature dating back to –ERIC now allows for the use of both basic and advanced searching techniques. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities: –The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) is a national information and referral center that provides information on disabilities and disability-related issues. –Services include: specialists to answer specific questions, publications on a number of topics, including legal issues and information searches.

65 Government Resources Online Cornucopia of Disability Information (CODI) Directory: –Cornucopia of Disability Information (CODI) is an Internet directory of disability information and library of electronic disability documents. –The directory addresses various disability related topics. Discover IDEA: –Discover IDEA is a multimedia package that is essentially a navigational tool to help teachers, families, service providers, administrators, and policy makers understand the IDEA. –It includes a CD, resource guide, and webpage.

66 Government Resources Online Government Publications: Whereas all state governments now maintain websites that provide links to their primary sources available on the Web, special education law is governed largely by federal law. THOMAS: Legislative Information on the Internet –THOMAS is a free Internet service to provide users with federal legislative information. –It employs a sophisticated searching system that is easy to use. –THOMAS is updated daily as information becomes available, so it is indispensable to researchers monitoring pending federal legislation.

67 Government Resources Online GPO Access: –GPO Access is a service that provides free electronic access to more than 2,000 databases of federal information. –GPO Accesss homepage includes a link to a comprehensive A-Z Resource List of official federal resources from all three branches of government as well as links to databases by branch.

68 Government Resources Online U.S. Courts: The Federal Judiciary: Many sites on the Internet direct the researcher to the official federal court websites. The official Federal Judiciary website, U.S.Courts.gov, provides convenient links to the U.S. Supreme Court, U.S. Court of Appeals, and U.S. District Court systems for each state.

69 Government Resources Online FirstGov: In 2000, the U.S. government introduced FirstGov, a portal or gateway to state and federal government information. FirstGov offers a comprehensive search engine and a directory of links to millions of webpages from federal and state governments, the District of Colombia, and U.S. territories. FirstGov can be useful for researchers who wish to search for information on a topic across state and federal agencies.

70 Online Law Libraries Another means of locating legal information on the Internet is by visiting an online law library. University law school websites generally include links to their law library sites, which provide online directories of legal resources. They will often have information on state rules, regulations, and court decisions. Legal Information Institute (LII) Cornell University Law School The Legal Information Institute is an internationally known provider of public legal information. Its databases include the opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court since 1992, the full United States Code, and a series of topical pages about many areas of law.

71 Online Law Libraries JURIST Legal News and Research: 1. JURIST is a legal news and legal research website provided as a public service. 2. Paper Chase is a real-time legal news weblog. 3. The Research tab links researchers to official government websites for judicial opinions and legislation, provides a quick reference guide to constitutional and legal systems around the world, and provide a guide to celebrated historic trials. 4. There is also a directory of legal journals from accredited law schools. Both are part of the Coalition of Online Law Journals, which supports the University Law Review Project, a website that provides full-text searching of online law journals and abstracts of new law review articles by .

72 A Strategy for Legal Research on the Internet Research on the Internet demands an awareness of what you need and knowledge of where to look for it. Research demands that users be focused, that they have a specific goal or question in mind, and that they proceed systematically to locate pertinent information on that question. The Internet does not replace the law library, but is a useful adjunct to it.

73 A Strategy for Legal Research on the Internet Preparing for Research: The first step in conducting research is to focus yourself by developing a goal or constructing a research question. Then ask yourself what information will be needed and where it can be found. Organizing Your Hard Drive or Data Disk: It is useful to organize your hard drive or a data disk so that you can download the information you locate and place it in an easily accessible location. It is also important to bookmark all websites where you find pertinent or potentially useful information. It is also necessary to back up all of your work.

74 A Strategy for Legal Research on the Internet Conducting the Research: Once youve determined what you need, begin a systematic search of the Internet. It is important to stay focused on your research. Locating Information: One of the most common ways of locating information on the Internet is through the use of what computer users call the tree structure. Tree structures refer to the structure of data on computers where there is an initial or root directory and branches of directories and subdirectories. A good starting point for legal research is one of the Web pages listed in the text of The Law and Special Education homepage.

75 A Strategy for Legal Research on the Internet Conducting an Internet Interview: Legal researchers often depend on the interview for information about a specific topic. –The use of for conducting interviews is the latest and one of the most successful online research tools. – allows for asynchronous communication, which increases its convenience. If you are doing research on an unfamiliar topic, finding a source for an interview on the Internet is not difficult. –Prior to posting a question on a listserv or other group, have some basic information about your research area, to ensure that your question is focused. Another method for locating contacts is through your library research. The Internet is one of the best places to network with other researchers or persons knowledgeable about the area in which you are interested.

76 A Strategy for Legal Research on the Internet Evaluating the Data: Knowing when to stop collecting data can be a problem with any type of research but it is a particular problem when researching on the Internet. –This is because there is a vast amount of information on the Internet that is just a click away. –It is important to only collect what you need and discard any irrelevant information. When evaluating data found on the Internet it is extremely important that you determine the credibility of the data you have collected. Print out a copy of the information you use, keeping in mind that information available on the Internet can disappear as quickly as it appeared.

77 Chapter Four The History of the Law and Children with Disabilities

78 The educational rights of children and youth with disabilities were gained largely through the tireless efforts of parents and advocacy groups in the courts and legislatures of this country.

79 Compulsory Attendance In our country, public education is viewed as a birthright A common misconception is that public education is guaranteed by the Constitution, but it is not. Education is left to the responsibility of the states. Education is left to the responsibility of the states. By 1918, compulsory education laws were in place in all states. However, children with disabilities were often excluded from public schools despite these laws. However, children with disabilities were often excluded from public schools despite these laws.

80 The Exclusion of Students with Disabilities The continued exclusion of students with disabilities was upheld in the courts. In one case, the court acknowledged the conflict between compulsory education and the exclusionary provisions, but it did not rule to resolve this conflict. In one case, the court acknowledged the conflict between compulsory education and the exclusionary provisions, but it did not rule to resolve this conflict. Despite compulsory attendance laws, states continued to enact statutes that specifically authorized school officials to exclude students with disabilities. As recently as 1958 and 1969, the courts upheld legislation that excluded students who school officials judged would not benefit from public education or who might be disruptive to other students. As recently as 1958 and 1969, the courts upheld legislation that excluded students who school officials judged would not benefit from public education or who might be disruptive to other students.

81 Parental Advocacy Parents led the way in seeking educational rights for their children with disabilities. The parental advocacy movement reflected changes in the social climate of this country at the turn of the 20th century. The White House Conference of 1910 The first White House Conference on Children in 1910 focused national attention on children and youth with disabilities. A primary goal of this conference was to define and establish remedial programs for children with disabilities or special needs. The conference led to an increased interest in educating children with disabilities in public school settings rather than institutionalizing them.

82 Parental Advocacy Public School Programming The number of special segregated classes and support services in public schools increased significantly from 1910 to Public school educators believed that segregated classes were beneficial to children with disabilities. Public school educators believed that segregated classes were beneficial to children with disabilities. Despite these changes, many children and youth with disabilities remained unidentified and continued to struggle in regular classrooms. Also, many students with disabilities did not benefit from public school education because they had dropped out, been expelled or excluded from school, or considered unteachable. Many factors contributed to the decline in support for and provision of special education classes for students with disabilities. The special classroom placements became as restrictive and custodial as placements in institutions had been. The special classroom placements became as restrictive and custodial as placements in institutions had been.

83 Parental Advocacy The Organization of Advocacy Groups Parents began to band together to advocate for their childrens education rights. The advocacy movement was critical to the development of special education services. The interest groups provided information, stimulus, and support to Congress when considering, developing, and acting on legislation. The interest groups provided information, stimulus, and support to Congress when considering, developing, and acting on legislation. The National Association for Retarded Citizens: This organization started with 42 parents and concerned individuals and has become a powerful and significant organization of parents, families, and other people interested in improving services for people with mental retardation. This organization started with 42 parents and concerned individuals and has become a powerful and significant organization of parents, families, and other people interested in improving services for people with mental retardation. Its mission is to: provide information to concerned individuals, monitor the quality of services for individuals with mental retardation, and advocate for the rights and interests of individuals with mental retardation. Its mission is to: provide information to concerned individuals, monitor the quality of services for individuals with mental retardation, and advocate for the rights and interests of individuals with mental retardation.

84 Parental Advocacy The Council for Exceptional Children: This is a professional organization concerned with the education of children with special needs. This is a professional organization concerned with the education of children with special needs. It has become a longtime advocate for the educational rights of children and youth with disabilities and has been a leader in the movement to obtain these rights at the federal and state levels. It has become a longtime advocate for the educational rights of children and youth with disabilities and has been a leader in the movement to obtain these rights at the federal and state levels. The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps: This is another organization that has provided strong support for individuals with disabilities. This is another organization that has provided strong support for individuals with disabilities. It disseminates information on best practices, publishes research reports, and supports the rights and humane treatment of persons with severe and multiple disabilities through active involvement in court cases. It disseminates information on best practices, publishes research reports, and supports the rights and humane treatment of persons with severe and multiple disabilities through active involvement in court cases.

85 Parental Advocacy Additional Advocacy Groups: Other advocacy groups founded primarily by and for parents and families of individuals with disabilities include the United Cerebral Palsy Association, Inc., the National Society for Autistic Children, the National Association for Down Syndrome, the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities, the Federation of Families for Childrens Mental Health. Other advocacy groups founded primarily by and for parents and families of individuals with disabilities include the United Cerebral Palsy Association, Inc., the National Society for Autistic Children, the National Association for Down Syndrome, the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities, the Federation of Families for Childrens Mental Health. The progress made in special education can be attributed in great part to the success of parents as advocates for their children. The progress made in special education can be attributed in great part to the success of parents as advocates for their children.

