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Atomic gas (HI) in Isolated Galaxies Daniel Espada Fernández Advisor: Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro Dpto. de Astronomía Extragaláctica IAA-CSIC.

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Presentation on theme: "Atomic gas (HI) in Isolated Galaxies Daniel Espada Fernández Advisor: Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro Dpto. de Astronomía Extragaláctica IAA-CSIC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atomic gas (HI) in Isolated Galaxies Daniel Espada Fernández Advisor: Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro Dpto. de Astronomía Extragaláctica IAA-CSIC

2 Overview 3- HI study of isolated galaxies 2- The sample of isolated galaxies 4- Work in the future 1- Introduction to the AMIGA project

3 Team AYA Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía Emilio García (System Manager) Emilio García (System Manager) Stéphane Leon (PostDoc) Stéphane Leon (PostDoc) Ute Lisenfeld (PostDoc) Ute Lisenfeld (PostDoc) Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro (Staff, P.I.) Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro (Staff, P.I.) José Sabater (PhD candidate) José Sabater (PhD candidate) Simon Verley (PhD candidate, IAA – Obs. Paris) Simon Verley (PhD candidate, IAA – Obs. Paris) Daniel Espada (PhD candidate) Daniel Espada (PhD candidate) International collaboration Jack Sulentic – University of Alabama Jack Sulentic – University of Alabama Steve Odewahn – Arizona State University Steve Odewahn – Arizona State University Walter Huchtmeier – Max Planck Institute of Bonn Walter Huchtmeier – Max Planck Institute of Bonn Min S. Yun – FCRAO Min S. Yun – FCRAO Soledad del Rio – INAOE Soledad del Rio – INAOE

4 Team Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía Emilio García (System Manager) Emilio García (System Manager) Stéphane Leon (PostDoc) Stéphane Leon (PostDoc) Ute Lisenfeld (PostDoc) Ute Lisenfeld (PostDoc) Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro (Staff, P.I.) Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro (Staff, P.I.) José Sabater (PhD candidate) José Sabater (PhD candidate) Simon Verley (PhD candidate, IAA – Obs. Paris) Simon Verley (PhD candidate, IAA – Obs. Paris) Daniel Espada (PhD candidate) Daniel Espada (PhD candidate) International collaboration Jack Sulentic – University of Alabama Jack Sulentic – University of Alabama Steve Odewahn – Arizona State University Steve Odewahn – Arizona State University Walter Huchtmeier – Max Planck Institute of Bonn Walter Huchtmeier – Max Planck Institute of Bonn Min S. Yun – FCRAO Min S. Yun – FCRAO Soledad del Rio – INAOE Soledad del Rio – INAOE Françoise Combes – Paris Observatory Françoise Combes – Paris Observatory Margarita Rosado – UNAM Margarita Rosado – UNAM A. Bosma, L. Athanassoula (Obs. Marseille) M. Gutiérrez-Valdez (Univ. Guanajuato) I. Puerari (INAOE) A. Ballu (ENSP Strasbourg) AYA

5 1.Introduction of the AMIGA project -Motivation: Role of the environment in the formation and evolution of galaxies Role of the environment in the formation and evolution of galaxies reference sample with minimum influence from the environment reference sample with minimum influence from the environment properties of ISM as a function of isolation, and its relation to morphology, luminosities, star formation and nuclear activity. properties of ISM as a function of isolation, and its relation to morphology, luminosities, star formation and nuclear activity. -Multifrequency study: -Multifrequency study: optical, FIR, NIR, Ha, CO, radiocontinuum, HI optical, FIR, NIR, Ha, CO, radiocontinuum, HI -Reference of isolated galaxies needed: -Reference of isolated galaxies needed: Catalogue of isolated galaxies (CIG, Karachentseva 1973) Catalogue of isolated galaxies (CIG, Karachentseva 1973)

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8 Isolation criterion (Karachentseva, 1973): A galaxy (diameter=d) is isolated if there isnt any other galaxy (d): ¼ d < d < 4 d ¼ d < d < 4 d Angular separation < 20 d Angular separation < 20 d POSS-I plates POSS-I plates Northern hemisphere: dec > -3º Northern hemisphere: dec > -3º Optical magnitude: down to 15.7 (B band) Optical magnitude: down to 15.7 (B band) 1051 isolated galaxies 1051 isolated galaxies Revision (1980): 0 – Isolated (893) Revision (1980): 0 – Isolated (893) 1 – Marginally isolated (85) 1 – Marginally isolated (85) 2 – Member of a group or a cluster (64) 2 – Member of a group or a cluster (64) 2. The sample of isolated galaxies

