Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/2007 1 Design and Calibration of a Dissolution Test Equipment Training Workshop on Dissolution, Pharmaceutical Product Interchangeability.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/2007 1 Design and Calibration of a Dissolution Test Equipment Training Workshop on Dissolution, Pharmaceutical Product Interchangeability."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Design and Calibration of a Dissolution Test Equipment Training Workshop on Dissolution, Pharmaceutical Product Interchangeability and Biopharmaceutical Classification System. Kyiv, Ukraine, June Dr. Sandra Klein, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt

2 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Dosage forms to be tested immediate release dosage forms powders, granules / beads, tablets, capsules controlled release dosage forms powders, granules / beads, tablets, capsules transdermal systems implants

3 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Official Dissolution Monographs United States Pharmacopeia USP XXX (30) European Pharmacopoeia Ph. Eur. 5th Edition, Supplement 5.3 British Pharmacopoeia BP 2007 Japanese Pharmacopoeia JP XIV (14)

4 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Official dissolution apparatus USP 30 classification 1.Rotating Basket (Ph.Eur./BP/JP) 2.Paddle (Ph.Eur./BP/JP) 3.Reciprocating Cylinder (Ph.Eur.) 4.Flow Through Cell (Ph.Eur./BP/JP) 5.Paddle Over Disk (Ph.Eur.) 6.Rotating Cylinder (Ph.Eur.) 7.Reciprocating Holder

5 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Which type of dissolution apparatus ? Depends on intention 1.Quality control examining batch homogeneity examining batch to batch conformity examining stability 2.Research & Development examining drug release behavior of preformulations in vitro simulation of the gastrointestinal passage 3.IVIVC

6 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 1 - Basket Useful for capsules beads delayed release / enteric coated dosage forms floating dosage forms surfactants in media Standard volume 900/1000 ml 1, 2, 4 liter vessels

7 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 1 - Basket Advantages breadth of experience (more than 200 monographs) full pH change during the test can be easily automated which is important for routine investigations

8 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 1 - Basket Disadvantages disintegration-dissolution interaction hydrodynamic dead zone under the basket degassing is particularly important limited volume sink conditions for poorly soluble drugs ?

9 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 1 - Basket

10 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 2 - Paddle Useful for tablets capsules beads delayed release / enteric coated dosage forms Standard volume 900/1000 ml Method of first choice !!!

11 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 2 - Paddle Advantages easy to use robust can be easily adapted to apparatus 5 long experience pH change possible can be easily automated which is important for routine investigations

12 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 2 - Paddle Disadvantages pH/media change is often difficult limited volume sink conditions for poorly soluble drugs ? hydrodynamics are complex, they vary with site of the dosage form in the vessel (sticking,floating) and therefore may significantly affect drug dissolution coning sinkers for floating dosage forms

13 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Sinker types JP/ USP / Ph. Eur. 5.3 Sinker a small loose piece of nonreactive material such as not more than a few turns of wire helix may be attached to dosage units that would otherwise float … …. other validated sinker devices may be used

14 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Coning

15 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 2 - Paddle

16 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 3 – Reciprocating cylinder Useful for tablets beads controlled release formulations Standard volume ml per station

17 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 3 – Reciprocating cylinder Advantages easy to change the pH pH-profiles hydrodynamics can be directly influenced by varying the dip rate Disadvantages small volume (max. 250 ml) little experience limited data

18 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 3 – Reciprocating cylinder

19 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 4 – Flow-Through Cell Useful for low solubility drugs microparticulates implants suppositories controlled release formulations Variations open system closed system

20 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Cell types Tablets 12 mm Tablets 22,6 mm Powders / Granules Implants Suppositories / Soft gelatine capsules

21 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 4 – Flow-Through Cell Advantages easy to change media pH pH-profile possible sink conditions different modes a) open system b) closed system Disadvantages Deaeration necessary high volumes of media labor intensive

22 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 4 – Flow-Through Cell

23 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 5 – Paddle over disk Useful for transdermal patches Standard volume 900 ml

24 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 5 – Paddle over disk Advantages standard equipment (paddle) can be used, only add a stainless steel disk assembly Disadvantages disk assembly restricts patch size

25 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus 6 – Rotating cylinder USP apparatus 7 – Reciprocating holder most probably will be removed from the USP !!!

26 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Summary Immediate release dosage forms: apparatus 1 or 2 (preferably 2) Controlled release dosage forms: apparatus 1 or 2 using different media for QC apparatus 3 or 4 for R&D purposes Beside the selection of an adequate dissolution apparatus, adequate test conditions are crucial for all purposes !