86 The Civil Rights Movement and Brown v. Board of Education The civil rights that are protected under the Constitution and enforced by legislation have not been provided to all citizens on an equal basis. The civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s led to litigation and changes in legislation. The civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s led to litigation and changes in legislation. This legislation provided greater protection for minorities, and eventually for persons with disabilities. This legislation provided greater protection for minorities, and eventually for persons with disabilities. A landmark case, Brown v. Board of Education, was a major victory for the civil rights movement and became the major underpinning for further civil rights action. A landmark case, Brown v. Board of Education, was a major victory for the civil rights movement and became the major underpinning for further civil rights action. The Brown decision also effected many aspects of educational law and procedure. The Brown decision also effected many aspects of educational law and procedure. In Brown, the high court reasoned that segregated public schools denied students equal education opportunities. In Brown, the high court reasoned that segregated public schools denied students equal education opportunities. This was considered by many to be equally applicable to those denied equal opportunity to an education because of a disability.

87 The Civil Rights Movement and Brown v. Board of Education Parental Advocacy in the Wake of Brown Advocates for students with disabilities cited Brown and claimed that students with disabilities had the same rights as students without disabilities. Advocates for students with disabilities cited Brown and claimed that students with disabilities had the same rights as students without disabilities. First, they pointed out that there was an unacceptable level of differential treatment within the class of children of disabilities. First, they pointed out that there was an unacceptable level of differential treatment within the class of children of disabilities. Second, they argued that some students with disabilities were not furnished with an education, whereas all students without disabilities were provided an education. Second, they argued that some students with disabilities were not furnished with an education, whereas all students without disabilities were provided an education.

88 The Equal Opportunity Cases Sixteen years after the Brown decision, two seminal federal district court cases applied the concept of equal opportunity to children with disabilities.

89 The Equal Opportunity Cases Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. Pennsylvania, 1972 In January 1971, the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) against the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in a federal district court. The plaintiffs argued that students with mental retardation were not receiving publicly supported education because the state was delaying or ignoring its constitutional obligations to provide a publicly supported education for these students, thus violating state statute and the students rights under the Equal Protection of the Laws clause of the 14th Amendment of the Constitution. PARC was resolved by consent agreement specifying that all children with mental retardation between the ages of 6 and 21 must be provided a free public education and that it was most desirable to educate children with mental retardation in a program most like the programs provided for their peers without disabilities.

90 The Equal Opportunity Cases Mills v. Board of Education, 1972 A class action suit, Mills v. Board of Education, was filed against the District of Colombias Board of Education on behalf of all out-of-school students with disabilities. This was brought about for 7 children with disabilities, which counted as a class, so they represented over 18,000 students who were denied or excluded from public education in D.C. The suit charged that the students were improperly excluded from school without due process of law. The court held that the total exclusion of students with disabilities was unconstitutional. The court ordered the district to provide due process safeguards, and the court clearly outlined due process procedures for students with disabilities.

91 The Equal Opportunity Cases Additional Cases The PARC and Mills decisions set precedent for similar cases to be filed across the country. Despite judicial successes, many students with disabilities continued to be denied an appropriate public education. By the 1970s, the majority of states had passed laws requiring that students with disabilities receive a public education, but these laws varied substantially.

92 Early Federal Involvement The first significant federal involvement in the education of students with disabilities occurred in the late 1950s and early 1960s. These included the Education of Mentally Retarded Children Act of 1958, the Training of Professional Personnel Act of 1959, and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of An amendment to the ESEA, Title VI, added funded for grants for pilot programs to develop promising programs for children with disabilities. The Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) of 1970 This act replaced the Title VI and became the basic framework for much of the legislation that was to follow. Its purpose was to consolidate and expand the previous federal grant programs and to continue funding pilot projects at the state and local levels.

93 Early Federal Involvement Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504 of this act was the first federal civil rights law to protect the rights of persons with disabilities. It mirrored other federal civil rights laws that prohibited discrimination by federal recipients on the basis of race and sex. Its purpose was to prohibit discrimination against a person with a disability by any agency receiving federal funds. The Education Amendments of 1974 These were amendments to the EHA, which required that each state receiving federal special education funding establish a goal of providing full educational opportunities for all children with disabilities. This was significant legislation for both children with disabilities and children who are gifted and talented.

94 Early Federal Involvement The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) of 1975 This act combined an educational bill of rights with the promise of federal financial incentives to assure all qualified students with disabilities a special education. It mandated that qualified students with disabilities had the right to a nondiscriminatory testing, evaluation, and placement procedures; education in the least restrictive environment; procedural due process, including parent involvement; a free education; and an appropriate education. The Handicapped Childrens Protection Act of 1986 This act amended the EAHCA, granting courts the authority to award attorneys fees to parents or guardians if they prevailed in their actions pursuant to the law.

95 Early Federal Involvement The Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities Act (ITDA) of 1986 This law made categorical grants to states contingent on their adhering to the provisions of ITDA. It required participating states to develop and implement statewide interagency programs of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. The centerpiece of this act is the individualized family services plan (IFSP) The act also created financial incentives for states to make children with disabilities eligible for special education at age 3.

96 Early Federal Involvement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 This amendments renamed the EAHCA to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). These amendments substituted the term disability for the term handicap throughout the law. IDEA 1990 required that individualized transition planning be included in the individualized education programs (IEPs) of students with disabilities who were 16 years or older. Transition activities must be based on students individual needs and take into account their preference and interests.

97 Recent Federal Involvement The IDEA Amendments of 1997 These amendments were passed to reauthorize and make improvements to the IDEA. The changes ensured that students with disabilities received a quality public education through emphasizing the improvement of student performance. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act This law, which is the most recent reauthorization of the ESEA, expanded the role of the federal government in public education by holding states, school districts, and schools accountable for producing measurable gains in students achievement in reading and mathematics. Students with disabilities were included in NCLBs assessment and accountability systems.

98 Recent Federal Involvement The Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special Education The commission recommended reforms to improve special education and to bring it into alignment with NCLB by requiring special education to be accountable for results and to rely on scientifically based programming. The commission concluded that special education had created an important base of civil rights and legal protections for students with disabilities, but it needed fundamental changes, a shift in priorities, and a new commitment to individual student needs. The commissions recommendations were that: special education must focus on results rather than process and be judged by the outcomes students achieve special education must focus on results rather than process and be judged by the outcomes students achieve special education must embrace a model of prevention, not a model of failure special education must embrace a model of prevention, not a model of failure both special education and general education systems must work together to provide strong teaching and effecting interventions for children with disabilities both special education and general education systems must work together to provide strong teaching and effecting interventions for children with disabilities

99 Recent Federal Involvement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 The IDEA 2004 built upon NCLB by emphasizing increased accountability for student performance at the classroom, school, and school district levels. There are changes in many areas, including the IEP, discipline, and identification of students with learning disabilities.

100 State Education Statutes With the passage of the EAHCA, special education became essentially federally controlled. States were not required to follow the EAHCA requirements, but by choosing not to, a state would forfeit federal funding for special education. All states have chosen to comply with the federal regulations based on the EAHCA. Some states developed statutes and regulations that expanded the federal special education requirements. States set their own regulations specifying teacher certification regulations, teacher-pupil ratios, transportation time, and age-span requirements in the classroom. States were also allowed some flexibility in funding mechanisms.

101 The History of Special Education Law: From Access to Accountability The early history of special education law spans from the battles of parents and advocacy groups with schools, school boards, and state legislatures to ensure that children with disabilities were not excluded from public schools through the early court decisions and legislation. These court decisions and the early legislation, culminating in the EAHCA in 1975, were profoundly successful in ensuring equal access for students with disabilities. These court decisions and the early legislation, culminating in the EAHCA in 1975, were profoundly successful in ensuring equal access for students with disabilities. Legislation in the 1990s and early 2000s focused on ensuring that students with disabilities received beneficial and meaningful educational programs. These laws required that schools and school districts be accountable for providing quality programming. These laws required that schools and school districts be accountable for providing quality programming. The history of special education can be characterized as a movement form access to quality and accountability.

102 Chapter Five The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

103 The Development of the IDEA The development of the IDEA can be found in the advocacy of various coalitions for children with disabilities, litigation in the federal courts, and federal and state legislation during the 1950s and 1960s. The development of the IDEA can be found in the advocacy of various coalitions for children with disabilities, litigation in the federal courts, and federal and state legislation during the 1950s and 1960s. Early Court Rulings and Legislation With the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and its amendments, the federal government began to provide funding to states to assist efforts to educate students with disabilities through various grant programs. With the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and its amendments, the federal government began to provide funding to states to assist efforts to educate students with disabilities through various grant programs. The Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) of 1970 consolidated earlier grant programs, and provided more federal funding and resources for special education. The Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) of 1970 consolidated earlier grant programs, and provided more federal funding and resources for special education.

104 The Development of the IDEA Early Court Rulings and Legislation, cont. The two seminal court cases in 1972 resulted in requirements that the Pennsylvania and D.C. public schools provide access to public education for students with disabilities. The two seminal court cases in 1972 resulted in requirements that the Pennsylvania and D.C. public schools provide access to public education for students with disabilities. –These cases influenced the government to amend the EHA. By the early 1970s, most states had their own statutes and regulations regarding the education of students with disabilities, but these efforts were uneven and not federally enforceable. By the early 1970s, most states had their own statutes and regulations regarding the education of students with disabilities, but these efforts were uneven and not federally enforceable. The Passage of the IDEA The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) was signed into law in The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) was signed into law in It provided federal funding to states to assist them in educating students with disabilities. It provided federal funding to states to assist them in educating students with disabilities.

105 The Development of the IDEA The Passage of the IDEA, cont. States that wanted to receive federal funding were required to submit a state plan to the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped. States that wanted to receive federal funding were required to submit a state plan to the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped. The EAHCA made the federal government a partner with the states in educating students with disabilities who were covered by the law. The EAHCA made the federal government a partner with the states in educating students with disabilities who were covered by the law. New Mexico was the only state that did not implement the Act nor accept the federal funds. New Mexico was the only state that did not implement the Act nor accept the federal funds. –An advocacy group sued the state for failing to provide an appropriate education for students with disabilities under Section 504, and the advocacy group prevailed. –New Mexico subsequently submitted a state plan and began to receive federal funding through the EAHCA. Congress changed the name of the EAHCA to the IDEA in Congress changed the name of the EAHCA to the IDEA in 1990.

