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L-Cell A Novel Device for Plating Process Diagnostics L-Chem, Inc. Shaker Heights, OH 44120 www.L-Chem.com.

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Presentation on theme: "L-Cell A Novel Device for Plating Process Diagnostics L-Chem, Inc. Shaker Heights, OH 44120 www.L-Chem.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 L-Cell A Novel Device for Plating Process Diagnostics L-Chem, Inc. Shaker Heights, OH

2 Introducing a novel, multi-purpose device that provides: Process parameters Process parameters Process diagnostics Process diagnostics Fully automated Fully automated No expertise required Fast (2 min./test)

3 OUTLINE Rationalle and need Rationalle and need Current tecnology and its defficiencies Current tecnology and its defficiencies The L-Cell - principles and description The L-Cell - principles and description Examples Examples Conclusions Conclusions

4 Issues in Plating Predictive Design Meeting Specs., Optimization Meeting Specs., Optimization Process Control and Maintenance Process Control and Maintenance Environmental and Health New Materials

5 L-CellFUTURE: Available Tools Predictive Design Optimization Optimization Process Control Process Control } Computer Aided Design Software - Cell-Design o Hull-Cell o Electroanalytical Techniques- Polarization studies Conductivity Titration (reactant conc.) PAST:

6 Limitations of CAD Software OUTPUT INPUT Numerical Solver Cell configuration Cell Anodes Racks and Shields Operating Conditions current or voltage (DC or Periodic) temperature flow Process Properties Electrode polarization Electrolyte conductivity Diffusivity Current distribution Deposit thickness distribution Potential distribution Overpotential (polarization) Parasitic reaction rates Alloy composition Parts evolving shape Deposit texture Often Missing

7 Strong dependence on trace additives Strong dependence on trace additives Proprietary formulations Proprietary formulations Lack of fundamental mechanistic understanding Lack of fundamental mechanistic understanding Laboratory experiments often do not duplicate process Laboratory experiments often do not duplicate process conditions conditions Flow dependence Flow dependence Cost: Cost: Potentiostat ~ $ 20, ,000 Potentiostat ~ $ 20, ,000 Rotating disk electrode ~ $ 10,000 Rotating disk electrode ~ $ 10,000 PhD investigator ~ $ 100K/yr PhD investigator ~ $ 100K/yr Issues with Obtaining Process Data using Conventional Approach i V

8 Limitations of the Hull-Cell Qualitative Current distribution is inherently inaccurate – varies with material No quantitative data

9 The L-Cell Provides: Comprehensive electrochemical process parameters Polarization curves Kinetics parameters Conductivity Process diagnostics: Indication of process variation due to additives consumption contamination Tool for process adjustment using a small (50 ml) volume Sample plated at a number of different and precisely known current densities for visual and analytical off-line testing Composition of alloy – partial currents Thickness measurements – current efficiency as f(i) Fully automated, fast (2 min.) experiment designed for non-experts Equipment is relatively inexpensive

10 THE L-Cell – Principle of Operation THE L-Cell – Principle of Operation Multi-electrode cartridge and a cell that allows a separate current feed to each segment Electronics to provide a different and precisely measured current density to each segment Automated data acquisition and analysis Plated cartridge with segmented electrodes Cross-section

11 The L-Cell: Table-top design The L-Cell: Table-top design

12 The multi-pin connector The multi-pin connector

13 The L-Cell: Table-top design The L-Cell: Table-top design

14 Watts Nickel Testing

15 Design of the L-Cell Cell-Design Modeling Current distribution – different between segments but uniform on each segment Potential distribution: Reference electrode Top View (cross-section): Anode: oxygen evolution Segmented cathode (plated cartridge)

16 THE L-Cell – Analytical Approach THE L-Cell – Analytical Approach Unknowns: Voltage balances Cathodic polarization curve: i K =f ( A ) Cathodic overpotentials (i 0, C, A ) Conductivity Measure: Segmental current densities Voltages (including reference electrodes) Conductivity Across the cell Overpotentials Data analysis Butler-Volmer fit kinetics parameters (i 0, C, A )

17 DATA ANALYSIS Butler-Volmer: (pure kinetics, No transport limitations) Mass transport included: Here, i 0 is measured at C B and: CBCB CECE = C B CECE

18 DATA ANALYSIS Tafel approximation: Equivalent mass transport boundary layer thickness

19 DATA ANALYSIS i k = Equivalent pure kinetics current derived from the measured current density, i

20 The L-Cell System The L-Cell System

21 DATA AQUISITION

22 Cu deposition Copper sulfate 0.5 M pH=2 Polarization curve Kinetics Parameters

23 Cu deposition Copper sulfate 0.5 M pH=2 100 ppm PEG

24 Cu deposition Copper sulfate 0.5 M pH=2 Compare with: 100 ppm PEG Pure Cu w/PEG Comparing two tests

25 w/PEG Specification of acceptable deviation

26 Copper deposition from copper sulfate No additives; pH=2

27 No PEG 100 ppm PEG Log i [mA/cm 2 ] Copper deposition from copper sulfate pH=2

28 Overpotential, η [ V ] Nickel Deposition from a standard Nickel Watts Electrolyte

29 Overpotential, η [ V ] Nickel Deposition from a standard Nickel Watts Electrolyte

30 Wagner Number Wagner Number

31 Throwing Power Throwing Power

32 The L-Cell Provides: Process properties: Polarization, Kinetics, Conductivity –Use regular production solution –By-pass specialized testing – no special expertise needed –No need to scan v-i, or apply transients – use steady-state data –Fast (2 min.), completely automated Produces deposit samples plated at different current densities Process diagnostics tool Summary -


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