9 b) Blue luminosity : large range of luminosities; a) Velocity : the CIG samples a deep enough volume of space to measure the radio, IR and optical luminosity functions; c) Morphology : the CIG is morphologically diverse to permit statistical studies correlated with Hubble type. 2. The sample of isolated galaxies

10 3. HI study of isolated galaxies Introduction -hiperfine transition of H, λ=21cm -provides information about : -content of atomic gas -kinematics -kinematics -tracer of interactions -tracer of interactions 3.1-HI content 3.2-HI profile asymmetries Objectives:

11 3.1 -HI content 3.1 -HI content DENSER ENVIRONMENT: spirals in clusters are HI deficients (Van Gorkom et al 1996) and some of them are stripped until 90% of their HI (Haynes et al 1990). DENSER ENVIRONMENT: spirals in clusters are HI deficients (Van Gorkom et al 1996) and some of them are stripped until 90% of their HI (Haynes et al 1990). -> HI DEFICIENCY CAUSED BY INTERACTION -> HI DEFICIENCY CAUSED BY INTERACTION REFERENCES OF ISOLATED GALAXIES: Until now the best reference was Haynes et al 1984 = 324 isolated galaxies observed in HI; or field galaxies. REFERENCES OF ISOLATED GALAXIES: Until now the best reference was Haynes et al 1984 = 324 isolated galaxies observed in HI; or field galaxies. 3.Atomic gas 1. LITERATURE 2. IMPROVEMENTS OF OUR STUDY OF IG Quantity: -Doubles the number of gal. (lower dispersion in subsamples) Quality: -Exhaustive bibliographic compilation -Selection of the best profiles (extent/beam) -repeat not satisfactory observations

12 M(HI) obs - M(HI) pred. grupos Def(HI) = falta 45% HI Revisión de contenido de HI en entornos densos Análisis single dish 72 GCs VLA para 16 GCs Verdes-M. et al A&A (2001)

13 -100 articles -365 galaxies were already observed, selection of data, digitalization of profiles 4. COMPILATION OF DATA 5. OBSERVATIONS 3.1 -HI content 3.1 -HI content 3.Atomic gas

14 -100 articles -365 galaxies were already observed, selection of data, digitalization of profiles Effelsberg 100m, Germany COMPILATION OF DATA 5. OBSERVATIONS 3.1 -HI content 3.1 -HI content 3.Atomic gas

15 -100 articles -365 galaxies were already observed, selection of data, digitalization of profiles GBT 100x110m, Green Bank,MA, USA 51 Effelsberg 100m, Germany COMPILATION OF DATA 5. OBSERVATIONS 3.1 -HI content 3.1 -HI content 3.Atomic gas

16 -100 articles -365 galaxies were already observed, selection of data, digitalization of profiles NRT, Nançay,France 129 GBT 100x110m, Green Bank,MA, USA 51 Effelsberg 100m, Germany COMPILATION OF DATA 5. OBSERVATIONS 3.1 -HI content 3.1 -HI content 3.Atomic gas

17 -100 articles -365 galaxies were already observed, selection of data, digitalization of profiles Arecibo 304m, Puerto Rico 34 NRT, Nançay,France 129 GBT 100x110m, Green Bank,MA, USA 51 Effelsberg 100m, Germany COMPILATION OF DATA 5. OBSERVATIONS 3.1 -HI content 3.1 -HI content 3.Atomic gas

18 -100 articles -365 galaxies were already observed, selection of data, digitalization of profiles Arecibo 304m, Puerto Rico 34 NRT, Nançay,France 129 GBT 100x110m, Green Bank,MA, USA 51 Effelsberg 100m, Germany galaxies 4.COMPILATION OF DATA 5. OBSERVATIONS 3.1 -HI content 3.1 -HI content 3.Atomic gas

19 Effelsberg 100m, Germany. Arecibo 304m, Puerto Rico NRT, Nançay,FranceGBT 100x110m, Green Bank,MA, USA 3.Atomic gas

20 GBT POSSI Radial velocity : /- 9 km/s Diameters: 1.3 x 0.9 arcmin Magnitude : 15.1 Type: Sm Flux HI=S= Jy km/s Width=220 km/s velocity HI= km/s 3.Atomic gas 6. HI PROFILE EXAMPLE: CIG 661

21 90% of the IG observed hours at Nancay. 90% of the IG observed hours at Nancay. 100% profiles calibrated & reduced for the IG observed, but not corrected for beam attenuation 100% profiles calibrated & reduced for the IG observed, but not corrected for beam attenuation Data available in the DB for the study: Data available in the DB for the study: 3.1.HI content 7. STATUS 3.Atomic gas S= integrated flux D 25 d 25 = diameters (= Ø) B = beam of the telescope L B = Blue luminosity M(HI) = f(LB, Ø, t) t= type S c = S c (D 25,d 25, B, t) = beam/extent corrected int. flux M HI = D 2 [Mpc] S c [Jy km/s] D = distance