106 The Purpose of the IDEA The IDEA was enacted to assist states in meeting the educational needs of students with disabilities via federal funding of state efforts. The IDEA was enacted to assist states in meeting the educational needs of students with disabilities via federal funding of state efforts. Congress found that prior to the enactment of the EAHCA in 1975, the educational needs of millions of children with disabilities was not being met. Congress found that prior to the enactment of the EAHCA in 1975, the educational needs of millions of children with disabilities was not being met. Congress created an elaborate set of procedural safeguards to ensure that the goal of the IDEA was fulfilled. Congress created an elaborate set of procedural safeguards to ensure that the goal of the IDEA was fulfilled. Who is Protected? The determination of eligibility is made on an individual basis by the multidisciplinary team in accordance with guidelines set forth in the law. The determination of eligibility is made on an individual basis by the multidisciplinary team in accordance with guidelines set forth in the law. The IDEA uses a categorical approach to define students with disabilities by setting forth categories of disabilities. The IDEA uses a categorical approach to define students with disabilities by setting forth categories of disabilities.

107 The Purpose of the IDEA Categories of Disabilities The categories are: autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or language impairment, traumatic brain injury, visual impairment including blindness. The categories are: autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or language impairment, traumatic brain injury, visual impairment including blindness. States are required to provide services to students who meet the criteria in the IDEA, but states dont have to adopt every exactly as specified in the IDEA. States are required to provide services to students who meet the criteria in the IDEA, but states dont have to adopt every exactly as specified in the IDEA.

108 The Purpose of the IDEA Age Requirements The IDEA requires that a program of special education and related services be provided to all eligible students with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21. The IDEA requires that a program of special education and related services be provided to all eligible students with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21. States must identify and evaluate children from birth to age 21. States must identify and evaluate children from birth to age 21. If a special education student graduates with a diploma, successfully completes an IEP leading to graduation, or voluntarily drops out of school, the schools obligation to the student ends. If a special education student graduates with a diploma, successfully completes an IEP leading to graduation, or voluntarily drops out of school, the schools obligation to the student ends.

109 The Purpose of the IDEA Infants and Toddlers An amendment to the IDEA in 1986, which became Part C of the IDEA Amendments of 1997, provided incentive grants to states that provide special education and related services to children with disabilities from birth to age 2. An amendment to the IDEA in 1986, which became Part C of the IDEA Amendments of 1997, provided incentive grants to states that provide special education and related services to children with disabilities from birth to age 2. Infants and toddlers may be designated as developmentally delayed and receive special education services. Infants and toddlers may be designated as developmentally delayed and receive special education services. States have an option of submitting plans to participate in Part C funding. States have an option of submitting plans to participate in Part C funding.

110 Structure of the IDEA Title I of the IDEA This consists of 4 parts, of which Part B contains the requirements that school personnel must be most concerned with in developing programs for students in special education. This consists of 4 parts, of which Part B contains the requirements that school personnel must be most concerned with in developing programs for students in special education. Part A of the IDEA This is the section in which Congress justifies the IDEA. This is the section in which Congress justifies the IDEA. It contains findings of fact regarding the education of students with disabilities that existed when the IDEA was passed. It contains findings of fact regarding the education of students with disabilities that existed when the IDEA was passed. It also contains definitions of terms that are used throughout the IDEA. It also contains definitions of terms that are used throughout the IDEA.

111 Structure of the IDEA Part B of the IDEA This section addresses educational requirements for students ages 3 to 21 and is the section with which special education teachers and administrators should be most familiar. This section addresses educational requirements for students ages 3 to 21 and is the section with which special education teachers and administrators should be most familiar. Part B contains the information regarding the state grant program in which states submit plans that detail how the state will ensure a free appropriate public education to all qualified children and youth with disabilities who live in the state. Part B contains the information regarding the state grant program in which states submit plans that detail how the state will ensure a free appropriate public education to all qualified children and youth with disabilities who live in the state. Some scholars have divided Part B into major principles to help with understanding the law. Some scholars have divided Part B into major principles to help with understanding the law.

112 Structure of the IDEA Zero Reject: Zero Reject: –According to this principle, all students with disabilities eligible for services under the IDEA are entitled to a free appropriate public education. –This applies regardless of the severity of the disability. –States must have a child find system, where all eligible students with disabilities are identified, located, and evaluated. –A school districts child find system can take many forms.

113 Structure of the IDEA Identification and Evaluation Identification and Evaluation –The IDEA includes protection in evaluation procedures (PEP) to address abuses in the assessment process. –IDEA 2004 made a few changes in the initial evaluation process. Free Appropriate Public Education: Free Appropriate Public Education: –The IDEA requires that states have policies assuring all students with disabilities the right to a free appropriate public education (FAPE). –The procedural components are the extensive procedural protections afforded to students and their parents.

114 Structure of the IDEA Free Appropriate Public Education, cont.: Free Appropriate Public Education, cont.: –The substantive components consist of rights regarding special education and related services. Special education is defined as specially designed instruction, at no charge to the parents or guardians, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability. Special education is defined as specially designed instruction, at no charge to the parents or guardians, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability. Related services are any developmental, corrective, or supportive services that students need to benefit from special education. Related services are any developmental, corrective, or supportive services that students need to benefit from special education. Public schools must provide special education and related services to eligible students at no cost. Public schools must provide special education and related services to eligible students at no cost. The IDEA also acknowledges the rights of states to set standards for a FAPE. The IDEA also acknowledges the rights of states to set standards for a FAPE. The special education and related services must be provided in conformity with the IEP. The special education and related services must be provided in conformity with the IEP.

115 Structure of the IDEA Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) –The IDEA mandates that students with disabilities are educated with their peers without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate. –When students are placed in segregated settings, schools must provide them with opportunities to interact with their peers without disabilities where appropriate. –To ensure that students are educated in the LRE, school districts must ensure that a complete continuum of alternative placements is available. Procedural Safeguards Procedural Safeguards –The heart of the IDEA lies in the procedural safeguards designed to protect the interests of students with disabilities –The general safeguards for parents and students consist of notice and consent requirements. –When the parents of a child with disabilities disagree with the educational evaluation of the school, they have a right to obtain an independent evaluation at public expense.

116 Structure of the IDEA Procedural Safeguards, cont. Procedural Safeguards, cont. –When a childs parents cant be located or the child is a ward of the state, the agency is responsible for appointing surrogate parents to protect the rights of the child. *The actual selection and appointment methods are not determined by the IDEA. *The actual selection and appointment methods are not determined by the IDEA. –When parents and the school disagree about identification, evaluation, placement, or any matters pertaining to the FAPE, either party may request a due process hearing. *States must offer parents the option of resolving their disputes through the mediation process prior to going to a due process hearing. *States must offer parents the option of resolving their disputes through the mediation process prior to going to a due process hearing. *A due process hearing is a forum in which both sides present their arguments to an impartial third party, the due process hearing officer. *A due process hearing is a forum in which both sides present their arguments to an impartial third party, the due process hearing officer. *The stay-put provision mandates that the students placement or program not be changed without the agreement of both parties. *The stay-put provision mandates that the students placement or program not be changed without the agreement of both parties. *The hearing officers decision is binding on both parties, and either party may appeal the decision. *The hearing officers decision is binding on both parties, and either party may appeal the decision.

117 Structure of the IDEA Technology-Related Assistance Technology-Related Assistance –The pervasive impact of technology on the lives of persons with disabilities was recognized in a report issued by the Federal Office of Technology Assessment in –Congress passed the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act in 1988 to establish a program of federal grants to states to promote technology-related assistance to individuals with disabilities. –The definitions of assistive technology devices and services were incorporated into the IDEA. –The IDEA Amendments of 1997 added a requirement regarding technology and special education to the IEP. –IEP teams are now required to consider whether students with disabilities need assistive technology devices and services. –The Assistive Technology Act of 2004 expanded access to technology for individuals with disabilities.

118 Structure of the IDEA Personnel Development: Personnel Development: –States are required to submit a plan to the U.S. Department of Education that describes the kind and number of personnel. –The IDEA 2004 implemented a state personnel development grant requiring states to ensure that special education teachers and related service personnel meet state-approved or state-recognized certification/licensure requirements. –States must ensure that by the end of the school year, all special education teacher meet the highly qualified requirements of No Child Left Behind. –To ensure that these requirements are met, states must delineate current and projected needs for special education and related services personnel. –States must also have procedures for adopting promising practices, materials, and technology.

119 Structure of the IDEA Parent Participation Parent Participation –Key provisions of the IDEA that require parental participation are scattered throughout the law. –Parents must be involved in evaluation, IEP meetings, and placement decisions. –Parental involvement is crucial to successful results for students.

120 Structure of the IDEA Part C of the IDEA This section is a discretionary or support program that extends Part B protections to infants and toddlers with disabilities, strengthens incentives for states to provide services to infants and toddlers, and creates a variety of national activities to improve education of children with disabilities. This section is a discretionary or support program that extends Part B protections to infants and toddlers with disabilities, strengthens incentives for states to provide services to infants and toddlers, and creates a variety of national activities to improve education of children with disabilities. Part C provided categorical grants to states contingent on states adhering to the provisions of law, which required participating states to develop and implement statewide interagency programs of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. Part C provided categorical grants to states contingent on states adhering to the provisions of law, which required participating states to develop and implement statewide interagency programs of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. The agency that assumes overall responsibility for the early intervention programs is referred to as the lead agency. The agency that assumes overall responsibility for the early intervention programs is referred to as the lead agency.

121 Structure of the IDEA Part D of the IDEA This section is also a discretionary or support program that contains provisions that are vitally important to the development of special education in the U.S. This section is also a discretionary or support program that contains provisions that are vitally important to the development of special education in the U.S. Programs funded by Part D have played a crucial role in identifying, implementing, evaluating, and disseminating information about effective practices in educating students with disabilities. Programs funded by Part D have played a crucial role in identifying, implementing, evaluating, and disseminating information about effective practices in educating students with disabilities. Part D programs are often referred to as support programs because the primary purpose of these programs is to support the implementation of the IDEA and to assist states in improving the education of students with disabilities. Part D programs are often referred to as support programs because the primary purpose of these programs is to support the implementation of the IDEA and to assist states in improving the education of students with disabilities.