27 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Qualification of Dissolution Systems

28 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Calibration Why ? to confirm suitability of the equipment and proper operation of the apparatus How ? mechanical calibration (verification of physical parameters) chemical calibration (Apparatus Suitability Test – USP) When ? before using new test equipment after relocation or major maintenance at regular intervals (every 6 months)

29 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Factors that may affect reliability of the test Proper alignment/geometry of dissolution apparatus –dimensions of vessels, paddles, baskets, cylinders –height, centering and wobble Proper conditions during dissolution test –temperature –agitation speed –degassing –sampling (sampling zone, timing, filtration, dilution) –vibration Proper validation of analytical method –specified in USP Chapter

30 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Mechanical calibration Verification of physical parameters specified in the pharmacopoeia: USP apparatus 1 and 2

31 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Mechanical calibration - Parameters Height – Vertical Position of the Paddle or Basket –the vertical position of paddle or basket affects the hydrodynamics condition in the vessel –each paddle or basket should be individually adjusted to the compendial distance –in the pharmacopoeia, a distance of cm is specified –different kinds of height gauges can be used to align or check* this parameter *

32 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Mechanical calibration - Parameters Rotational Speed – Stirring Rate –input variable that affects the hydrodynamics –changes in the rotational speed result in a changing liquid-solid interface between the solvent and the dosage form –the rotational speed can be checked by using a digital tachometer* –the compendia specify a rotational speed tolerance of + 4 % *

33 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Mechanical calibration - Parameters Shaft Wobble – Eccentricity of Stirring Device –assumed to alter the pattern of fluid movement in both paddle and basket apparatus and therefore may influence the dissolution rate –can be measured with a micrometer* –measured is the sum of distance between both sides (180°) of the axis of rotation *

34 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Mechanical calibration - Parameters Centering (Vessel / Shaft) –the axis of the rotating shaft must coincide at all points with the axis of the vessel to within + 1 mm –the shaft has to positioned so that is axis is not more than 2^mm at any point from the vertical axis of the vessel and rotates smoothly without significant wobble *

35 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Mechanical calibration Measurement tools all mechanical tools used for calibration should be certified to assure their reliability the results of mechanical calibration have to be documented

36 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus suitability test (USP) if all parts ( apparatus, geometry, test conditions, analytical method) are within compliance – why perform an apparatus suitability test? the apparatus suitability is to check for parameters that can not be conveniently measured (vibration, vessel cleanliness, medium degassing...) and also to provide an overall check of the system

37 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus suitability test (USP) first established in 1978 routine test in most pharmaceutical laboratories calibration at regular intervals (every 6 months) standard calibrator substances according USP chapter only the method(s) to be used have to be calibrated ! if six units are tested – all have to pass

38 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus suitability test (USP) Standard calibrators according to USP chapter Apparatus I, II and V: 1.disintegrating type – USP Prednisone Tablets 2.nondisintegrating type – USP Salicylic acid Tablets Apparatus III: USP Chlorpheniramine Maleate Extended-Release Tablets

39 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Information supplied with calibrators

40 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus suitability test (USP) USP Prednisone Tablets RS – current lot P0E203 (10 mg nominal prednisone content per tablet) disintegrating type paddle and basket, 50 rpm 500 ml deaerated water, 37°C quantity of prednisone released after 30 minutes is determined specified ranges Lot P0E203: Apparatus 1: % Apparatus 2: %

41 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus suitability test (USP) USP Salicylic acid Tablets RS – current lot Q0D200 (300 mg nominal salicylic acid content per tablet) nondisintegrating type paddle and basket, 100 rpm 900 ml deaerated phosphate buffer, 37°C quantity of salicylic acid, released after 30 minutes is determined specified ranges Lot Q0D200: Apparatus 1: % Apparatus 2: %

42 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Apparatus suitability test (USP) Controversies regarding the current test the variability in the intrinsic performance of the USP calibrator tablets is so great that it exceeds the variability in intrinsic performance of modern test dissolution assemblies this variability becomes obvious in both vessel-to-vessel variability and inter-laboratory variability of results for a given lot of calibrators

43 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Calibrator Tablets: always check the incoming tablets ! right lot of calibrators ? are the tablets broken, fused or severely chipped ? particularly salicylic acid tablets are often subject to sublimation ( dust on the tablets and the inner surface of the container) use correct storage conditions ! take the tablets out of the original container immediately before test ! Troubleshooting

44 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Standard / Standard solution: USP Standard used ? drying procedure conducted ? standard solution prepared on day of test ? standard solution filtered in the same manner as sample ? amount of alcohol used in the standard < 5% ? Troubleshooting

