Presentation on theme: "WHY SA should have the cheapest electricity in the world. (Energy Mix) Does South Africa have the cheapest electricity in the world? Why consumers pay."— Presentation transcript:
Expressed in the same currency using official exchange rates, the coal prices vary by a factor of twenty between South Africa - where the prices are the lowest at 0.1/0.15 USD/GJ - and more than 2 USD/GJ in many European countries and in Japan.
Coal as a primary energy source is diminishing in many parts of the world, although it is one of the cheapest sources. In the 27 countries of the EU, coal composes only 22,5% of all primary sources when generating energy. Natural Gas and Nuclear-sources make up more than coal, while Wind energy has seen the biggest growth. This is because the world is moving to more cleaner energy sources – despite costing more than coal. Most countries have tightened pollution controls concerning the production of electricity using coal. SA uses cheap and dirty coal.
According to the IEA of the US, fossil fuels still represent 68% of the resources used to generate electricity today. Fossil fuels here are divided between coal, natural gas and oil. However, on average, fossil fuels comprise 93% of the resources used to produce electricity in SA This is mainly coal - which is cheaper than either Natural gas or petroleum products.
SA uses mainly coal - which is the cheapest fossil fuel Our environmental standards are softer than most other countries - saving ESKOM some costs. Power plants are normally right at the source - saving around 33% of the price of coal due to lower transport costs SA export coal is up to 25% cheaper than that of other countries.
SA coal prices for electricity generation are cheaper by a factor of twenty when compared to European prices. (according to IEA - based on Gigajoules Energy produced.) From Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2005 Update of the OECD/IEA/NEA Other SA factors such as land prices, labour rates, etc are also be cheaper.
ESKOM and other government agencies claim this as a fact after NUS consultants in London produced this research in London.
Firstly the comparison from Eskom is on Industrial Tariffs and is compared to developed countries which have higher costs because of fuel mix and environmental standards. Kazakhstan in a survey of 55 countries has the lowest industrial tariff in the world by a factor of 40% over SA. Russia tariffs are slightly higher than SA but come close as well.
Ten other countries out of a survey of 55 countries have lower household electricity tariffs in nominal dollar terms. These countries include developing countries such as Argentina, Russia, India, China, Paraguay, etc. As for municipality tariffs - four more countries are cheaper including Bulgaria and Latvia.
Average Eskom residential tariffs are 274% higher than those charged by Eskom for power sold to our neighbours In General - Municipalities charge slightly more than Eskom. In SA higher usage often brings higher tariffs - while internationally it happens the other way around. Municipalities make around R25 billion per annum from water and lights to fund other projects - so electricity rates are already fulfilling a tax function.
Despite higher tariffs, we do not benefit from a cleaner environment as have developed countries But from Eskom Document some households – read: middle class – will pay even more. Effectively this means 10,06 cents per kWh vs. An international average of 10,68 cents per kWh But the emerging market country average is only 8,57 cents per Kwh (35 emerging countries in Survey.) The Eskom application document says Home and Business tariffs will increase by between 63,5% and 100%.
SA will then have electricity above the international average rate! 11.8 cents per Kwh vs. 10,68 cents for the international average. I am sure municipalities like Joburg, who already have higher rates than Eskom will actually start to charge some of the most expensive household tariffs around. (12,82 cents per Kwh vs. 10,68 cents per Kwh international average) IF these rates are on top of the 14,2% already granted - then SA municipality rates will be in the ten most expensive rates in the world today.
SA does not have the cheapest electricity in the world - a carefully selected group of industrial countries was used rather than any developing countries. Household rates are in the bottom third of international rates, but if electricity tariffs are implemented we may end up having some of the most expensive electricity in the world – even more expensive than France. Without some add-ons that other countries get like a cleaner environment or free air-conditioning.
33,6% of our electricity is sold below the cost of production. According to ESKOMs annual report of 2007 - both industrial prices and international prices are below the cost of production. For more than 11 years Eskom has sold electricity at below-cost to international customers. The absolute loss over this period is R3,3 billion. If power was sold at average prices then the loss is R5,4 billion. If sold at commercial rate then loss equals R10 billion!
Household electricity prices for metropolitan areas went up by 9,8% over the last year ended February 2008 according to Statistics South Africa. Yet again electricity price increases exceed the average inflation rate in South Africa. Consumers in SA not only subsidises the poorer households, but also industry - as the PPI for electricity is up only 7,7%
Coal stockpiles were depleted and this probably helped ESKOM show more profits. Did management then have an incentive to play robber?
Recent reports suggest that approx. 15% of all power is not paid for (other than losses in Transmission) This is exactly the reserve requirement – without this loss we would all have power now. Is inaction on behalf of the authorities therefore slowing the economy?
Free basic electricity is perhaps good BUT - the system should be transparent - a tax subsidy should rather be given to people for electricity so that the cost of the free electricity is transparent to the public It should not be hidden in municipality and Eskom accounts – otherwise Electricity will be seen as a tax!