122 Structure of the IDEA Subpart 1State Personnel Development Grants Subpart 1State Personnel Development Grants –This part provides federal support for assisting state educational agencies to reform and to improve their personnel preparation and professional development systems. –This subpart also authorizes formula grants that are given to states that apply and meet the requirements of the subpart. Subpart 2Personnel Preparation, Technical Assistance, Model Demonstration Projects, and Dissemination of Information Subpart 2Personnel Preparation, Technical Assistance, Model Demonstration Projects, and Dissemination of Information –This subpart provides federal support for: training personnel; providing technical assistance; developing model demonstration projects to promote the use of scientifically based instructional practices; conducting research to improve educational programs; conducting evaluations of exemplary programs; funding national programs that provide for technical assistance, dissemination, and implementation of scientifically based research; and investigating and implementing interim alternative educational settings, preventing problem behavior by using positive behavioral interventions and supports, and employing systematic school wide approaches and interventions.

123 Structure of the IDEA Subpart 3Supports to Improve Results for Children with Disabilities Subpart 3Supports to Improve Results for Children with Disabilities This subpart provides federal support for: establishing parent training and information centers; establishing community parent resource centers; providing technical support to parent training and information centers; and developing, demonstrating, and utilizing devices and strategies to make technology accessible and usable for students with disabilities. This subpart provides federal support for: establishing parent training and information centers; establishing community parent resource centers; providing technical support to parent training and information centers; and developing, demonstrating, and utilizing devices and strategies to make technology accessible and usable for students with disabilities. Title II of the IDEA This section was added in 2004, and it established the National Center on Special Education Research. This section was added in 2004, and it established the National Center on Special Education Research. The centers mission is to sponsor research that expands the knowledge base in special education, improves services under the IDEA, and evaluates the implementation and effectiveness of the IDEA. The centers mission is to sponsor research that expands the knowledge base in special education, improves services under the IDEA, and evaluates the implementation and effectiveness of the IDEA.

124 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process When Congress passes statutes that appropriate money, it may fund the statute on a permanent or limited basis. When Congress passes statutes that appropriate money, it may fund the statute on a permanent or limited basis. If it is on a limited basis, the funding period will be designated in the statute, and after this period, Congress has to reauthorize funding or let funding expire. If it is on a limited basis, the funding period will be designated in the statute, and after this period, Congress has to reauthorize funding or let funding expire. Approximately every 4 or 5 years, Congress has had to reauthorize the IDEA, except for Parts A and B. Approximately every 4 or 5 years, Congress has had to reauthorize the IDEA, except for Parts A and B. Amendments to the IDEA: Since the passage of the original EAHCA in 1975, there have been numerous changes to the law. Since the passage of the original EAHCA in 1975, there have been numerous changes to the law. The last two reauthorizations were perhaps the most significant changes to the law since its original passage. The last two reauthorizations were perhaps the most significant changes to the law since its original passage.

125 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process The IDEA Amendments of 1997: These amendments added several significant provisions to the law. These amendments added several significant provisions to the law. Also, IDEA was restructured and there were significant additions in: strengthening the role of parents, emphasizing student progress toward meaningful educational goals through changes in the IEP process, encouraging parents and educators to resolve differences through nonadversarial mediation, and allowing school officials greater leeway in disciplining students with disabilities. Also, IDEA was restructured and there were significant additions in: strengthening the role of parents, emphasizing student progress toward meaningful educational goals through changes in the IEP process, encouraging parents and educators to resolve differences through nonadversarial mediation, and allowing school officials greater leeway in disciplining students with disabilities. The Individualized Education Program: The Individualized Education Program: –The critical issue in 1997 was to improve the performance and educational achievement of students with disabilities in both the special education and general education curricula.

126 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process The Individualized Education Program, cont.: The Individualized Education Program, cont.: –Changes in the IEP included the requirement to include a statement of measurable annual goals, including benchmarks or short-term objectives, to accurately determine a students progress. –The 1997 Amendments also required that students with disabilities be included in state- and district-wide assessments of student progress, and the IEP should determine if any accommodations or modifications need to be made. Disciplining Students in Special Education: Disciplining Students in Special Education: –Another significant addition of IDEA 1997 was a section addressing the discipline of students with disabilities. –IDEA 1997 requires that if a student with disabilities has behavior problems, regardless of the students disability category, the IEP team shall consider strategies to address these problems.

127 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process Disciplining Students in Special Education, cont.: Disciplining Students in Special Education, cont.: –School officials may discipline a student with disabilities in the same manner as they discipline students without disabilities, with a few exceptions. With students who have disabilities, a suspension or placement change can not exceed 10 school days. With students who have disabilities, a suspension or placement change can not exceed 10 school days. Students can be placed in an interim alternative educational setting (IAES) for up to 45 days for weapons or illegal substances. Students can be placed in an interim alternative educational setting (IAES) for up to 45 days for weapons or illegal substances. The Manifestation Determination: The Manifestation Determination: –If school officials seek a change of placement, suspension, or expulsion in excess of 10 school days, a review of the relationship between a students disability and his or her misconduct, called a manifestation determination, must be conducted within 10 days. –The parents of a student with disabilities may request an expedited due process hearing if they disagree with the results of the manifestation determination.

128 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process Dispute Resolution: Dispute Resolution: –IDEA 1997 required states to offer mediation as a voluntary option to parents and educators as an initial process for dispute resolution. –If mediation is not successful, either party may request an impartial due process hearing. Attorneys Fees: Attorneys Fees: –There are limited conditions under which attorneys can collect fees under the IDEA. –Attorneys fees for participation in IEP meetings have been eliminated unless the meeting is convened because of an administrative or judicial order. –Attorneys fees are not available for mediation sessions prior to filing for a due process hearing.

129 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process Special Education and Adult Inmates: Special Education and Adult Inmates: –States may not opt to provide special education services to persons with disabilities in adult prisons if they were not identified as IDEA-eligible prior to their incarceration. Charter Schools: Charter Schools: –School districts must serve students with disabilities who attend charter schools just as they would serve students attending the districts schools.

130 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004: The primary goal of Congress in passing IDEA 2004 is to align IDEA with NCLB thereby increasing accountability for improving student performance. The primary goal of Congress in passing IDEA 2004 is to align IDEA with NCLB thereby increasing accountability for improving student performance. IDEA 2004 includes measures to increase academic results for students with disabilities. IDEA 2004 includes measures to increase academic results for students with disabilities. Congress stated that the IDEA has successfully ensured access to educational services for millions of children and youth with disabilities. Congress stated that the IDEA has successfully ensured access to educational services for millions of children and youth with disabilities. However, implementation of the IDEA had been impeded by low expectations and an insufficient focus on applying scientifically based research on proven methods of teaching children and youth with disabilities. However, implementation of the IDEA had been impeded by low expectations and an insufficient focus on applying scientifically based research on proven methods of teaching children and youth with disabilities.

131 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process The Individualized Education Program: The Individualized Education Program: –Congress attempted to alter the IEP process so it is easier for IEP teams to navigate, involves less paperwork, and increases accountability. Changes in the IEP Development Process: Changes in the IEP Development Process: –IDEA 2004 allows a member of an IEP team whose attendance is not necessary because his or her area of curriculum or related services are not being modified or discussed at the meeting to be excused from attending the IEP meeting or other meetings if the students parents and the local education agency agree that the persons presence is not necessary. Changes in the IEP Document: Changes in the IEP Document: –IDEA 2004 emphasizes the importance of writing measurable annual goals and then measuring progress toward each goal during the course of a year.

132 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process Changes in the IEP Modification Process: Changes in the IEP Modification Process: –Programming changes are proposed to a students program after the annual IEP meeting has been held. –The IEP team and a students parents could agree to make the changes in a written document instead of reconvening. Three- Year IEPs: Three- Year IEPs: –IDEA 2004 allows up to 15 states to develop and implement 3-year IEPs as part of a pilot program. –States that didnt apply for this pilot program must develop and implement 1- year IEPs.

133 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process IEPs for Transfer Students: IEPs for Transfer Students: –When a special education student transfers to a new school district, the new school must continue to provide services comparable to those described in the students previous IEP. –If the student is from out-of-state, an evaluation must be conducted. Disciplining Students in Special Education: Disciplining Students in Special Education: –Schools are provided with greater flexibility to maintain a safe environment while protecting the disciplinary safeguards outlined in IDEA 1997.

134 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process The Manifestation Determination: The Manifestation Determination: –IDEA 2004 simplifies and strengthens the manifestation determination standard because a behavior can be determined to be a manifestation of a students disability only if the conduct in question is caused by or has a direct and substantial relationship to the students disability. –When a student with disabilities is suspended for more than 10 school days or expelled, the law requires that he or she must continue to receive educational services. Behaviors That Can Lead to a 45-Day Disciplinary Removal: Behaviors That Can Lead to a 45-Day Disciplinary Removal: –IDEA 2004 adds the offense of committing serious bodily injury upon another person to drugs and weapons offenses that were previously included. –Also, students can be removed for up to 45 school days.

135 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process Stay-Put Provision: Stay-Put Provision: –In IDEA 2004, the stay-put placement is the interim alternative educational setting (IAES). Dispute Resolution: Dispute Resolution: –IDEA 2004 limits the time that parents can request due process hearings to 2 years from the date they knew or should have known about the issues that led to the due process request, and it imposes a 90-day limit for filing appeals. –The law also creates a resolution session that school districts are required to hold in an attempt to settle the complaint that led the parents to request a due process hearing.