22 3.3 Calculated parameters 3.Atomic gas

23 3.2.HI-profile asymmetry a) OTHER SAMPLES OF ISOLATED GALAXIES N=104 Haynes et al 1998 N=30 Matthews et al 1998 b) OTHER ENVIRONMENTS -Clusters -Clusters N=30 Sp Van Driel et al % N=1700 Richter & Sancisi % (Visual examination) (Visual examination)-Groups N=100 Sulentic & Arp 1983 most of asymmetric prof. are not isolated galaxies 50 % of them have asymmetric profiles! 3.Atomic gas 1. LITERATURE

24 3.2.HI-profile asymmetry 3.Atomic gas 2. ASYMMETRY CALCULATIONS F1F1 F2F2 F1F1 F2F2 A= vmvm V F Example of asymmetry coefficient: Examples of real HI profiles: CIG421(asymmetric) & CIG736 (symmetric) A=1.13 A=1.01

25 3.2.HI-profile asymmetry -N=40 isolated galaxies observed by us -S/N>10 -Around 50 % of them have asymmetric profiles as in previous studies (but N is small and not reliable…) 3.Atomic gas First results:

26 3.2.HI-profile asymmetry 1) Pointing offsets of the radiotelescope. 1) Pointing offsets of the radiotelescope. 2) Confusion with companions within the radiotelescope beam. 2) Confusion with companions within the radiotelescope beam.companions 3) Noncircular motions. 3) Noncircular motions. 4) True distortions in the HI mass distribution. 4) True distortions in the HI mass distribution. 3.Atomic gas 3. EXPLANATIONS FOR LOPSIDENESS -Asymmetries in IG are caused by small HI-rich companions or are intrinsic to the isolated galaxy???. HI MAPS needed

27 3.2.HI-profile asymmetry 4. HI MAPS of IG LITERATURE -D. J. Pisano s Thesis 2001, 41 isolated galaxies observed at VLA and ATCA to observe HI clouds down to MHI=10^7 13 of them had HI-rich companions… BUT -the isolation criteria wasnt so restrictive as our -galaxies without z wasnt taken into account 3.Atomic gas

28 Observations at the VLA (proposed for the next season). Subsample: 10, with A>1.10, S/N>10, very isolated and beam/extent>2 3.2.HI-profile asymmetry 4. HI MAPS of IG LITERATURE -D. J. Pisano s Thesis 2001, 41 isolated galaxies observed at VLA and ATCA to observe HI clouds down to MHI=10^7 13 of them had HI-rich companions… BUT -the isolation criteria wasnt so restrictive as our -galaxies without z wasnt taken into account 3.Atomic gas

29 3.5-Early type galaxies Gas atómico (HI) Gas atómico (HI) Resultado provisional: tasa de detección del 40%, en muchos casos también FIR (SF) Origen standard: acreción de compañeras (cf. Huchtmeier, 1994) minor/major merger (Morganti et al. 1997; Balcells etal. 2001) De nuevo sorprendente: ¿son tipos tempranos?, y si lo son ¿representan Es primordiales?

30 4.Work in the future Comparison with samples of galaxies in denser environments (groups). Comparison with samples of galaxies in denser environments (groups). Correlation with other comp. of the ISM and SF. Correlation with other comp. of the ISM and SF. Ex: MHI+H2 vs SF Ex: MHI+H2 vs SF HI content vs bars, AGNs. HI content vs bars, AGNs. Studies for a subsample of very isolated HI-rich galaxies with 2D-information (VLA). Studies for a subsample of very isolated HI-rich galaxies with 2D-information (VLA). Collaboration with SubMillimiter Array (SMA) in the calibration of the interferometer, using CIG galaxies.

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32 FIN FIN

33 C.Public database

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35 Vatican Observatory Summer School 2003 Status of the project Isolation criteria:77 % of the POSS fields checkedIsolation criteria:77 % of the POSS fields checked L B y L FIR for the whole sampleL B y L FIR for the whole sample 36 % H of the subsample observed36 % H of the subsample observed 67 % CO of the subsample observed or compiled67 % CO of the subsample observed or compiled 85 % HI data has been observed or compiled85 % HI data has been observed or compiled 80 % radio continuum reprocessed80 % radio continuum reprocessed

36 IAA-CSIC, Granada Effelsberg 100m, Bonn,Germ. Arecibo 304m, Puerto Rico FCRAO 14m, Mass., USA IRAM 30m, Granada Spain Nançay,France


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