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FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCIAL MARKET REGULATION PRINCIPLES VS. RULES - BASED REGULATION.

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Presentation on theme: "FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCIAL MARKET REGULATION PRINCIPLES VS. RULES - BASED REGULATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCIAL MARKET REGULATION PRINCIPLES VS. RULES - BASED REGULATION

2 OUTLINE Introduction Rules-based approach Principles-based approach Paradoxes Résumé 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 2

3 MOTIVATION 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 3

4 INTRODUCTION Rules based regulation: Based on a set of detailed rules that govern firms behavior. Such rules enable firms to tick-the-box to guarantee compliance with law. 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 4

5 INTRODUCTION Principles based regulation: Refers to a broad set of standards that gesture in the direction of certain desired outcomes. These standards may be accompanied by guidelines about how to achieve the outcomes. 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 5

6 INTRODUCTION Reality: Common law legal regimes are comprised of both principles and rules! 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 6

7 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 7 THE RULES-BASED APPROACH Sarbanes-Oxley Act (US) Rules-based structure: Perceived by many as hopelessly complex, murky, and harder to understand and harder to follow than more flexible regimes in other nations BUT: According to the U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson, the rules-based regulation has served the United States very well over the course of its history and is part of the foundation for its prosperity and growth. 7

8 THE PRINCIPLES- BASED APPROACH 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 8 What principles-based regulation does mean and should mean, is moving away from prescriptive rules to a higher level of articulation of what the FSA expects firms to do. In other words, it helps emphasise that what really matters is not that any particular box has been ticked but rather that when making decisions, executives know they will be judged on the consequences – the results of those actions. - Hector Sants, the FSA Chief Executive

9 An example for the difference between rules and principles: A rule will say: Do not drive faster than 90 km/h A principle will say: Do not drive faster than is reasonable and prudent in all the circumstances 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 9 THE PRINCIPLES- BASED APPROACH

10 THE PRINCIPLES- BASED APROACH Another example: American football vs. European football 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 10

11 THE PRINCIPLES- BASED APPROACH The U.K. FSAs 11 Principles for Businesses: 1.A firm must conduct its business with integrity. 2.A firm must conduct its business with due skill, care, and diligence. … 6.A firm must pay due regard to the interest of its customers and treat them fairly. … 11.A firm must deal with its regulators in an open and cooperative way, and must disclose to the FSA appropriately anything relating to the firm of which the FSA would reasonably expect notice. 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 11

12 THE RULES-BASED APPROACH 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 12 Advantages: Clarity and certainty Transparency for bank managers More operational than principles

13 THE RULES-BASED APPROACH Disadvantages: High compliance costs Initiative and innovation depressed Excessive litigation Capital markets less attractive to investors 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 13

14 THE PRINCIPLES- BASED APPROACH 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 14 Advantages: Flexibility and greater freedom for managers Productive dialogue between supervisor and supervised Scalability Robustness

15 THE PRINCIPLES- BASED APPROACH 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 15 Disadvantages: Uncertainty Unpredictability Supervision and enforcement more challenging

16 PARADOXES 7 paradoxes of principle based legislation: 1. THE INTERPRETIVE PARADOX: Principles can be general yet precise 2. THE COMMUNICATIVE PARADOX: Principles can facilitate communication but can also hinder it 3. THE COMPLIANCE PARADOX: Principles provide scope for flexibility in compliance yet can lead to conservative and/or uniform behaviour by regulated firms 4. THE SUPERVISORY AND ENFORCEMENT PARADOX: Principles need enforcement to give them credibility but over- enforcemnet can lead to their demise Source: Forms and Paradoxes of Principles Based Regulation by Julia Black LSE Law, Society and Economy Working Papers 13/2008

17 PARADOXES 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 17 Source: Forms and Paradoxes of Principles Based Regulation by Julia Black LSE Law, Society and Economy Working Papers 13/ THE INTERNAL MANAGEMENT PARADOX: PBR can provide flexibility for internal control systems to develop but can overload them 6. THE ETHICAL PARADOX: PBR can facilitate a more ethical approach but it could result in an erosion of ethics 7. THE TRUST PARADOX: PBR can give rise to relationships of trust, mutuality and responsibility but these are the very relationships which have to exist for it to be effective

18 PARADOXES CASE STUDIES: Enron Parmalat Energy breakdown in California 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 18

19 RÉSUMÉ The rules-based approach ensures clarity and certainty, transparency for bank managers and is more operational than principles. On the other hand, it is connected with high compliance costs and excessive litigation. Innovation may be depressed and capital markets less attractive to investors. PBR, in its full form, can provide an effective, durable, resilient and goal based regulatory regime, but at the same time its paradoxical nature means that it is vulnerable. 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 19

20 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! 03/02/2012 Kaja Jankowska, Behzod Alimov, Susanne Ipser 20


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