136 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process Attorneys Fees: Attorneys Fees: –Attorneys are not allowed to be reimbursed for any actions or proceedings performed before a written settlement is made by the school district. –Attorneys are not allowed to receive reimbursement for attending IEP meetings, unless the meetings are ordered by a hearing officer. Eligibility of Students with Learning Disabilities: Eligibility of Students with Learning Disabilities: –States can no longer require school districts to use a discrepancy formula to determine if a student has a learning disability. –Instead, school districts may use a process that determines whether a student responds to scientific, research-based interventions

137 The IDEA and the Reauthorization Process Funding: Funding: –IDEA 2004 allows states greater flexibility in their use of IDEA funds. –School districts may use as much as 15% of their funding for early intervention services to teach at-risk students who have not yet been identified as IDEA eligible. –States may establish risk pools by setting aside 10% of the reserve funding. Highly Qualified Teachers: Highly Qualified Teachers: –IDEA 2004 requires that all new special education teachers obtain a bachelors degree, be certified by the state as a special education teacher, and demonstrate competency of subject matter. –Teachers of students with severe disabilities could demonstrate subject matter competency by passing an elementary test, or by passing a test at their students level of instruction.

138 Funding of the IDEA The federal government, through the IDEA, provides funding to assist State Education Agencies (SEAs) with special education costs. The federal government, through the IDEA, provides funding to assist State Education Agencies (SEAs) with special education costs. –SEAs must submit a state special education plan to the U.S. Department of Education. A large portion of the federal IDEA funds received by the SEA must be distributed to school districts, or LEAs. A large portion of the federal IDEA funds received by the SEA must be distributed to school districts, or LEAs. In IDEA 2004, Congress announced that federal funding from 2004 to 2010 would increase each year so that IDEA would reach its original funding goal of 40% of state costs. In IDEA 2004, Congress announced that federal funding from 2004 to 2010 would increase each year so that IDEA would reach its original funding goal of 40% of state costs. Federal expenditures are computed on a state-by-state basis in accordance with the number of students with disabilities served. Federal expenditures are computed on a state-by-state basis in accordance with the number of students with disabilities served. –A state is responsible for counting the number of students with disabilities educated in special education, which is called child count.

139 Funding of the IDEA The funding formula remains based on the child count until federal expenditures reach $4.9 billion. The funding formula remains based on the child count until federal expenditures reach $4.9 billion. –Then, the new formula, based on the states population and poverty level, will apply to all excess appropriations. The federal money states receive must not be used to supplant state funds but to supplement and increase funding of special education and related services. The federal money states receive must not be used to supplant state funds but to supplement and increase funding of special education and related services. –The state is ultimately responsible for ensuring the appropriate use of funds. The IDEA also requires that 75% of the federal funds received by the states be directed to the local schools and that 25% may be used at the state level. The IDEA also requires that 75% of the federal funds received by the states be directed to the local schools and that 25% may be used at the state level.

140 Funding of the IDEA The 25% of the federal monies that may be set aside for state agency activities may be used for administration and supervision, direct and supportive services for students with disabilities, and monitoring and complaint investigation. The 25% of the federal monies that may be set aside for state agency activities may be used for administration and supervision, direct and supportive services for students with disabilities, and monitoring and complaint investigation. –States may use only 5% of the federal funds they receive for administrative purposes. States may also use up to 10% of the federal funds they retain to establish risk pools to reimburse school districts for the cost of educating students who require high cost services. States may also use up to 10% of the federal funds they retain to establish risk pools to reimburse school districts for the cost of educating students who require high cost services. IDEA 2004 also gives school districts greater flexibility in determining how they will spend new federal special education funding. IDEA 2004 also gives school districts greater flexibility in determining how they will spend new federal special education funding.

141 Monitoring and Enforcing the IDEA The U.S. Department of Education is the federal government agency responsible for monitoring and enforcing the IDEA. The U.S. Department of Education is the federal government agency responsible for monitoring and enforcing the IDEA. –The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services (OSERS) is the specific department that assumes these responsibilities. –The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) within the OSERS also helps in monitoring and enforcing the IDEA. One of the most important functions of OSERS and OSEP is to draft the regulations that implement the IDEA. One of the most important functions of OSERS and OSEP is to draft the regulations that implement the IDEA. OSEP also interprets the IDEA, often through the issuance of policy letters and interpretive guidance. OSEP also interprets the IDEA, often through the issuance of policy letters and interpretive guidance.

142 Monitoring and Enforcing the IDEA OSEP monitors states to determine if states and local school districts are complying with the strictures of the IDEA, and IDEA funds are being spent in an appropriate manner. OSEP monitors states to determine if states and local school districts are complying with the strictures of the IDEA, and IDEA funds are being spent in an appropriate manner. States are required to monitor local school districts use of funds. States are required to monitor local school districts use of funds. States must also have procedures to receive and resolve complaints regarding possible violations of the IDEA. States must also have procedures to receive and resolve complaints regarding possible violations of the IDEA.

143 Chapter Six Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

144 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504 is a brief section of the Rehabilitation Act of Section 504 is a brief section of the Rehabilitation Act of It is a powerful law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities, so it is a civil rights law. It is a powerful law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities, so it is a civil rights law. Since public school districts receive federal funding, Section 504 protects students with disabilities from discrimination in public schools throughout the U.S. Since public school districts receive federal funding, Section 504 protects students with disabilities from discrimination in public schools throughout the U.S. Unlike the IDEA, no federal funds are available under Section 504 to help school districts meet the requirements of the law. Unlike the IDEA, no federal funds are available under Section 504 to help school districts meet the requirements of the law. It seems that educators have only taken notice of Section 504 in the last few years. It seems that educators have only taken notice of Section 504 in the last few years. Parents and advocates for children and youth with disabilities began requesting that schools provide their children with educational services and protection under Section 504. Parents and advocates for children and youth with disabilities began requesting that schools provide their children with educational services and protection under Section 504. Children may have had disabilities that were not included under the IDEA but were covered under Section 504. Children may have had disabilities that were not included under the IDEA but were covered under Section 504.

145 The Development of Section 504 In 1973, the first major effort to protect persons with disabilities against discrimination based on their disabilities took place when Congress passed Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. In 1973, the first major effort to protect persons with disabilities against discrimination based on their disabilities took place when Congress passed Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Section 504 was originally proposed in 1972 as an amendment to the Civil Rights Act of Section 504 was originally proposed in 1972 as an amendment to the Civil Rights Act of Section 504 was originally written in the same antidiscrimination language as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of Section 504 was originally written in the same antidiscrimination language as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of It was not clear what protections were actually extended to persons with disabilities through the statute. It was not clear what protections were actually extended to persons with disabilities through the statute. Amendments to Section 504 in 1974 clarified the ambiguities, by extending civil rights protection to persons with disabilities by including all the remedies, procedures, and rights contained in the Civil Rights Act of Amendments to Section 504 in 1974 clarified the ambiguities, by extending civil rights protection to persons with disabilities by including all the remedies, procedures, and rights contained in the Civil Rights Act of There was a 4 year delay in issuing regulations to implement and enforce Section 504, due to confusion and stalling. There was a 4 year delay in issuing regulations to implement and enforce Section 504, due to confusion and stalling.

146 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 The Purpose of Section 504: Section 504 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in program and activities that receive federal financial assistance. Section 504 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in program and activities that receive federal financial assistance. Section 504 extends these protections only in programs or services that receive federal financial assistance. Section 504 extends these protections only in programs or services that receive federal financial assistance. Schools or programs that receive indirect financial aid are also covered under the statute. Schools or programs that receive indirect financial aid are also covered under the statute. Who Is Protected? The original definition of persons protected under Section 504 was extremely narrow. The original definition of persons protected under Section 504 was extremely narrow. Section 504 only protects persons who are disabled as defined in the law. Section 504 only protects persons who are disabled as defined in the law.

147 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 Part 1 of the Definition: A Person Who Has a Physical or Mental Disability Part 1 of the Definition: A Person Who Has a Physical or Mental Disability Part 1 defines a person as disabled if that person has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Part 1 defines a person as disabled if that person has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. The impairment must be physical or mental, affect a major life activity, and be substantial. The impairment must be physical or mental, affect a major life activity, and be substantial. Physical Impairment: Physical Impairment: The scope of physical impairment has been recognized as including those disabilities that substantially impair physical performance. The scope of physical impairment has been recognized as including those disabilities that substantially impair physical performance. Physical characteristics or conditions have generally not been considered to be covered under Section 504. Physical characteristics or conditions have generally not been considered to be covered under Section 504.

148 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 Part 1, cont. Part 1, cont. Mental Impairment: Mental Impairment: Mental impairments includes mental illness, mental retardation, and learning disabilities. Mental impairments includes mental illness, mental retardation, and learning disabilities. Persons with psychological conditions tend to be protected under Section 504 if the conditions are recognized by medical authorities as constituting a mental impairment. Persons with psychological conditions tend to be protected under Section 504 if the conditions are recognized by medical authorities as constituting a mental impairment. Mental impairments do not extend to undesirable personality traits. Mental impairments do not extend to undesirable personality traits. In the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992, Congress added exclusions to Section 504. In the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992, Congress added exclusions to Section 504. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) further narrowed the definition to exclude persons currently engaging in the illegal use or possession of drugs or alcohol. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) further narrowed the definition to exclude persons currently engaging in the illegal use or possession of drugs or alcohol.

149 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 Part 1, cont. Part 1, cont. Substantial Limitation of a Major Life Activity: Substantial Limitation of a Major Life Activity: The question of what constitutes a substantial limitation of a major life activity has been the subject of considerable litigation and numerous guidelines from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) The question of what constitutes a substantial limitation of a major life activity has been the subject of considerable litigation and numerous guidelines from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) A major life activity means functions such as caring for ones self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, breathing, learning, and working. A major life activity means functions such as caring for ones self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, breathing, learning, and working. Substantially limits means that an individual is unable to perform a major life activity that the average person in the general population can perform. Substantially limits means that an individual is unable to perform a major life activity that the average person in the general population can perform. To determine if a limitation is substantial, school personnel should examine the nature and severity of the impairment, the duration or expected duration of the impairment, and the permanent or long-lasting effects resulting from the impairment. To determine if a limitation is substantial, school personnel should examine the nature and severity of the impairment, the duration or expected duration of the impairment, and the permanent or long-lasting effects resulting from the impairment.

