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**Measurement, Evaluation, Assessment and Statistics**

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**Test and Measurement The heart of kinesiology. Why?**

Test – tool or instrument used to make a measurement. Measurement – score on a test. Quantitative and assigns a number to a performance. (qualitative?)

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**Evaluation and Assessment**

Eval – interpretation of the measurement. Gives it meaning. Prescribe – correct any deficits. Assessment – the process of measure, eval, identify and prescribe. Skills or health related measures.

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WHY?

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**Reasons for Measurement and Evaluation**

Motivation Study material Practice skills Prepare for post-test Diagnosis Assess strengths and weaknesses Determine baseline Skills vs fitness levels Prescription

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Assignment?

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**Reasons for Measurement and Evaluation cont…**

Classification Group students Homogeneous vs heterogeneous Control intensity of exercise or knowledge Achievement Progression of objectives and student Effectiveness of program Determine grades Subjective vs objective

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Achievement?

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**Reasons for Measurement and Evaluation cont…**

Instruction and program Compare two groups or methods Prediction Future performance Research (systematic in-depth analysis of a question) Determine grades Subjective vs objective

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**Objective vs Subjective?**

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**Objective vs Subjective?**

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**Statistics Organization and analysis of numerical data.**

Simple arithmetic and algebra. Must follow the steps. Add, subtract, multiply and divide.

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**Statistics cont… Analyze and interpret data Understand research**

Provides meaningful evaluation Interprets scores relative to one another Understand research Professional journals Practice their conclusions Essential for your continued growth in the field Do not believe everything you read.

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**Statistics cont… Standardize scores Determine worth of a test**

Units differ among tests Standardization allows comparison (SAT) Determine worth of a test Validity and reliability Continuum Consider the appropriateness of a test

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Appropriateness?

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Appropriateness?

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**Distribution of Scores**

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**Descriptive Stats Data – result of the test or the scores.**

Variable – dependent characteristic or what you are measuring. Population – all subjects. Sample – subgroup of the total population. Random sample – everyone has an equal opportunity to be included.

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**Descriptive Stats cont…**

Statistic – values from a sample. Descriptive – stats describe the sub-group only. Inferential – projections to a larger population. Discrete – whole numbers only. Continuous– broken down by decimal place.

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Scales Nominal – code scoring with no quality comparison between groups. Ordinal – rank scoring from highest to lowest with no comparison of scores. Interval – no absolute zero but distance between scores is measured. Ratio – absolute zero and measured distance between scores.

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Normal Distribution

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Distribution cont… Bell shape – symmetrical and mirrored with mean, median and mode all same. NEVER OCCURS!! Skewed – tail determines the skew because mean is pulled. Bimodal – two high points.

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Rank

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**Measures of Central Tendency**

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Fundamental Measures Maximum and minimum Range Sum N

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Data Set

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**Mean Arithmetic average Sum divided by the number of scores**

Most sensitive Considers all information Pulled away by extreme scores (outliers) Two decimal places

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Data Set

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**Median Exact middle of scores. 50th percentile**

Not affected by outliers Position only Not used for stats Find half of N Odd scores will be middle Even will be average of two middle

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Data Set

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**Mode Score that occurs most frequently May be bimodal**

May have no mode at all Least used stat Not affected by extreme scores

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Data Set

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**Quartiles Divide scores into 4 equal parts Multiply N by .75 or .25**

Find score or average two scores

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Data Set

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Central Tendency

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Normal Bell Curve?

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Basic Statistical Terms: Statistics: refers to the sample A means by which a set of data may be described and interpreted in a meaningful way. A method.

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