45 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Vibration vibration produces unwanted variation in dissolution data and mostly results in an increased dissolution rate internal vibration may be caused e.g. from frayed drive belts external vibration may be caused by e.g. magnetic stirrers, centrifuges, vacuum pumps, old fridges, nearby construction,... inability to properly measure vibration levels at various points within an apparatus is the main reason why calibrator tablets were originally developed Troubleshooting

46 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Vibration effects – case example: Effect of vibration levels of the dissolution apparatus on the dissolution rate of enteric coated granules of Cefalexin. The vertical dotted line indicates 0.05 m/s 2. Kaniwa N. et al. (1998) Int J Pharm, 175, Low vibration: < 0.05 m/s 2 High vibration: > 0.05 m/s 2 Troubleshooting

47 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Vibration: dissolution equipment placed planar ? drive chain or belt free of tension and/or dirt ? torn parts replaced ? correctly functioning gear plates ? individual spindles are not surging ? bench/table stable ? no sources of vibration nearby ? Troubleshooting

48 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Dissolution medium: correctly degassed ? correct amount used (900/500 ml) ? correct amount dosed (weight/volume) ? dosing procedure gentle (resaturation/spillage) ? buffer correct (pH units, buffer salts, molarity) ? correct temperature during test (32°C / 37°C + 0.5°C)? evaporation during test negligible ? Troubleshooting

49 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Importance of degassing: insufficient degassing may result in decreased dissolution rates of several drugs e.g. prednisone tablets but also a range of poorly soluble drugs are very sensitive to the amount of dissolved gases in the dissolution medium the degassing procedure should therefore be efficient and reproducible for every test Troubleshooting

50 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Deaeration method USP heat the dissolution medium to about 41°C vacuum filter through a 0.45-µm-porosity membrane into a flask, stirring with a magnetic stirrer continue to draw a vacuum and stir for an additional 5 min gently transfer the medium directly into the vessel rotating the apparatus 2 shafts to speed equilibration to 37°C is discouraged!!! use medium promptly after equilibration Troubleshooting

51 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Alternative deaeration methods the USP states that other validated deaeration techniques for removal of dissolved gases may be used other techniques include: heating sonication vacuum helium sparging (expensive) Troubleshooting

52 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Sampling take each sample at the correct time point sampling time points (+ 2%) use a single glass syringe for each vessel sample from the right location within the vessel between media surface and top of the paddle blade n.l.t. 10 mm from vessel wall Troubleshooting

53 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Sampling always use a suitable filter check filter adsorption check the clearity of the filtered sample filter the sample immediately after sampling for automated sampling also check the tubings Troubleshooting

54 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Physical conditions of the apparatus vessels scrupulously clean ? vessel surface smooth and curvature appropriate ? Apparatus 1 the conditions of the baskets, particularly of their clips is critical check all baskets for corrosion and blocked meshes before using them align the air holes to prevent air cushions emerging during the test Troubleshooting

55 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Advantages high throughput of samples minimizes analyst-to-analyst variability in sampling and filtration reduces the average costs per analysis very promising for QC purposes (Semi) Automation

56 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ automated mixing of water and concentrate preheating of medium deaeration (vacuum and stirring) media can be dispensed directly into the vessel Media preparation

57 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Offline system

58 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Online system

59 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ On- / Offline system

60 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ HPLC - online system

61 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ always validate automated methods, including analytical and sampling methods validation should be performed using manual analysis, withdrawing samples at the same times and comparing to the automated results: not highly variable dissolution results: two concurrent runs highly variable dissolution results: simultaneous sampling pay attention to automated dilution and filtering processes Automation

62 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ FIP Guidelines for dissolution testing of solid oral products. Dissolution Technologies 4:5-14 (1997). SM Diebold, JB Dressman. Dissolved oxygen as a measure for de- and re-aeration of aqueous media for dissolution testing. Dissolution Technologies 5: (1998). S Qureshi. Calibration – the USP dissolution apparatus suitability test. Drug Inf. J. 30, (1996). N Kaniwa et al. Collaborative study on the development of a standard for evaluation of vibration levels for dissolution apparatus. Int. J. Pharm. 175: (1998). VA Gray, CK, Brown, JB Dressman, LJ Leeson. A new general information chapter on dissolution. Pharmacopoeial Forum 27 (6) [Nov.-Dec. 2001] W Brown. General information The dissolution procedure: development and validation Pharmacopoeial Forum 30 (1) [Jan.-Feb. 2004] Of general interest: Dissolution Technologies: Suggested reading

63 Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/ Dr. Sandra Klein Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology 9 Max von Laue Street Frankfurt, 60438, Germany


Download ppt "Dr. Sandra Klein, 06/2007 1 Design and Calibration of a Dissolution Test Equipment Training Workshop on Dissolution, Pharmaceutical Product Interchangeability."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google