150 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 Part 2 and 3 of the Definition: A Person Who Has a Record of Such an Impairment or Who Is Regarded as Having Such an Impairment Part 2 and 3 of the Definition: A Person Who Has a Record of Such an Impairment or Who Is Regarded as Having Such an Impairment Part 2 of the definition protects persons who have a record of impairment. Part 2 of the definition protects persons who have a record of impairment. A student who once had a disability but no longer does may not be discriminated against because of the past disability. A student who once had a disability but no longer does may not be discriminated against because of the past disability. Part 3 protects who are regarded as being disabled. Part 3 protects who are regarded as being disabled. The purpose of this is to protect persons who may have only minor disabilities or no disabilities at all from being discriminated against because of the stereotypical beliefs or negative reactions of others. The purpose of this is to protect persons who may have only minor disabilities or no disabilities at all from being discriminated against because of the stereotypical beliefs or negative reactions of others. These two parts of the definition are frequently misunderstood. These two parts of the definition are frequently misunderstood. The second and third parts of the definition cant serve as the basis of a FAPE under Section 504. The second and third parts of the definition cant serve as the basis of a FAPE under Section 504. Students with temporary disabilities may also be covered under Section 504. Students with temporary disabilities may also be covered under Section 504. The definition of disability under Section 504 is broader than that under the IDEA. The definition of disability under Section 504 is broader than that under the IDEA.

151 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 Otherwise Qualified: Otherwise Qualified: Section 504 protects only otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities from discrimination based solely on their disability. Section 504 protects only otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities from discrimination based solely on their disability. Persons who are not otherwise qualified are not protected. Persons who are not otherwise qualified are not protected. Persons would have to be qualified in spite of their handicap. Persons would have to be qualified in spite of their handicap. Elementary and Secondary Schools: Elementary and Secondary Schools: A state is not required to provide services to students who do not meet the schools age requirements. A state is not required to provide services to students who do not meet the schools age requirements. All students of school age are by definition qualified. All students of school age are by definition qualified. The otherwise qualified provision also applies to a schools extracurricular activities, when students with disabilities try out for such activities. The otherwise qualified provision also applies to a schools extracurricular activities, when students with disabilities try out for such activities.

152 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 Postsecondary and Vocational Schools: Postsecondary and Vocational Schools: Students must meet the academic and technical standards requisite to admission or to participation in the educational program. Students must meet the academic and technical standards requisite to admission or to participation in the educational program. A student who is otherwise qualified is one who can meet program requirements, academic and technical, if provided with reasonable accommodations. A student who is otherwise qualified is one who can meet program requirements, academic and technical, if provided with reasonable accommodations. Reasonable accommodations refers to the modifications of educational programs or facilities to make them accessible to persons with disabilities. Reasonable accommodations refers to the modifications of educational programs or facilities to make them accessible to persons with disabilities. Summary of Section 504 Coverage: Summary of Section 504 Coverage: The definition of a disability in Section 504 is broad. The definition of a disability in Section 504 is broad. It covers many types of disabilities as long as they affect a major life activity. It covers many types of disabilities as long as they affect a major life activity. Section 504 covers those protected under the IDEA, individuals who meet the definition of having an impairment, and facilities, extracurricular activities, parents, and employees. Section 504 covers those protected under the IDEA, individuals who meet the definition of having an impairment, and facilities, extracurricular activities, parents, and employees.

153 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 The Structure of Section 504: The federal regulations for Section 504 are divided into seven subchapters. The federal regulations for Section 504 are divided into seven subchapters. Subpart A: covers purposes and definitions Subpart A: covers purposes and definitions Subpart B: prohibits discrimination in employment practices Subpart B: prohibits discrimination in employment practices Subpart C: covers accessibility and usability of facilities Subpart C: covers accessibility and usability of facilities Subpart D: prohibits discrimination in preschool, elementary, and secondary programs receiving federal financial assistance Subpart D: prohibits discrimination in preschool, elementary, and secondary programs receiving federal financial assistance

154 The Purpose and Structure of Section 504 The Structure of Section 504, cont. Subpart E: prohibits discrimination in postsecondary programs receiving federal financial assistance Subpart E: prohibits discrimination in postsecondary programs receiving federal financial assistance Subpart F: prohibits discrimination in health, welfare, and social services receiving federal financial assistance Subpart F: prohibits discrimination in health, welfare, and social services receiving federal financial assistance Subpart G: procedures for ensuring compliance with Section 504 Subpart G: procedures for ensuring compliance with Section 504

155 Major Principles of Section 504 The regulations for Section 504 detail criteria for schools to follow. The regulations for Section 504 detail criteria for schools to follow. Section 504 regulations are specific with respect to postsecondary education. Section 504 regulations are specific with respect to postsecondary education. Protection from Discrimination All students with disabilities are protected from discrimination in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools. All students with disabilities are protected from discrimination in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools. Discrimination refers to unequal treatment of students with disabilities on the basis of their disability. Discrimination refers to unequal treatment of students with disabilities on the basis of their disability. Section 504 requires that individuals with disabilities have an equal opportunity to benefit from a schools academic or nonacademic programs or services as do their nondisabled peers. Section 504 requires that individuals with disabilities have an equal opportunity to benefit from a schools academic or nonacademic programs or services as do their nondisabled peers. The concept of equivalency does not mean that services and benefits must be identical. The concept of equivalency does not mean that services and benefits must be identical.

156 Major Principles of Section 504 Physical Accessibility: Physical Accessibility: School academic and nonacademic programs, structures, and activities must be physically accessible to students with disabilities. School academic and nonacademic programs, structures, and activities must be physically accessible to students with disabilities. Section 504 prohibits the exclusion of students with disabilities from programs because a schools facilities are inaccessible or unusable. Section 504 prohibits the exclusion of students with disabilities from programs because a schools facilities are inaccessible or unusable. Regulations state that when viewed in its entirety, the program must be readily accessible and usable. Regulations state that when viewed in its entirety, the program must be readily accessible and usable. School districts must meet the accessibility requirements of Section 504 even if they do not have students with mobility impairments. School districts must meet the accessibility requirements of Section 504 even if they do not have students with mobility impairments.

157 Major Principles of Section 504 Physical Accessibility, cont. Physical Accessibility, cont. The requirement of accessibility applies to all facilities within a school. The requirement of accessibility applies to all facilities within a school. In school facilities that were built prior to 1977, programs and activities must be made accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities. In school facilities that were built prior to 1977, programs and activities must be made accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities. Facilities constructed after 1977 must be in compliance with the American National Institutes accessibility standards. Facilities constructed after 1977 must be in compliance with the American National Institutes accessibility standards. Schools constructed after January 1991 must meet the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards. Schools constructed after January 1991 must meet the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards.

158 Major Principles of Section 504 Program Accessibility: Program Accessibility: It may be necessary to make modifications or accommodations to programs so that students with disabilities may benefit from them. It may be necessary to make modifications or accommodations to programs so that students with disabilities may benefit from them. Reasonable Accommodations: Reasonable Accommodations: A program receiving federal financial assistance is required to provide reasonable accommodations to otherwise qualified persons with disabilities. A program receiving federal financial assistance is required to provide reasonable accommodations to otherwise qualified persons with disabilities. Section 504 regulations only define reasonable accommodation as it applies to employment, not educational institutions. Section 504 regulations only define reasonable accommodation as it applies to employment, not educational institutions. Determining what constitutes a reasonable accommodation, as opposed to substantial accommodation, is difficult and subjective. Determining what constitutes a reasonable accommodation, as opposed to substantial accommodation, is difficult and subjective.

159 Major Principles of Section 504 Court Decisions Regarding Reasonable Accommodations: Court Decisions Regarding Reasonable Accommodations: In Southeastern Community College v. Davis (1979), the U.S. Supreme Court held that reasonable accommodations are those that do not impose excessive financial and administrative burdens or require a fundamental alteration in the program. In Southeastern Community College v. Davis (1979), the U.S. Supreme Court held that reasonable accommodations are those that do not impose excessive financial and administrative burdens or require a fundamental alteration in the program. In Pinkerton v. Moye (1981), a federal district court held that a school district did not have to establish a self-contained program for students with learning disabilities because that would have required a substantial modification to the districts programs. In Pinkerton v. Moye (1981), a federal district court held that a school district did not have to establish a self-contained program for students with learning disabilities because that would have required a substantial modification to the districts programs. In William S. v. Gill (1983), the court ruled that a school district was not required to send a student to a private residential school if the costs at the private school far exceeded the costs at the public school. In William S. v. Gill (1983), the court ruled that a school district was not required to send a student to a private residential school if the costs at the private school far exceeded the costs at the public school.

160 Major Principles of Section 504 Reasonable Accommodations in Schools: Reasonable Accommodations in Schools: The Department of Educations regulations to Section 504 suggest reasonable accommodations that might be made by postsecondary institutions to assist students with disabilities in obtaining an education. The Department of Educations regulations to Section 504 suggest reasonable accommodations that might be made by postsecondary institutions to assist students with disabilities in obtaining an education. Academic adjustments are a category of accommodations, and they could include modifying methods of instruction, modifying materials, and altering environmental conditions. Academic adjustments are a category of accommodations, and they could include modifying methods of instruction, modifying materials, and altering environmental conditions. Regulations also address the modification of examinations, which should be made if a students disability will impair the students performance on the test. Regulations also address the modification of examinations, which should be made if a students disability will impair the students performance on the test.

161 Major Principles of Section 504 Comparable Facilities: Comparable Facilities: When a school operates a facility for students with disabilities, the facilities and services must be comparable to regular education facilities and services. When a school operates a facility for students with disabilities, the facilities and services must be comparable to regular education facilities and services. Facilities do not have to be identical. Facilities do not have to be identical. The placement of students with disabilities in portable units that were designated solely for use by students with disabilities would be a violation of Section 504. The placement of students with disabilities in portable units that were designated solely for use by students with disabilities would be a violation of Section 504. Discrimination versus Legitimate Considerations Regarding Disabilities: Discrimination versus Legitimate Considerations Regarding Disabilities: Protection from discrimination does not mean that the disabling condition cannot be considered by school administrators. Protection from discrimination does not mean that the disabling condition cannot be considered by school administrators. Disabilities may affect an individuals ability to perform in a program or job by impairing functioning. Disabilities may affect an individuals ability to perform in a program or job by impairing functioning. A school administrator may consider a disability if it is a relevant factor. A school administrator may consider a disability if it is a relevant factor.

