Motives (1) Self motivated –High on intrinsic motivation – opposed to extrinsic forces Supported –High on intrinsic motivation but also recognise extrinsic forces
Motives (2) Lukewarm –Low on intrinsic motivation – opposed to extrinsic forces Pressured –Lowest on intrinsic motivations but recognise external pressures to consume fruit and vegetables.
Behaviours Self motivatedSupportedLukewarmPressured Fruit servings per day 2 to 3 21 to 2 % not eating 2 servings per day Vegetable servings per day 3 to 432 to 32 % not eating 3 servings per day
Food Behaviours Self motivated SupportedLukewarmPressured Cook most More variety in using fruit and vegetables Most Vegetarians More variety in using fruit and vegetables Buy organics Prefer meat Fry more Microwave more Prefer meat More vitamin tablets Trade physical activity for diet
Food Beliefs Self motivated SupportedLukewarmPressured Most favourable attitudes to fruit and vegetables Least favourable attitudes to fruit and vegetables - cost; flexibility; availability; energy; time; taste, substance
Health Values Self motivated SupportedLukewarmPressured Believe in lifestyle / health links Most concerned re health Believe in lifestyle / health links Not concerned - Less attention to guidelines Most stressed
Health Benefits from fruit and vegetables Self motivated SupportedLukewarmPressured Believe most in benefits Believe least in benefits – Looks, weight, energy, control, live longer, constipation
Trust in information sources for health Self motivated SupportedLukewarmPressured Most trusting Least trusting Trust in Cancer Society, Heart Foundation, Diabetes NZ Less trust in Cancer Society, Heart Foundation etc
Demographic variations Self motivated SupportedLukewarmPressured marriedwidowedsingles EuropeanPacific Islanders Lower incomes >40kHigher incomes <$50k FemalesMales All demographics show weak relationships!
Summary (1) Extrinsic motivation still useful – on/off phenomenon Two groups with some extrinsic motivation are most extreme on many issues Results emphasise lifestyle approaches – ie consistent patterns
Summary (2) Variations in motives – requires different interventions –Reinforcement through education and information for self motivated and supported –Behaviour led change for lukewarm and pressured