162 Major Principles of Section 504 Avoiding Discrimination: Avoiding Discrimination: Regulations to Section 504 list actions that schools may take to avoid discriminating against students with disabilities. Regulations to Section 504 list actions that schools may take to avoid discriminating against students with disabilities. These actions include: altering structure, redesigning equipment, reassigning classes, assigning paraprofessionals, conduction interventions in the general education classroom, and modifying classroom methods, materials, and methods. These actions include: altering structure, redesigning equipment, reassigning classes, assigning paraprofessionals, conduction interventions in the general education classroom, and modifying classroom methods, materials, and methods. Discrimination in Postsecondary Education: Discrimination in Postsecondary Education: Colleges, universities, and vocational or technical schools may not exclude a qualified person with a disability from any aspect of the educational program or activities conducted by the school. Colleges, universities, and vocational or technical schools may not exclude a qualified person with a disability from any aspect of the educational program or activities conducted by the school. Section 504 claims most likely to arise in postsecondary education are in the areas of admissions and access to nonacademic programs or activities. Section 504 claims most likely to arise in postsecondary education are in the areas of admissions and access to nonacademic programs or activities.

163 Major Principles of Section 504 Discrimination in Postsecondary Education, cont. Discrimination in Postsecondary Education, cont. Qualified students with disabilities are protected from being denied admission or discriminated against solely because of their disability. Qualified students with disabilities are protected from being denied admission or discriminated against solely because of their disability. Postsecondary institutions can not administer admission tests that may reflect adversely on students with disabilities. Postsecondary institutions can not administer admission tests that may reflect adversely on students with disabilities. Discrimination and Access to Nonacademic Programs and Services: Discrimination and Access to Nonacademic Programs and Services: Postsecondary institutions that provide housing to students without disabilities must provide comparable housing for students with disabilities. Postsecondary institutions that provide housing to students without disabilities must provide comparable housing for students with disabilities. In physical education, athletics, intramural activities, and clubs the postsecondary institution must provide qualified students with disabilities an equal opportunity to participate. In physical education, athletics, intramural activities, and clubs the postsecondary institution must provide qualified students with disabilities an equal opportunity to participate. Counseling, vocational, and placement services must be provided to students with disabilities to the same extent as provided to students without disabilities. Counseling, vocational, and placement services must be provided to students with disabilities to the same extent as provided to students without disabilities. If postsecondary institutions provide assistance to organizations, they must ensure that these organizations do not discriminate against or permit discrimination based on a disability. If postsecondary institutions provide assistance to organizations, they must ensure that these organizations do not discriminate against or permit discrimination based on a disability.

164 Major Principles of Section 504 Free Appropriate Public Education Students with disabilities in elementary and secondary school are entitled to a free appropriate public education (FAPE) under Section 504 regardless of the nature or severity of their disabilities. Students with disabilities in elementary and secondary school are entitled to a free appropriate public education (FAPE) under Section 504 regardless of the nature or severity of their disabilities. A FAPE is required to protect persons with disabilities from discrimination. A FAPE is required to protect persons with disabilities from discrimination. A free education as educational and related services that are provided at no cost to a student with disability, excluding fees charged to all students. A free education as educational and related services that are provided at no cost to a student with disability, excluding fees charged to all students. An appropriate education must be individualized. An appropriate education must be individualized. Related services must be provided to students with disabilities in the general education classroom as well as to students in a special classroom when necessary. Related services must be provided to students with disabilities in the general education classroom as well as to students in a special classroom when necessary.

165 Major Principles of Section 504 Free Appropriate Public Education, cont. The definition of appropriate education is one of equivalency. The definition of appropriate education is one of equivalency. The educational services designed to meet the needs of students with disabilities must do so as adequately as services designed to meet the needs of students without disabilities. The educational services designed to meet the needs of students with disabilities must do so as adequately as services designed to meet the needs of students without disabilities. The equivalency requirement also applies to nonacademic activities. The equivalency requirement also applies to nonacademic activities. The FAPE requirement under Section 504 is more broadly defined than the FAPE requirement under the IDEA. The FAPE requirement under Section 504 is more broadly defined than the FAPE requirement under the IDEA. There has been controversy over whether FAPE under Section 504 requires less than does a FAPE under the IDEA. There has been controversy over whether FAPE under Section 504 requires less than does a FAPE under the IDEA. Many different elements comprise a FAPE, including nondiscriminatory evaluation requirements, placement requirements, and periodic reevaluation of students served under Section 504. Many different elements comprise a FAPE, including nondiscriminatory evaluation requirements, placement requirements, and periodic reevaluation of students served under Section 504.

166 Major Principles of Section 504 Evaluation and Placement Procedures The purpose of the Section 504 evaluation and placement requirements is to prevent misclassification and misplacement. The purpose of the Section 504 evaluation and placement requirements is to prevent misclassification and misplacement. When determining placement for a student, the school must convene a group of persons knowledgeable about the student, the meaning of the evaluation data, and the placement options. When determining placement for a student, the school must convene a group of persons knowledgeable about the student, the meaning of the evaluation data, and the placement options. The team must draw upon a variety of sources, and make decisions based on a students individual needs. The team must draw upon a variety of sources, and make decisions based on a students individual needs.

167 Major Principles of Section 504 Procedural Safeguards Schools must establish a system of due process procedures to be afforded to parents or guardians prior to taking any action regarding the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of a student with a disability who is believed to need educational services. Schools must establish a system of due process procedures to be afforded to parents or guardians prior to taking any action regarding the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of a student with a disability who is believed to need educational services. Notice must precede any identification, evaluation, or placement action taken by the school. Notice must precede any identification, evaluation, or placement action taken by the school. Parents must also be notified of their right to examine educational records. Parents must also be notified of their right to examine educational records. In the due process hearing, the parents have the opportunity to participate, present evidence, produce outside expert testimony, and be represented by counsel. In the due process hearing, the parents have the opportunity to participate, present evidence, produce outside expert testimony, and be represented by counsel. The decision of the hearing officer is binding on all parties but may be appealed to federal court. The decision of the hearing officer is binding on all parties but may be appealed to federal court.

168 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Administrative Responsibilities: Appointing a Section 504 Coordinator: Appointing a Section 504 Coordinator: School districts with 15 or more employees must appoint a Section 504 Coordinator. School districts with 15 or more employees must appoint a Section 504 Coordinator. The coordinator keeps the school district in compliance with the mandates of Section 504 The coordinator keeps the school district in compliance with the mandates of Section 504 It is important that the school district ensures the coordinators thorough training. It is important that the school district ensures the coordinators thorough training. Notifying the Public of a School Districts Responsibilities Under Section 504: Notifying the Public of a School Districts Responsibilities Under Section 504: The coordinator must keep the public and internal staff notified that the district does not discriminate on the basis of disability in employment, educational services, or treatment. The coordinator must keep the public and internal staff notified that the district does not discriminate on the basis of disability in employment, educational services, or treatment. Ensuring That Procedural Safeguards Are Afforded to Students and Their Parents: Ensuring That Procedural Safeguards Are Afforded to Students and Their Parents: School districts must establish and implement a system of procedural safeguards. School districts must establish and implement a system of procedural safeguards.

169 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Establishing Grievance Procedures: Establishing Grievance Procedures: School districts are required to set up grievance procedures and notify parents and guardians of those procedures. School districts are required to set up grievance procedures and notify parents and guardians of those procedures. The Section 504 coordinator is responsible for establishing grievance procedures, because no procedures are set forth in Section 504. The Section 504 coordinator is responsible for establishing grievance procedures, because no procedures are set forth in Section 504. Conducting a Self-Evaluation: Conducting a Self-Evaluation: The coordinator should conduct periodic self-evaluations of the school district to ensure that all Section 504 mandates are followed. The coordinator should conduct periodic self-evaluations of the school district to ensure that all Section 504 mandates are followed. If the self-evaluation finds discrimination, the school district must take steps to correct the situation. If the self-evaluation finds discrimination, the school district must take steps to correct the situation. The school district should keep records of the self-evaluation process. The school district should keep records of the self-evaluation process.

170 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Training Staff Regarding Their Responsibilities Under Section 504: Training Staff Regarding Their Responsibilities Under Section 504: Many general education teachers are unaware of Section 504s existence and/or requirements. Many general education teachers are unaware of Section 504s existence and/or requirements. So, the coordinator has the task of training staff in the meaning and requirements of the law. So, the coordinator has the task of training staff in the meaning and requirements of the law. Developing a Child Find System: Developing a Child Find System: Schools must annually take steps to identify and locate children with disabilities who are not receiving an appropriate education and to publicize parental and student rights under the law. Schools must annually take steps to identify and locate children with disabilities who are not receiving an appropriate education and to publicize parental and student rights under the law. These duties are referred to as child find. These duties are referred to as child find. It is the responsibility of the school to identify and evaluate students who may qualify for special services under Section 504. It is the responsibility of the school to identify and evaluate students who may qualify for special services under Section 504.

171 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Educational Obligations Identification: Identification: Most students who may be eligible for services under Section 504 are identified through a referral process. Most students who may be eligible for services under Section 504 are identified through a referral process. School district officials need to know and define what will trigger a referral for a Section 504 evaluation. School district officials need to know and define what will trigger a referral for a Section 504 evaluation. It is important that school district personnel and teachers understand that students may be eligible for services under Section 504 even if they do not qualify for special education under the IDEA. It is important that school district personnel and teachers understand that students may be eligible for services under Section 504 even if they do not qualify for special education under the IDEA.

172 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Identification and Evaluation: Identification and Evaluation: Following a referral, school personnel must decide if an evaluation for services under Section 504 is warranted. Following a referral, school personnel must decide if an evaluation for services under Section 504 is warranted. An evaluation must be completed and an eligibility decision made before a student can receive services under Section 504. An evaluation must be completed and an eligibility decision made before a student can receive services under Section 504. Schools must convene a multidisciplinary team to interpret evaluation data and make programming and placement decisions. Schools must convene a multidisciplinary team to interpret evaluation data and make programming and placement decisions. The two primary purposes of the evaluation are to determine if a student is eligible for services under Section 504, and what educational programming will be required to ensure that the student receives a FAPE. The two primary purposes of the evaluation are to determine if a student is eligible for services under Section 504, and what educational programming will be required to ensure that the student receives a FAPE.

173 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Identification and Evaluation, cont. Identification and Evaluation, cont. The evaluation must meet the following criteria: The evaluation must meet the following criteria: the evaluation team must use a variety of assessment procedures and instruments the evaluation team must use a variety of assessment procedures and instruments schools should establish procedures to ensure that all information is documented and fully considered schools should establish procedures to ensure that all information is documented and fully considered schools must ensure that the evaluation is made by a team of persons, including persons knowledgeable about the student, the meaning of the evaluation data, and the placement options. schools must ensure that the evaluation is made by a team of persons, including persons knowledgeable about the student, the meaning of the evaluation data, and the placement options. School personnel are not required to conduct an evaluation if they believe a student will not qualify under Section 504, but the parent refers the student for an evaluation under Section 504. School personnel are not required to conduct an evaluation if they believe a student will not qualify under Section 504, but the parent refers the student for an evaluation under Section 504. A medical diagnosis is not required as part of an evaluation. A medical diagnosis is not required as part of an evaluation.

174 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Identification and Evaluation, cont. Identification and Evaluation, cont. Section 504 does not give parents the right to obtain an independent educational evaluation at public expense if they disagree with the school districts evaluation. Section 504 does not give parents the right to obtain an independent educational evaluation at public expense if they disagree with the school districts evaluation. If an evaluation will be conducted, it must be completed in a timely manner, but there are no specific timelines for conducting an evaluation. If an evaluation will be conducted, it must be completed in a timely manner, but there are no specific timelines for conducting an evaluation. Educational Programming: Educational Programming: Based on the evaluation data, the team should design the services that a student will receive. Based on the evaluation data, the team should design the services that a student will receive. A school provides a FAPE through regular education or special education programming or related aids and services. A school provides a FAPE through regular education or special education programming or related aids and services.

175 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Educational Programming, cont. Educational Programming, cont. Section 504 requires that school districts provide a FAPE to all eligible students, and there are sanctions when school districts fail to meet these obligations. Section 504 requires that school districts provide a FAPE to all eligible students, and there are sanctions when school districts fail to meet these obligations. If an evaluation finds that a student has a disability under Section 504, a multidisciplinary team should develop an IEP that provides a FAPE for that student. If an evaluation finds that a student has a disability under Section 504, a multidisciplinary team should develop an IEP that provides a FAPE for that student. The Section 504 plan is sometimes called an individualized accommodation plan, and should document the nature of the students disability and the major life activity it limits, the basis for determining the disability, the educational impact of the disability, necessary accommodations, and placement. The Section 504 plan is sometimes called an individualized accommodation plan, and should document the nature of the students disability and the major life activity it limits, the basis for determining the disability, the educational impact of the disability, necessary accommodations, and placement. The Section 504 plan should include accommodations and modifications to a students educational program. The Section 504 plan should include accommodations and modifications to a students educational program.

176 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Placement: Placement: The Section 504 team must also decide where students can receive their educational services. The Section 504 team must also decide where students can receive their educational services. Placement options may include regular classrooms, regular classrooms with related services, or special education and related services. Placement options may include regular classrooms, regular classrooms with related services, or special education and related services. If the school district cannot provide the appropriate placement, it must assume the cost of alternative placements. If the school district cannot provide the appropriate placement, it must assume the cost of alternative placements.

177 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Least Restrictive Environment: Least Restrictive Environment: Regulations to Section 504 require that students with disabilities be educated along with students without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate to the needs of the student. Regulations to Section 504 require that students with disabilities be educated along with students without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate to the needs of the student. Districts must document the reasons why more restrictive placements are needed when the student is removed from the general education classroom or a less restrictive setting. Districts must document the reasons why more restrictive placements are needed when the student is removed from the general education classroom or a less restrictive setting. In making placement decisions to move students with disabilities to more restrictive settings, schools may take into account the effect of a students behavior on students without disabilities if the effect is deleterious. In making placement decisions to move students with disabilities to more restrictive settings, schools may take into account the effect of a students behavior on students without disabilities if the effect is deleterious.

178 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Neighborhood Schools: Neighborhood Schools: When a student with disabilities is placed in a setting other than the general education classroom, the school must take into account the proximity of the alternative setting to the students home. When a student with disabilities is placed in a setting other than the general education classroom, the school must take into account the proximity of the alternative setting to the students home. Schools are not required to place students in schools closest to their homes. Schools are not required to place students in schools closest to their homes. Schools must also ensure that in nonacademic and extracurricular activities, students with disabilities participate with students without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate to their needs. Schools must also ensure that in nonacademic and extracurricular activities, students with disabilities participate with students without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate to their needs.

179 School District Responsibilities Under Section 504 Reevaluation: Reevaluation: Section 504 requires that students be reevaluated periodically or before a significant change in placement is made. Section 504 requires that students be reevaluated periodically or before a significant change in placement is made. If a school proposes a significant change in placement, the student must be reevaluated in a manner similar to the initial evaluation. If a school proposes a significant change in placement, the student must be reevaluated in a manner similar to the initial evaluation. No timeline for reevaluations is provided. No timeline for reevaluations is provided.

180 Enforcement of Section 504 Parents can bring actions against a school district through many methods. Parents can bring actions against a school district through many methods. Filing a Grievance: Grievances can be filed with a school districts Section 504 coordinator if a parent, student, community member, or staff member believes that discrimination based on a disability has occurred. Grievances can be filed with a school districts Section 504 coordinator if a parent, student, community member, or staff member believes that discrimination based on a disability has occurred. Filing a Complaint with the Office of Civil Rights (OCR): Any person may file a grievance with the regional OCR office against a school district within 180 days of an alleged discriminatory action. Any person may file a grievance with the regional OCR office against a school district within 180 days of an alleged discriminatory action. All complaints filed with OCR are investigated as long as they have merit. All complaints filed with OCR are investigated as long as they have merit.

181 Enforcement of Section 504 Filing a Complaint with the Office of Civil Rights (OCR), cont. The Pre-Determination Settlement (PDS) Process: The Pre-Determination Settlement (PDS) Process: OCR initiated the PDS process in an attempt to reduce its massive complaint load. OCR initiated the PDS process in an attempt to reduce its massive complaint load. Through this process the school can avoid an on-site investigation and essentially close the matter without admitting to a violation by agreeing to actions that resolve the complainants issues to the satisfaction of OCR. Through this process the school can avoid an on-site investigation and essentially close the matter without admitting to a violation by agreeing to actions that resolve the complainants issues to the satisfaction of OCR. The advantage of the PDS process is that it saves an enormous amount of time and expense for both the school district and OCR. The advantage of the PDS process is that it saves an enormous amount of time and expense for both the school district and OCR. Disadvantages are that if the allegations are unfounded, there is no opportunity to dispute them, and that the school must develop a reporting and monitoring timeline to assist OCR in determining if the school district is fulfilling its commitment. Disadvantages are that if the allegations are unfounded, there is no opportunity to dispute them, and that the school must develop a reporting and monitoring timeline to assist OCR in determining if the school district is fulfilling its commitment.

182 Enforcement of Section 504 Filing a Complaint with the Office of Civil Rights (OCR), cont. On-Site Investigation: On-Site Investigation: If the PDS process is not successful, OCR will then go to the one-site investigation option. If the PDS process is not successful, OCR will then go to the one-site investigation option. In the investigative process, OCR will request pertinent documentation and conduct staff interviews. In the investigative process, OCR will request pertinent documentation and conduct staff interviews. These investigations are time-consuming and uncomfortable for school district staff. These investigations are time-consuming and uncomfortable for school district staff. Following the investigation, OCR will issue a verbal finding of violation or a finding of no violation. Following the investigation, OCR will issue a verbal finding of violation or a finding of no violation. If a violation is found to exist, the focus shifts to correction of the violation. If a violation is found to exist, the focus shifts to correction of the violation. The school district can voluntarily comply to correct the complaint, or the district can attempt to negotiate appropriate corrective action. The school district can voluntarily comply to correct the complaint, or the district can attempt to negotiate appropriate corrective action.

183 Enforcement of Section 504 Filing for a Due Process Hearing: Parents may also request a Section 504 hearing to challenge a school districts actions. Parents may also request a Section 504 hearing to challenge a school districts actions. Individual states have policies regarding how Section 504 hearing will be handled. Individual states have policies regarding how Section 504 hearing will be handled. Filing a Suit in Federal Court: Often parents who file IDEA claims in courts also file claims under Section 504. Often parents who file IDEA claims in courts also file claims under Section 504. In such situations, a court will first rule on the IDEA issue and then the Section 504 issue. In such situations, a court will first rule on the IDEA issue and then the Section 504 issue. Although no private right of action is specifically mentioned in Section 504, case law holds that such a right exists. Although no private right of action is specifically mentioned in Section 504, case law holds that such a right exists. This is especially significant if the student seeks reimbursement or monetary remedies. This is especially significant if the student seeks reimbursement or monetary remedies.

184 Comparison of the IDEA and Section 504 The IDEA and Section 504 form much of the legal foundation of special education. The IDEA and Section 504 form much of the legal foundation of special education. The IDEA is often considered the more relevant of the two laws to educators. The IDEA is often considered the more relevant of the two laws to educators. Section 504 has been viewed by many as the less detailed version of the IDEA. Section 504 has been viewed by many as the less detailed version of the IDEA. Although there is a great deal of overlap between the two laws, there are also distinct differences. Although there is a great deal of overlap between the two laws, there are also distinct differences.


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